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重庆星宸整形医院如何重庆星宸医院去胎记多少钱Online publishers who knowingly link to illegally uploaded content are liable for copyright infringement, according to a European Court of Justice ruling that could have broad consequences for digital media.根据欧洲法院(European Court of Justice)一项裁决,有意链接非法上传内容的网络出版商,须承担侵害版权的法律责任。这一裁决可能会对数字化媒体产生广泛影响。The ruling, which marks the culmination of a five-year legal fight involving a Dutch blog, Playboy magazine and celebrity nude pictures, draws new lines around what has been a highly contested area of online copyright law.这一裁决标志着一轮持续五年的法律诉讼达到高潮,该案涉及一个荷兰客网站、《》(Playboy)杂志和多张名人裸照。该裁决为网络版权法一个始终极有争议的领域划定了新的规范。Until now, Europe’s top court has tolerated the widesp practice of providing weblinks to unauthorised online content — whether films, pictures, or text — concluding that this did not generally amount to a breach of copyright. 直至目前,对于提供指向未授权在线内容(无论是电影、图片、视频,还是文本)的网页链接的普遍行为,欧洲最高法院一直持容忍态度,认定这么做通常不等于对版权的侵犯。Instead, the website that hosted the underlying content was liable.相反,提供相关内容的网站须承担法律责任。But on Thursday the ECJ decided that linking to such material did infringe copyright unless it was done without the pursuit of financial gain by a person who did not know or could not reasonably have known the illegal nature of the publication.然而,周四欧洲法院裁定,对这类资料的链接确实侵犯了版权——除非此举是由不了解或无法足够了解这一出版活动非法属性的人士,在无盈利目的的情况下实施的。The ruling means that professional publishers must now take steps to ensure that any links to copyright content have been lawfully uploaded. 这一裁决意味着专业出版商如今必须采取措施,确保对于指向版权内容的任何链接,相关内容都是合法上传的。Profit-making websites can be expected to take necessary checks to ensure that the work concerned is not illegally published, according to the judgment.根据这一判决,营利网站默认应采取必要审查措施,确保相关作品不是非法出版。Search engines such as Google aly remove search results that link to websites that host pirated material once informed by rights holders. 谷歌(Google)等搜索引擎已经采取了措施,只要版权持有者告知,就会移除指向提供盗版资料的网站的搜索结果。After Thursday’s ruling, they could be forced to go further by taking down search results featuring publishers that merely link to other websites hosting unlicensed content, according to some copyright lawyers.按照部分版权律师的说法,在周四的裁决之后,它们可能不得不更进一步,撤下指向一类出版商的搜索结果,这类出版商只会提供指向其他非授权内容网站的链接。The case began in 2011 when Geen Stijl, an anarchic Dutch blog and one of the most popular websites in the Netherlands, linked to illegally uploaded naked photos of a Dutch celebrity in Playboy.该案始于2011年,Geen Stijl网站发布了指向非法上传内容的链接,这些非法上传的内容是一位荷兰名人在《》上的裸照。Geen Stijl是荷兰一个无政府主义客,也是荷兰人气最高的网站之一。The pictures were hosted on file sharing website Filefactory, to which the blog linked. 该客文章里的链接指向的照片位于文件分享网站Filefactory。Playboy publisher Sanoma demanded that Geen Stijl remove the link to the photos, but the Dutch website refused.《》出版商Sanoma要求Geen Stijl撤下指向这些照片的链接,却遭到这家荷兰网站的拒绝。In fact, the blog went further and repeatedly uploaded other links to the pictures, with titles such as: Update: Not yet seen the nude pics#8201;.#8201;.#8201;.? They are HERE, and Bye Bye Wave Wave Playboy.事实上,该客更进了一步,反复上传了指向这些照片的其他链接,并带上了更新:还没看过这些裸照……?它们在这里和《》,再见!挥手!之类的标题。Brussels is on the cusp of launching a controversial overhaul of its copyright rules, in which rights holders stand to gain more power. 欧盟目前正要对其版权法规开展一轮争议极大的整改,在这一整改中版权持有者将获得更大权力。Under the plans, news publishers will be given more rights over their content in a move that would force the likes of Google to agree terms before showing snippets of news content.按照这一计划,新闻出版商将围绕其内容被赋予更多权利,此举或迫使谷歌之类的网站在显示新闻内容摘要前同意相关条款。Critics warned that the ruling — combined with the proposed reforms — could have a chilling effect online. 批评者警告称,这一裁决以及拟议中的改革可能会在网上引起恐慌。Jakob Kucharczyk, director of CCIA Europe, which represents the technology industry, said: This case shows that the freedom to hyperlink is under attack.代表高科技产业的计算机与通信行业协会欧洲分会(CCIA Europe)主席雅各布#8226;库哈尔奇克(Jakob Kucharczyk)表示:该案表明,超链接自由正遭受攻击。Following the verdict, a post on Geen Stijl warned: Careful hyperlinking, people — today there is a minefield on the free internet.该判决发布后,Geen Stijl网站上一个网帖警告称:伙计们,小心超链接——如今,自由的互联网上存在着地雷阵。The decision will be welcomed by rights holders, according to Josephine Curry, associate in Taylor Wessing, as it offers some protection against commercial websites.按照泰乐信律师事务所(Taylor Wessing)律师约瑟菲娜#8226;库里(Josephine Curry)的说法,该裁决将受到版权持有者的欢迎,因为它针对商业网站提供了一定程度的保护。 /201609/465999重庆市去咖啡斑多少钱 The new frugality is pushing private clinics into fierce competition. Over the past six months, a smattering of deals websites especially for private clinics have sprung up. On sites like Medbooking or DocDoc, which negotiate discounts with certain clinics, patients can find the lowest price for any given treatment in their city that day. 这种新出现的节俭正促使私立诊所之间展开激烈的竞争。过去6个月,一些针对私立诊所的交易网站应运而生。在Medbooking或DocDoc等网站(它们与某些诊所谈判价格折扣)上,患者可以找到所在城市当天某一治疗方案的最低价格。 Experts warn that such approaches will not be enough. Ms Maleva’s institute recently found that households were still struggling to adapt to the economic crisis and failing to balance their budgets. 专家们警告称,这些方法还不够。马列娃所在的研究所最近发现,俄罗斯家庭仍难以适应这场经济危机,家庭财务捉襟见肘。 “The kind of socio-economic development Russia has seen in the past decade and a half has not created any meaningful safety reserves,” Ms Maleva says. 马列娃表示:“过去15年俄罗斯实现的社会经济发展没有带来有意义的安全储备。” The working poor “穷忙族” During Russia’s last economic downturn, a deep but short recession in 2009, the government cushioned the fallout with social support handouts. Now, as plummeting oil prices cut deeply into budget revenues and more than half of the country’s regions run deficits, there is not enough money for that. 在俄罗斯上一次经济低迷(2009年发生的严重但短暂的衰退)期间,俄罗斯政府通过发放社会救济减缓了危机造成的影响。如今,随着油价暴跌造成预算收入锐减、以及超过一半的地区运行财政赤字,政府没有足够的资金发放社会救济。 According to Russia’s Federal Statistics Agency, 14 per cent of the population lived below the official poverty line in 2015, up from 11 per cent in 2014, and the highest percentage since 2006. Sociologists from the Russian Academy of Sciences, however, believe the situation is worse. They estimate that the number of poor has doubled since 2013 to hit one-quarter of the population. 根据俄罗斯联邦统计局(Federal Statistics Agency)的数据,2015年有14%的人口生活在官方贫困线以下,高于2014年的11%,为自2006年以来最高。然而,俄罗斯科学院(Russian Academy of Sciences)的社会学家认为,实际情况更糟。他们估计,自2013年以来穷人数量翻了一番,达到总人口的四分之一。 Moreover, despite many years of economic growth, the country has failed to prepare its pension system for a rapidly ageing population. This year, the government raised pensions by 4 per cent to make up for rising consumer prices, but as the inflation rate was more than double that last month, real pension incomes are falling. 另外,尽管经历了多年的经济增长,但俄罗斯未能在养老金体系方面为快速老龄化的人口做好准备。今年,俄罗斯政府将养老金上调4%,以弥补消费物价上涨,但上月的通胀率是这个数字的两倍多,因此实际养老金收入正在下降。 Pensioners aly have disproportionately low incomes and account for one-third of the population. That number is forecast to equal the size of the working-age population — which is shrinking by 1m a year — by 2030. Independent economists argue that as pensions are often a cornerstone of family income, up to half of the population is at threat of sliding into poverty. 养老金领取者的收入过低,而且这部分人占到总人口的三分之一。根据预测,到2030年,养老金领取者的人数将与工作年龄人口相当,后者每年缩减100万人。独立经济学家认为,由于养老金经常是家庭收入的基石,因此多达一半的人口面临陷入贫困的威胁。 Others warn that if the economy continues to stagnate for five years or longer, more of the gains of the Putin years will be lost, and Russian society may get closer to the mirror image of the 1990s with its social stress, endemic alcoholism and falling life expectancy. 还有一些人警告称,如果俄罗斯经济继续停滞5年或更久,普京时代曾经取得的社会收益将丧失更多;社会压力、普遍酗酒以及预期寿命下滑意味着,俄罗斯社会可能变得更接近上世纪90年代的样子。 For many, the threat of poverty can emerge even if they have a job. As Russia’s working population is shrinking, employers hold on to as many of their staff as they can even during crises, but they cut salaries, send workers on unpaid holidays, delay wage payments or hold off on social allowances. 对于很多人而言,即便有工作也可能面临贫困威胁。由于俄罗斯工作人口在缩减,甚至在危机期间,雇主也会留住尽可能多的员工,但它们会降低薪资、让员工停薪留职、延迟发放工资或拖欠社会保险费。 “Our people are being squeezed, and our entire region with them,” says Alexander Alexeenko, a retired truck driver from Ivanovo, a rural region east of Moscow whose fortunes have been deteriorating alongside the decline of its once huge textile plant. An estimated 70 per cent of the local working-age population is now employed in the capital, mostly in low-end service jobs. 伊凡诺弗(Ivanovo)是莫斯科以东的一个乡村地区,当地退休卡车司机亚历山大#8226;亚力琴科(Alexander Alexeenko)表示:“我们的人民受到挤压,整个地区都在受苦。”随着其一度庞大的纺织厂陷入衰落,该地区的经济不断恶化。在当地劳动年龄人口当中,据估计有70%现在在莫斯科就业,大多在低端务业岗位。 The 63-year-old Mr Alexeenko has gained some local notoriety by blasting the government for incompetent economic policies. He also called for Mr Putin’s resignation at a recent rally of truck drivers, organised to protest against an electronic road toll system run by a friend of the president. 63岁的亚力琴科因炮轰政府经济政策不称职而在当地有点小名气。他还在最近的一场卡车司机集会上呼吁普京辞职——这场集会的目的是抗议由普京的一位朋友执掌的电子道路收费系统。 According to VCIOM, public satisfaction with the economic and social policies of the government is at its lowest level since 2011. In January, 32 per cent of respondents said they might participate if there were protests over economic or social issues in their home town, the highest proportion measured by VCIOM during the Putin era. The numbers have since levelled off but are still higher than at any time since autumn 2011 — when Moscow saw mass demonstrations against Mr Putin. VCIOM的民调显示,公众对普京政府的经济和社会政策的满意度处于2011年以来的最低水平。今年1月,32%的受访者表示,如果在家乡发生围绕经济或社会问题的抗议活动,他们可能会参与,这是该调查在普京时代的最高比例。自那以来数据有所企稳,但仍高于自2011年秋季以来的任何时期——当时莫斯科发生了反对普京的大规模示威活动。 In Togliatti, Yaroslav’s home town, the anger is palpable. A city of 712,000 people, 600 miles south-east of Moscow, it has been hit hard by the decline of the vast Lada car plant around which it was built. Sergei, a 40-year-old taxi driver, blames Mr Putin for the fact that his grocery shop went bankrupt a few years ago. “It’s some kind of plot of his,” he fumes. “I don’t believe Putin, and I don’t believe anyone in government. In fact, I’ll sell this country to anyone who wants it for 10 kopecks.” 在雅罗斯拉夫的家乡陶里亚蒂,愤怒清晰可见。陶里亚蒂人口71.2万,位于莫斯科东南方向600英里处,因当地庞大的拉达汽车厂的衰落而遭受重创——当年陶里亚蒂就是围绕拉达汽车厂建设起来的。40岁的出租车司机谢尔盖(Sergei)将数年前其杂货店破产归咎于普京。他生气地说道:“我不相信普京,我不相信政府的任何人。实际上,我会卖掉这个国家,谁想出价10戈比都可以拿走。” Observers are, however, sceptical about the possibility of large-scale revolt. Mr Muslimov says he senses a wariness among Muscovites, with fewer showing an interest in politics. 然而,观察家们怀疑爆发大规模骚乱的可能性。诊所老板穆斯利莫夫表示,他觉得莫斯科人非常谨慎,对政治感兴趣的人较少。 Even those social segments and age groups that are generally more likely to protest are holding back. 即便那些通常更有可能举行抗议活动的社会阶层和年龄段人群也在保持克制。 To Mr Alexeenko’s exasperation, neither the truck drivers nor the Ivanovo proletariat nor the Moscow middle class are y to transform their dissatisfaction into political action. “When Putin started, they all put great hopes into him and they continued to believe in him for a long time. Now nobody believes any more,” he says. “And yet, for the sake of so-called stability, people will put up with anything.” 让亚力琴科感到愤怒的是,无论是卡车司机、伊凡诺弗的无产阶级,还是莫斯科的中产阶层都不准备将自己的不满转变为政治行动。他说:“当普京上台的时候,他们全都寄予厚望,他们相信他很久。现在没人再相信他了。然而,为了所谓的稳定,大家准备忍受一切。” Growing income gap 逐渐加大的收入差距 Mr Alexeenko, who calls himself a Communist and has been organising protests for more than 30 years, says his compatriots should follow the example of French farmers who pour milk into the streets to protest at the drop in prices for their produce. “But no. The people here, they bow, they buckle. I wouldn’t say they are afraid. I think they just don’t believe that they can change something,” he says. 亚力琴科自称是一位共产主义者,30多年来一直组织抗议活动。他说,俄罗斯人应该效仿法国农民,后者将牛奶倒在街道上以抗议农产品价格下跌。他说:“但是这里的人不愿这么做,他们卑躬屈膝。我不会说他们害怕,我认为他们只是不相信自己可以改变任何事。” One factor is that the middle class, historically an agent of change in other societies, has barely grown in 16 years under Mr Putin. According to Ranepa data, it has been stable at about 20 per cent of Russian society since 2000. 一个因素是,中产阶层(历史上在其他社会是改革的推动者)在普京主政的16年间几乎没有壮大。RANEPA的数据显示,自2000年以来,中产阶层在俄罗斯社会所占的比例一直稳定在20%左右。 Moreover, despite the country’s overall wealth gains during the Putin years, the income gap has widened. The country’s Gini coefficient — a widely recognised measure of inequality — rose from 37 in 2000 to 41.6 in 2012, suggesting a less equal distribution of income, which sociologists believe would lessen the effect of political empowerment. 此外,尽管俄罗斯在普京时代的财富整体而言出现增长,但收入差距扩大。2012年,该国的基尼系数(广泛认可的衡量不平等程度的指标)从2000年的37升至41.6,表明收入分配更加不平等,社会学家相信这将降低政治赋权的效果。 Other forces vital to a vibrant economic future, such as scientists and multilingual talent, have left the country amid rising political pressures and a weaker rouble. According to the Levada Center, Russia’s only independent pollster, the most financially secure and best-educated are likely to emigrate. 对充满活力的经济未来至关重要的其他力量,比如科学家和多语人才,已经在政治压力日益加大和卢布贬值的背景下离开俄罗斯。俄罗斯唯一的独立民调机构——俄罗斯勒瓦达中心(Levada Center)的数据显示,财务上最安全且教育程度最高的俄罗斯人可能移民海外。 “Some people fear social unrest. What I fear more is social apathy, infantilism, indifference,” says Ms Maleva. “With a society like that, it will be even more difficult to lift ourselves out of crisis, and it will be impossible to make a new start.” 马列娃表示:“一些人担心社会动乱。我更担心的是社会冷漠、幼稚和漠不关心。在这样的社会里,我们更难摆脱危机,也不可能从头再来。” /201604/438556Pandas: cute, but sexually inept and bamboozled bytheir own food requirements, right? Not so. In fact, it is life in captivitythat disrupts the complex rhythm of panda mating behaviour, with itsterritorial scent marking, mating calls and complex social interactions.熊猫:可爱但是被它们自己的食物需求所迷惑,对求偶不上心,对吧?但并非如此,事实上,人工驯养的生活打乱了大熊猫求偶行为的复杂节奏,如在自己的领地做气味标识,发出求偶信号,以及复杂的社交互动。Infant pandas are reared in nurseries, wherededicated staff work non-stop to meet their every need - including massagingtheir stomachs to stimulate their digestion图:熊猫宝宝生活在培育中心里,那里有专门的员工夜以继日的满足它们的各种需求-包括胃部刺激消化。Most pandas born in captivity will spend theirlives there, in China or on loan to zoos abroad. But at Hetaoping fieldstation, within Wolong reserve, in a painstakingly slow process, some pandasare being prepped for a future in the wild. These candidate animals arecarefully selected ? they must be naturally wary of humans.在中国或者租借熊猫的海外动物园里,大多数出生在人工驯养环境中的熊猫会在那里生活一辈子。但是在卧龙自然保护区的核桃坪野外监测站,在煞费苦心的漫长过程中,正准备将一些熊猫在未来回归野外。这些待回归动物是经过精挑细选的吗?它们对人类必须保持着自然地警惕。If pandas are to be released and thrive in thewild, they must be wary of humans. Keepers at the Hetaoping reserve in Wolongtherefore wear black-and-white costumes soaked in panda urine图:如果打算将熊猫放回野外且在野外繁殖,它们就必须要提防人类。因此卧龙核桃坪自然保护区的看守员们穿着在熊猫尿液里浸泡过的黑白熊猫装。Baby pandas are tiny, hairless and incrediblyvulnerable. Captive-born babies are removed to incubators to increase theirchances of survival, where staff bottle-feed them, rock them, burp them andkeep a close eye on errant toddlers ? all the duties of a parent, including thesleepless nights. But the babies selected for a wilder future stay with theirmothers before being moved to fenced-in habitats further up the mountain. Since2006, five have been released (wearing tracking collars) and three are still alive.A handful of others are also being considered for release.熊猫宝宝非常的小,全身无毛并且非常的弱势。在人类驯养环境中,为了提高存活率,出生的熊猫宝宝则被放置在保温箱中,同时有专门的人员用奶瓶喂养,摇晃着它们,密切关注着这群犯错的孩子?所做的这一切就像一位母亲般尽职尽责。在被转移到深山里围起的栖息地之前,这些被选中的未来将回归野外的熊猫宝宝们仍然和它们的妈妈待在一起。从2006年开始,已经有5只大熊猫(佩戴跟踪环)被释放到野外,其中有3只仍然存活。少数的几只也正考虑释放野外。Gestation for baby pandas ranges from three tofive months, and the tiny hairless blind creatures weigh an average of 100g(0.2lb) when they are born图:熊猫期一般3到5个月,这些微小无毛又未睁开眼的生物刚出生时平均重100g。Pandas need large territories: they eat about9kg-18kg (20lb-40lb) of bamboo each day. In fact, bones found in China indicatethat pandas, as we know them, have been around for two million years, and forall that time they thrived and sp throughout southern and eastern China,northern Myanmar and Vietnam. Then came the human population boom, andmillennia of panda behaviour was disrupted in a few years.熊猫在野外需要广阔的活动范围:它们每天吃9kg-18kg的竹子。事实上,在中国发现的骨骼表明,我们所认识的大熊猫已经存在了两百万年了,在这期间,熊猫的繁衍生息遍及中国南部和东部,缅甸和越南北部。接着是人类数量的爆发式的增长,在最近的几年里,熊猫几千年来的习性被人类打乱。The young pandas are weighed and monitored closelyto ensure they are putting on weight. Pandas take around five to seven years toreach full size图:熊猫幼崽的体重被密切监视着,确保它们正在增重。熊猫长到最大体型大约需要花费5-7年的时间。With much of their habitat destroyed, survivorsbecame isolated ? it is estimated that their current mountain habitat in Chinacomprises just 1% of their original range. The 70s saw their nadir ? withestimates of just 800 to 1,000 left in the wild. In 1980, the ChinaConservation and Research Centre for the Giant Panda was founded at Wolong.Alongside government protection of their habitat, this has seen numbers in themost recent survey (2014) rise to more than 1,800. However, scientific modelssuggest that global warming could reduce their remaining habitat by 60% in thenext 70 years. Their continued survival is far from a black-and-white issue.随着大量的栖息地被摧毁,幸存下来的大熊猫变得孤立起来?据估计在中国境内熊猫目前的栖息地和原始范围相比只剩下1%了。70年代,熊猫数量达到最低谷,据估计野外只剩下800-1000只。1980年,在卧龙成立了中国大熊猫保护和研究中心。同时在政府对栖息地保护的情况下,根据最近的一次测量统计(2014),野外熊猫数量已经上升到1800只。但是,科学模型显示,全球变暖会在未来的70年内减少60%现存的栖息地。大熊猫持久的生存远不是一个非白即黑的问题。These images have been shortlisted for the NaturalWorld category of the professional competition in the Sony World Photographyawards. Winners will be announced on 20 April. An exhibition of shortlistedwork will run at Somerset House, London from 21 April-7 May. worldphoto.org这些照片入围了索尼全球摄影奖专业赛中的自然类。4月20日将公布冠军得主。摄影展的照片筛选工作将在塞默特宫进行。 /201704/504507四川省激光美白肌肤多少钱

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