青羊区早孕检查多少钱安咨询

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原标题: 青羊区早孕检查多少钱百度在线
7.Disposable Contact Lenses7.一次性隐形眼镜Contact lenses have been around for decades, and they#39;ve changed quite a bit since the early days of hard plastic lenses. The 1970s saw the rise of soft lenses made from hydrogel. It#39;s no secret why soft lenses quickly became popular: They were more air permeable than the older lenses and more comfortable to boot. Since then, both hard and soft contact lenses have seen improved permeability, and can be worn for longer periods of time.隐形眼镜的存在已经有几十年了。从早期的硬塑料镜片开始,新型的隐形眼镜已经改善了很多。二十世纪七十年代,由水凝胶制成的软性隐形眼镜开始崛起。软性隐形眼镜随之变得风靡全球。它们比旧的镜片更具透气性,且更方便佩戴。从那以后,硬性和软性隐形眼镜的透气性都有所提高,而且可以长时间地持续佩戴。In 1987, contact lenses became an even more convenient substitute for wearing glasses. That#39;s the year disposable contact lenses hit the consumer market. Disposable lenses are soft contact lenses meant to be worn for a short period of time. Before disposable lenses, owning contacts was a bit like owning glasses. You wore the same pair every day and had to clean and care for them regularly. That meant losing a lens was a costly mistake.1987年,隐形眼镜代替眼镜,成为更方便的替代品。那一年,年抛隐形眼镜抢占了消费者市场。一次性隐形眼镜是软性隐形眼镜,这意味着此类隐形眼镜只能短时间佩戴。在一次性隐形眼镜出现之前,拥有隐形眼镜和拥有眼镜就是一码子事,因为你每天戴同一副镜片,也很难保可以定期去清洗和护理,就无形中增加了丢失镜片所要承受的损失。With disposable lenses, that problem vanished. Since 1987, these contacts have become the go-to solution for in-eye vision correction. They#39;re available in daily, weekly, and monthly forms.有了一次性隐形眼镜,这样的问题就完全不存在了。1987年起,这些隐形眼镜成为内眼矫正视力的首选解决方案。隐形眼镜还多了日抛、周抛、月抛等多种选择。6.The Space Shuttle6.航天飞机After the lunar missions in the late #39;60s and early #39;70s, the people at NASA dedicated themselves to developing a new type of vehicle that could venture into space and return home safely. The culmination of their research and development was the Space Shuttle. The engineers and mechanics designed it to be more than just a transportation vehicle -- the Space Shuttle would become an orbiting scientific laboratory capable of hosting numerous experiments designed to increase our understanding of the universe. The Space Shuttles also played an important role in deploying and maintaining equipment in space, including satellites and the International Space Station.在60年代末期70年代早期的月球任务完成之后,美国国家航空和宇宙航行局(NASA)就致力于开发一种新的交通工具,使得飞行器能够进入太空也能安全回国着陆。他们研发的最高成就就是航天飞机。工程师和机修工想要把航天飞机设计成可绕轨道运行的科学实验室,且能够承载大量帮助人们加深对宇宙理解的实验项目,而不仅仅只是一个交通运输工具。航天飞机在配置和维修包括卫星和国际空间站等在内的太空设备上也发挥着很大作用。The first Space Shuttle launch was the Columbia on April 12, 1981. The mission lasted a little more than two days. The Columbia returned home safely and gave NASA valuable information about the design of the shuttle. A few tiles had broken off during the launch sequence, which informed NASA that engineers would need to make adjustments to head off future problems with other launches.航天飞机的首次发射是1981 年4月12日的“哥伦比亚”号。这个任务持续了两天多。“哥伦比亚”号的安全着陆,给美国国航局带来了在航天飞机制造方面的诸多宝贵信息。在启动序列期间,有几个瓦片掉落,这让美国国航局意识到,工程师必须得做一些调整来应对以后发射中可能会出现的问题。Since Columbia#39;s launch, there#39;ve been more than 130 Space Shuttle missions, and the program has inspired hundreds of children to study science and dream of space exploration.自“哥伦比亚”号发射以来,已经完美执行了130多起航天飞机发射任务,与此同时,这一项目也激励了无数梦想着太空探险的孩子学习科学的热情。5.IBM and Macintosh Personal Computers5.美国国际商用机器公司(IBM)和苹果个人电脑A computing revolution began in the 1970s. Early computers were massive machines -- some so large that they#39;d take up an entire floor of a building. Yet these machines had less processing power than a typical smartphone might boast today. As the era of miniaturization approached, computers shrunk. And hobbyists began to explore a world previously reserved for academic, government and research institutions. The personal computer became reality.19世纪70年代,世界范围内开始了一场电脑革命。早期的电脑都是十分庞大的机器——有些大到足足占据了一整层楼。并且,这些机器加工处理的能力比现如今的智能机还要低。随着微型化时代的到来,电脑的形态也开始缩小了。那些电脑爱好者开始探讨先前政府部门以及科研机构等遗留下来的学术问题。自此,个人电脑日渐在大众中普及。IBM#39;s 5150 Personal Computer launched in 1981. It contained an Intel 8088 processor and ran on version 1.0 of the PC-DOS operating system. The computer supported the Microsoft BASIC programming language. For much of the 1980s, IBM was synonymous with personal computers. You might say you own an IBM the same way you#39;d talk about owning a Windows PC nowadays. In fact, the old IBM PC is an ancestor to the Windows-based computers used by millions of people today.1981年,IBM-5150号个人电脑首次亮相。它配备英特尔8088处理器,并延续了第一版的个人计算机磁盘操作系统 ——(PC—DOS)操作系统。这台电脑持微软的基本编程语言。19世纪80年代的很长一段时间里,IBM就是个人电脑的代名词。可能你有一台“IBM”就相当于你现在说你有一台微软电脑。实际上,以前的IBM个人电脑就是现在无数人所使用的微软系统电脑的鼻祖。In 1984, Apple launched the Macintosh computer. It was the first personal computer to feature a graphics-based user interface. Other computers required users to type in commands to launch applications. The Macintosh used icons to represent programs and a strange device called a mouse. Though neither the mouse nor the graphic user interface were new ideas, they hadn#39;t been part of the mass consumer market until the Macintosh hit store shelves.1984年,苹果推出了Macintosh电脑。它是首台设有基于图形用户界面的个人电脑。而其他计算机则需要用户输入命令以启动应用程序。苹果电脑利用图标来表示程序并配有一个称之为“鼠标”的陌生装置。尽管鼠标和图形用户界面都不是什么新想法,但直到苹果个人电脑出现在商店的货架上之后,才真正的占领了大众消费市场。4.Compact Discs4.激光唱片Music collectors in the early 1980s had limited choices. Audiophiles claimed that the only sound worth hearing was stored on vinyl albums. But these records take up a lot of space and can be damaged easily. Cassettes and 8-track tapes took up less space, but the magnetic storage format degraded over time. Companies like Sony and Philips swooped in to create an alternative: the compact disc.上世纪80年代的音乐收藏者们在音乐上的选择很受限。发烧友称,唯一值得细细品味的音乐都储存在黑胶唱片里。但是这些记录介质占用太多存储内存,很容易损坏。而盒带和八轨磁带则不会占用太多存储内存,可其磁记忆体的格式却会随着时间流逝逐渐劣化。于是,索尼和飞利浦等这样的公司便趁虚而入,创造出另一款替代品——激光唱片。In the early to mid 1980s, engineers wrote a series of books that set out the standards for the compact-disc format. There were five books in the series, each a different color. The first book, which was red, established the basic standards for audio recording on compact disc. Later books expanded the standards, adding data storage capabilities to the CD and giving birth to the CD-ROM and CD-RW formats.上世纪80年代早期,工程师们编著了一系列丛书,详细规范了激光唱片的格式标准。 该系列丛书共有五本,分别以五种不同颜色来区分。第一本书是红色的,它阐述了激光唱片音频录制的基本标准。后续的几本书均在第一本的基础上扩充了格式标准,在CD上附加数据储存的能力,新创造包含CD-ROM和CD-RW格式的光盘。Not only did this revolutionize the music industry, practically killing off the cassette and vinyl markets, but also the budding computer industry. Early floppy disks had limited storage capacity and could lose data if exposed to magnets. Compact discs stored information in an optical format and could hold far more data than typical magnetic disks. The first compact disc players were expensive, but by the 1990s the format dominated both the music and computer storage markets.激光唱片不仅仅是音乐产业的一场革命,更是消灭了盒式磁带和黑胶唱片的市场。早期的软盘存储能力有限,置于磁场中十分容易丢失数据。而激光唱片以一种视觉上可见的格式保存数据,且其可存储量远超传统的磁体光盘。世界上首台激光唱片播放机非常昂贵,直到上世纪九十年代,这种唱片格式才开始在音乐和计算机存储器市场占据主要地位。审稿:省略珺 校对:CMX /201507/384667

HONG KONG — Liu Xuelong, a television and documentary producer in Beijing, hasn’t used his television in years. He gets all of his entertainment on his iPhone 6 Plus, where he also taps a plethora of apps to buy plane tickets, pay bills, talk with clients.香港——在北京从事电视和纪录片制作工作的刘雪龙(音)多年没打开过自家的电视机了。他的一切都是在自己的iPhone 6 Plus上进行的。轻轻点击那上面的大量应用,他便可以买机票、结账,或者与客户沟通。Weixin, a text and messaging app, is among his favorites. “Every morning the first thing I do when I wake up is log onto Weixin to see what new things my friends have shared online overnight,” said Mr. Liu, 25.即时通讯应用微信是他最喜欢的应用之一。“每天早上醒来第一件事,就是登陆微信,看看前一天夜里朋友们在上面分享了些什么,”25岁的刘雪龙说。Advertisers increasingly want to be part of Mr. Liu’s digital world — and of the other 527 million people in China with smartphones. Next year companies are expected to spend more money on digital advertising than on television campaigns in China.广告商越来越想进入刘雪龙——以及中国另外5.27亿智能手机用户——所在的那个数字世界。在中国,企业明年在数字广告上的资金投入,预计会超过电视广告。It is a stark shift from three years ago when nearly half of the advertising dollars went to television and just 14 percent went to digital, according to ZenithOptimedia, an advertising agency. China is also diverging from the ed States, where television continues to dominate.广告公司实力传播集团(ZenithOptimedia)称,同三年前相比,这是一个重大转变。那时候,近一半的广告投入流向了电视,而用于数字领域的广告投入仅占14%。中国也正在与电视依然占据主导地位的美国渐行渐远。“It’s the first time we’ve had an enormous middle class emerge while being digitally connected,” said Jeff Walters, a partner at the Boston Consulting Group in Beijing. “It sets the stage for why digital advertising is so important.”“这是我们首次看到,一个庞大的中产阶级的崛起伴随着他们与数字领域的密切联系,”波士顿咨询集团(Boston Consulting Group)驻北京的合伙人魏杰鸿(Jeff Walters)说。“这为数字广告的极端重要性奠定了基础。”With the largest pool of smartphone users in the world, China has become a petri dish for marketers and technology companies alike to test ways to get consumers to buy both online and off.在智能手机用户人数居世界之最的背景下,中国已经同时成为了营销和科技公司的试验田,被它们用来测试那些旨在吸引消费者在线上和线下消费的广告方式。Homegrown social media platforms in China are at the center of the push. Facebook, YouTube and Twitter are all blocked in China, giving platforms like Tencent’s Weixin — known as WeChat outside the country — and Sina Weibo an advantage.中国本土的社交媒体平台是这番努力的中心。Facebook、YouTube和Twitter均在中国大陆遭到屏蔽,让腾讯旗下的微信及新浪旗下的微占得先机。Coca-Cola tapped into Weixin’s built-in er for QR codes, two-dimensional bar codes, to start its Lyric Coke campaign in China. Coke bottles there featured famous Chinese lyrics like “Baby, I’m sorry,” and “I love summer.”可口可乐(Coca-Cola)利用微信内置的二维码扫描器,在中国发起了歌词瓶活动。可乐瓶外面印上了“宝贝对不起”或“我爱夏天”等著名的中文歌词。Coca-Cola then encouraged consumers to share a 10-second clip of a song with friends through social media by scanning the QR code on the bottle. Since its start in May, the Coke campaign has generated over three billion views, according to Isobar, the company responsible for the campaign.然后,可口可乐鼓励消费者通过扫描瓶身上的二维码在社交媒体上与朋友分享一段时长10秒的歌曲片段。负责这次营销活动的公司安索帕(Isobar)称,自5月开始以来,可口可乐歌词瓶已经带来了超过30亿的点击量。Five years ago, marketers could get away with simply using the same ads they used globally and just translating the message, said Shaun Rein, the founder and managing director of the China Market Research Group. Today, they have to speak to the Chinese dream.中国市场研究集团(China Market Research Group)创始人和董事总经理雷小山(Shaun Rein)表示,五年前,营销机构可以使用和全球市场一样的广告,只要翻译一下核心信息就行了。但现在,它们必须要切合中国人的梦想。“What is happening is that Western brands have to create new aspirations that the Chinese consumer wants,” Mr. Rein added.“目前的情况是,西方品牌一定要创造出中国消费者接受的那种新的渴望,”雷小山还说。In its campaign, Coke used contemporary Chinese pop songs. Ads for North Face, the outdoor wear company, featured images of animals from an African safari, in an effort to appeal to the growing legions of Chinese travelers.可口可乐在自己的营销活动中利用了中国当代流行歌曲。户外饰公司北面(North Face)的广告则主打非洲之旅中的动物图片,以吸引规模日渐壮大的中国游客消费群。As in the ed States and Europe, advertisers have to learn to adapt to changes in digital landscape, which in China can unfold at breakneck speed.与在美国和欧洲一样,广告商必须学会适应数字领域的变化。在中国,这种变化的速度的可谓一日千里。For several years, the microblogging site Weibo was the most popular forum in China. Much like Twitter, the platform allowed users to broadcast information to any user.在早前的几年时间里,新浪微一直是中国最受欢迎的平台。和Twitter很像,它允许用户向任何其他用户发布信息。But last year in an attempt to quiet public debate, the government cracked down on some of the forum’s most prominent verified commentators, nicknamed the Big Vs, accusing microbloggers of sping false statements and detaining them.然而去年,为了压制公众辩论,政府对新浪微上部分经过认的最著名的人士采取了严厉措施。这些俗称“大V”的微用户被指传播虚假消息,并遭到拘捕。This prompted some Weibo users to leave the site. At the same time, Weixin was quickly gaining popularity as free alternative to text messaging.这促使一些用户离开了新浪微。与此同时,作为一种可以代替短信的免费工具,微信的人气飙升。Weixin is now the most popular forum in China. Weixin and its international version WeChat together have 468 million active users. Weibo has 167 million active users today.微信是中国目前最受欢迎的平台,国内版和国际版共有4.68亿活跃用户。新浪微则是眼下拥有1.67亿活跃用户。“I’ve been here four years. In that time I’m now on the third dominant social network — first it was Renren, then Weibo and now it’s WeChat,” said Chris Jones, the executive creative director at the ad agency Wunderman in China.“我来了中国四年,先后使用过三种主要的社交网络——先是人人,然后是新浪微,现在是微信,”伟门广告公司(Wunderman)中国区执行创意总监钟志勤(Chris Jones)说。Weixin’s particular quirk — that users communicate only with friends and contacts within their circle — has allowed companies to develop direct relationships with consumers. But it also poses a challenge since users have to first choose to include a brand within their Weixin network.微信的特殊之处在于,用户只能跟圈子内部的朋友和熟人交流。这让企业可以与消费者建立直接的联系。不过,它也构成了一个挑战,因为用户有权决定是否把某个品牌加入自己的微信平台。The fashion house Burberry worked its way into consumers’ circles by giving users a chance to watch its Autumn-Winter 2014 runway show in real time, along with commentary from designers and celebrities watching the show. To get access to the show, users just had to add Burberry’s public account to their Weixin network.时尚品牌柏利(Burberry)进入消费者圈子的方法,是让用户有机会实时观看2014年的秋冬时装秀,以及设计师和名人对它的。为了观看这场活动,用户必须把柏利的公众号加入微信。Once Burberry is in their network, the fashion house can target users directly in the future. One interactive feature prompts users to click on “My Burberry” and type out their initials. An image of a monogrammed bottle of perfume then appears, along with details of how to buy it.一旦进入了消费者的朋友圈,柏利从此之后就可以直接对准目标用户群。柏利还提供了一个互动功能:用户可以点击“My Burberry”,输入自己名字的首字母。然后,屏幕上就会出现一瓶印有首字母花押字的香氛,以及如何购买它的具体信息。Not all digital ad campaigns in China have gone smoothly. One Chinese company called Tidy Laundry recently tried to stir up some attention online with a posted to Youku Tudou, a Chinese streaming site. In the , two young women strip down to their underwear on the Shanghai metro. A man wearing a blue uniform then enters the subway car and hands them a clean set of clothes, which they change into. The Shanghai police fined the company, according to state media.并非所有中国市场上的网络营销都进展顺利。中国公司泰笛洗涤最近曾试图通过在流媒体视频公司优酷土豆的网站上发布一则视频来吸引关注。在视频中,两名年轻女子在上海的地铁里脱掉了层层衣物,最后只剩内衣。一名穿着蓝色制的男子随后进入地铁车厢,递给她们一套干净的衣,让她们换上。据官方媒体报道,上海警方对这家公司处以了罚款。Televisions and other more traditional advertising venues also play a complementary role in the digital world.电视和其他一些更加传统的广告手段也对互联网广告营销起到了补充作用。This year, Oreo began Play Together, a campaign that riffed on the idea that children don’t spend enough time with their parents, a subject of debate in China. Collaborating with Weixin, Oreo created an app that allowed parents and their children to take photos and turn them into playful emoticons to send to friends.今年,奥利奥(Oreo)启动了“亲子一刻玩起来”的营销活动,灵感来自于父母和子女相处时间不足的问题——这是中国当下的热门话题。奥利奥与微信合作推出了一款应用,使得家长和孩子可以用它来拍摄照片,然后把它们变成有趣的表情符号发送给朋友们。The campaign also featured a television ad for the Weixin campaign in which a mother and her daughter play together and share a bag of Oreos. As part of the media blitz, it used celebrity dads from the popular reality television show called “Father, Where Are You Going?” to promote the campaign through their own microblogs.本轮营销中还推出了一则宣传微信活动的电视广告。广告中,妈妈和女儿一边玩耍,一边分享着一包奥利奥饼干。作为媒体攻势的一部分,公司找来了人气颇高的真人秀节目《爸爸去哪儿》中的明星爸爸,邀请他们在微上进行宣传。Television, too, helps bridge the generational gap. Even though Chinese consumers are highly connected, not everybody is getting the messages that brands are sending.而且,电视也有助于弥合代沟。虽然中国的消费者上网程度高,但品牌试图传递的讯息也并非能够接触到所有人。Mr. Liu’s father is one of them. Mr. Liu bought a Samsung smartphone for his father, who lives in Weifang, a city in Shandong Province, and taught him how to use Weixin so that they could -chat.刘雪龙的父亲就是其中之一。刘雪龙给住在山东潍坊的父亲买了一部三星手机,并教他如何使用微信,希望可以和他视频聊天。But it could be a while before his father gets the hang of Weixin, Mr. Liu said. “I am the only friend in his Weixin contact list, actually.”不过,刘雪龙说,要让父亲真正学会使用微信,可能还需要一段时间。“其实,我是他微信上唯一的联系人。” /201412/350215

Ratan Tata, the Indian industrialist, has invested an undisclosed sum in China’s biggest smartphone maker, Xiaomi, giving a boost to the company’s Indian expansion plans.印度实业家拉丹#8226;塔塔(Ratan Tata)向中国最大智能手机制造商小米(Xiaomi)进行了一笔金额不详的投资,此举对小米的印度扩张计划是个提振。“India is our biggest market outside of mainland China and also an extremely important one. Our goal is to become number one in the next three to five years and we are keen on partnerships here,” said Bin Lin, Xiaomi co-founder and president, in a statement.小米联合创始人、总裁林斌在一份声明中表示:“印度是我们在中国内地以外最大的市场,也是一个极其重要的市场。我们的目标是在未来3至5年中成为老大,我们热衷于在那里建立合作伙伴关系。”Since his retirement in 2012 as chairman of industrial conglomerate the Tata group, Mr Tata has become an active venture investor in Indian e-commerce start-ups. Mr Tata, whose current title is chairman emeritus of Tata, made the investment with his personal wealth and the stake will be held independent of the group.2012年塔塔从综合产业集团塔塔集团(Tata Group)董事长职位退休以后,成为了一名风险投资者,积极投资于印度的电商初创企业。他现在的头衔是塔塔集团荣誉董事长,他对小米的投资用的是私人财富,所购得的股份将独立于塔塔集团持有。The announcement on Saturday follows a visit to India by Xiaomi last week. During the visit, former Google executive Hugo Barra, now Xiaomi’s vice-president for international operations, unveiled the company’s newest handset, the Mi 4i, which will sell for INR12,999 (4).上述消息于上周六宣布,在那之前,小米上周访问了印度。在那次访问中,谷歌(Google)前高管、现任小米国际业务副总裁的雨果#8226;巴拉(Hugo Barra),发布了该公司最新款手机Mi 4i,预定售价为12999印度卢比(合204美元)。It is the first phone that Xiaomi has launched outside China. Localised versions of the Mi 4i will also be begin selling in Malaysia, Indonesia, Singapore, Taiwan and Hong Kong next month.这是小米在海外发布的首款手机。下个月,马来西亚、印尼、新加坡、台湾和香港也将开售本地化版本的Mi 4i。Xiaomi controlled 4 per cent of India’s smartphone market in the fourth quarter last year, according to market researcher IDC. Market leader Samsung controlled 22 per cent, followed by Indian vendors Micromax, Intex and Lava. Smartphone penetration in India trails that of China, leaving room for fast growth.市场研究公司IDC数据显示,去年第四季度,小米在印度智能手机市场占有4%的份额。印度市场领导者三星(Samsung)占有22%的份额,之后是印度供应商Micromax、Intex和Lava。印度的智能手机普及率低于中国,这为快速增长留下了空间。Xiaomi raised .1bn late last year in a venture capital funding round that valued the company at bn. The company has used a viral marketing campaign to sell its high-spec, low-cost smartphones and vault over more established manufacturers to become the market leader in China.小米去年晚些时候在一轮风投融资中筹得11亿美元,使该公司的估值达到450亿美元。该公司一直使用病毒式营销来出售自己的高配置、低价格的智能手机,一跃超过一些更老牌的制造商,坐上了中国市场头号交椅。The company has also branched out into online music and internet-enabled set-top boxes that act as a substitute for cable TV.该公司还将业务扩展至在线音乐和可取代有线电视的互联网机顶盒。Xiaomi’s expansion plans in India hit a snag in December when the Delhi High Court banned the company from selling smartphones pending a further hearing on alleged patent infringement against Swedish technology group Ericsson. The ban has since ended.去年12月,小米在印度的扩张计划遇到了难题。当时德里高院(Delhi High Court)对小米智能手机下达了禁售令,等待其就有关小米侵犯瑞典科技公司爱立信(Ericsson)专利的指控进行进一步庭审。该禁令后来被撤销。 /201504/372178Altered gene leaves people totally painfree改变的基因导致人们完全感觉不到疼痛Naturally occurring changes in a previously unstudied gene can prevent people from experiencing pain. And that#39;s not good. It can leave them dangerously unaware of harm.如果先天自然形成的基因发生自然性的改变,那么人类感受疼痛能力将会受阻,导致他们意识不到伤害,这样很危险!Researchers presented the finding May 25 in Nature Genetics.5月25日研究者在自然遗传学上递交了这篇报告。The gene#39;s name is PRDM12. Pain is the body#39;s way of signaling that something is wrong. Certain mutations- naturally occurring changes - in that gene keep people from feeling pain. Robbed of this warning, affected people may fail to protect themselves from unintentional injuries. Such injuries could range from skin burns or scratched eyes to missing digits.该基因叫做PRDM12,疼痛是身体意识危险的信号。特定基因突变---自然发生的改变---导致人类感受不到疼痛。这一预警信号被;劫持;后,那些受影响人将不能在无意识的伤害中保护自己。这些伤害包括皮肤灼伤,被抓挠的眼睛,甚至还包括丢失的脚趾手指等等。However, there is some good news in the finding. Better understanding of how a mutated PRDM12 gene blocks pain might one day lead to better treatments for people who suffer from too much pain.但幸运的是在这项调查中还有好消息,即更好地了解突变的基因PRDM12是怎样阻止疼痛或许某天会应用到那些正在遭受极大痛苦的人身上。;It#39;s promising, but there#39;s a long way to go,; says Simon Halegoua. He#39;s a neuroscientist at Stony Brook University in New York who did not work on the new study.前途是光明的,但仍然还有很长的路要走,纽约石溪大学神经系统学家Simon Halegoua表示,但是他没有参与到新研究中。Scientists aly knew that mutations in another gene caused a similar birth defect: this insensitivity to pain. In their new study, Geoff Woods of the University of Cambridge in England and his colleagues identified 11 families with mutated forms of the PRDM12 gene. The gene normally instructs cells on how to make a protein that helps pain-sensing nerve cells develop. These pain-warning nerve cells, or neurons, are called nociceptors (NO-see-SEP-terz). People born with some mutations to PRDM12 lack some nociceptor neurons that carry pain signals to the brain. The new study suggests ;You need PRDM12 present to grow your pain neurons,; Woods says.科学家已经知道另一个基因突变会引起类似的先天缺陷:感觉疼痛迟钝性,在他们的新研究中,英国剑桥大学的Geoff Woods和他的同事对11家家人的PRDM12基因变异形式进行了鉴定。基因通常会指引细胞产出蛋白质来帮助触痛神经细胞发育。这些预示疼痛的神经细胞,也叫神经元,被称为伤害感受器。一些天生PRDM12基因突变的人缺乏能将疼痛信号传输给大脑的伤害感受器神即经元。Woods表示;新研究明人们需要PRDM12来助长其疼痛神经原;。译文属 /201506/378318

Welcome, customers, to this column. I write articles and you subscribe to the FT and tell me how wrong I am (to be fair, some of your are kinder). Now, let us imagine you this piece, or other FT content, for free on Facebook or Google. It is a far sweeter deal, right? You get something for nothing and Big Data can bask in its own beneficence. Apply that to any amount of diverse content. Rarely in the history of human knowledge have so few offered so much to so many for nothing.各位看官,欢迎你们阅读我的专栏。我的任务是写文章,而你们的任务是订阅英国《金融时报》,以及指摘我的文字(公平来说,有部分读者还是很仁慈的)。现在,假设你们是在Facebook或谷歌(Google)上免费看到这篇文章或英国《金融时报》的其他文章。这是笔非常划算的交易,对吧?你免费享受内容,而大数据也可享受行善之乐。这可以发生在任何数量的各种不同内容上。在人类认知史上,鲜有如此少的内容提供者向如此多的人免费提供如此海量信息的情况。That, at least, is the story most of us have downloaded. In the rare cases where an entity — such as the European Commission, which is probing Google’s alleged abuse of its dominant position — raises objections, the obloquy is instant. Google, the US government and others accuse Brussels of thinly veiled protectionism.至少,上述情形是我们大多数人都曾免费下载、读到过的故事。只在极少数情况下,才会有实体对此提出异议,比如欧盟委员会(European Commission)正在调查谷歌涉嫌滥用市场主导地位,结果立即遭到谩骂。谷歌、美国政府以及其他一些人纷纷指责布鲁塞尔方面几乎不加掩饰的保护主义。If Europe could innovate like the US, perhaps it would spend less time trying to bring others down. There is a reason Google’s motto is “Don’t be evil”. It invests in ways of bringing ever more knowledge to humankind.如果欧洲的创新力能像美国一样,或许会少花点时间去给别人使绊。谷歌的座右铭“不作恶”(Don’t be evil)并非说说而已。在为人类带来更多知识方面,谷歌进行了投入。Peter Thiel, a co-founder of PayPal, describes Google as a benign monopoly. If it encountered real competition, its research and development budget would vanish — and with it the self-driving car, wearable computers, “loon balloons” beaming cellular data from the stratosphere and so on. We should appreciate the upside to its dominance. Google’s monopoly returns enable it to fund the equivalent of ATamp;T’s legendary Bell Labs, or Xerox Park, which made so many breakthroughs. Besides, the data industry’s barriers to entry are low. The disrupters can be disrupted.贝宝(PayPal)联合创始人彼得#8226;蒂尔(Peter Thiel)将谷歌描述为一家善良的垄断企业。如果它遇到真正的挑战,它的研发预算,连同它的无人驾驶汽车、可穿戴计算机,以及从平流层发射无线数据的“Loon”热气球等科技创新都会化为泡影。我们应该认识到其市场主导地位的有利一面。正是有了垄断收益,谷歌才能资助不亚于美国电报电话公司(ATamp;T)传奇的贝尔实验室(Bell Labs)或施乐帕克研究中心(Xerox Park)的实验室,这些实验室做出的突破创新数不胜数。而且,数字行业的进入门槛很低,破坏者本身也可能遭到破坏。But there are other sides to this story. The first is that Google’s chief complainants are US companies. This is not a transatlantic spat. It just so happens that Brussels has a tougher competition regime.但此事还有其他方面。首先,投诉谷歌的主要是美国企业。这不是一场跨大西洋的口水仗,欧盟委员会之所以会展开调查,只是刚好这里的竞争制度比较严格而已。Yelp, Microsoft, Expedia and others have complained both to Brussels and Washington’s Federal Trade Commission about Google’s alleged anti-competitive practices. Indeed, in a 2012 report, the FTC’s own staff recommended action on three counts against Google for conduct that had resulted in “real harm to consumers and to innovation”. Google had been presenting content “scraped” from other sites as its own. It had also been privileging its own commercial sites in search results — a clear conflict of interest. However, the FTC’s commissioners rejected their staff’s conclusions. It might have been different had the probe been carried out by the Department of Justice, as was the case with Microsoft, which was penalised on both sides of the Atlantic more than a decade ago.Yelp、微软(Microsoft)、Expedia等企业向欧盟委员会和美国联邦贸易委员会(Federal Trade Commission,简称FTC)都提出过投诉,指称谷歌涉嫌反竞争行为。事实上,在2012年的一份报告中,FTC内部工作人员建议对谷歌的三项罪名采取行动,因为其行为已经“对消费者和创新造成真正伤害”。谷歌此前一直将从其他网站“搜刮”的内容作为自己的内容呈现。它还在搜索结果中优先呈现自己的商业网站,这明显存在利益冲突。然而,FTC委员否定了工作人员的结论。如果调查是由美国司法部(Department of Justice)进行的,情况可能会不同,十多年前微软就接受了美国司法部的调查,并在大西洋两岸都受到了处罚。Not even Goldman Sachs can match Google’s lobbying clout nowadays. When the report was leaked to the Wall Street Journal in March, Google cajoled the FTC into distancing itself from its own conclusions.就连高盛(Goldman Sachs)也比不上谷歌现今的游说影响力。当FTC对谷歌的调查报告在3月份被泄露给《华尔街日报》(Wall Street Journal),谷歌劝诱FTC放弃了自己的结论。The idea that US regulators had in fact agreed with their EU counterparts was too dangerous. Johanna Shelton, Google’s chief lobbyist, has visited the White House more than 100 times . Eric Schmidt, Google’s chairman, is closer to President Barack Obama than any other business leader. Google even has its own “data diplomacy” outfit, Google Ideas, which is headed by a former state department official. It combines data initiatives against autocracies with business acumen to open up new markets. What is good for Google is good for America — and the world.认为美国监管部门实际上已经与欧盟监管部门达成一致的想法太过危险。谷歌首席游说官约翰娜#8226;谢尔顿(Johanna Shelton)已经前往白宫逾100次。谷歌董事长埃里克#8226;施密特(Eric Schmidt)与美国总统巴拉克#8226;奥巴马(Barack Obama)的关系,比任何其他商业领袖都要紧密。谷歌甚至拥有自己的“数据外交”部门——由美国国务院前官员领导的Google Ideas。它把针对专制主义的数据计划与商业敏锐性结合起来,打开新的市场。对谷歌有益的东西,对美国乃至整个世界都是有益的。But there are hidden costs. Ponder how Google and Facebook, are interacting with you. In exchange for free social networking, emails, s, search, satellite maps and now telephone calls, they are building your profile in ever more granular detail.但是,这其中还有隐性成本。仔细考虑下谷歌和Facebook是如何与你互动的。它们以免费的社交网络、电邮、视频、搜索、卫星地图、以及眼下的免费电话作为交换,正在以更加细致入微的细节来建立你的个人信息。Without really digesting it, we have made a Faustian bargain. They give us free computing power — beyond our wildest imagination — and we reveal ever more about ourselves. The more Google knows about you, the better it teases out preferences you never realised you had.未经真正地细细品味,我们已经做了一笔浮士德式的交易。它们给了我们免费的计算能力——超出了我们最疯狂的想象——而我们则更多地暴露自己。谷歌越了解你,它就能越好地梳理出甚至连你自己都从未意识到的偏好。It is an asymmetric exchange. Big Data has our profiles but few of us know how extensive that is. It is the information equivalent of Walmart. The big box retailer drove countless Mom and Pop stores to the wall by acquiring ever more pricing leverage. The job losses went deep, and some of the victims were customers. The model is self-cannibalising.这是一笔不对等的交换。大数据拥有我们的信息,而我们几乎没人知道其信息量有多广。它是信息界的沃尔玛(Walmart)。这家巨型零售商通过获取越来越大的定价能力,迫使不计其数的夫妻店陷入困境。失业情况加深,一些受害者也是沃尔玛的顾客。这是自我蚕食型的模式。Apply the Walmart example to the data industry. We now receive most of our content for free (like Asterix against the Romans, the FT, among others, is holding out). Producers of content are suffering.把沃尔玛的例子应用在数据行业。我们如今获取的绝大多数内容都是免费的(而英国《金融时报》就像对抗罗马人的高卢传奇英雄阿斯泰里斯(Asterix)一样,一直坚持绝不妥协)。而内容的生产者则承受着痛苦。By the end of this decade, most of the world’s books will have been uploaded to Google’s online library. The company’s sway over our culture and knowledge will be unprecedented. Should we charge Big Data for our personal data? Jeff Hammerbacher, former head of data at Facebook, said: “The best minds of my generation are thinking about how to make people click ads.” In a parallel universe, they might be figuring out something more noteworthy. But what they do brings us untold benefits. Evil does not come into it.在本世纪的第二个10年结束时,世界上的大多数书籍都将已上传至谷歌的在线图书馆中。该公司对我们的文化与知识的控制将会达到前所未有的水平。我们应该为个人数据向大数据收费吗?Facebook前数据主管杰夫#8226;哈默巴赫尔(Jeff Hammerbacher)称:“我这代人中头脑最为出色的人都在考虑如何让人们点击广告。”在另一个平行宇宙中,他们也许正在考虑更有意义的事。但是,他们所做的事带给了我们数不清的好处。这里面并不涉及邪恶。We should nevertheless embrace the bargain with open eyes. We are not Big Data’s customers but its product. As long as we grasp that we users are also being used, let the harvest continue.话虽如此,我们还是应该睁大眼睛来接受这笔交易。我们并非大数据的客户,而是其产品。只要我们清楚我们用户也在被利用着,就让大数据对我们的“收割”继续下去吧。 /201506/378300

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