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2019年11月12日 04:17:49 | 作者:好大全 | 来源:新华社
Eleven years ago, a shiny silver Boeing 727 airliner took off from Luanda, Angola, and became one of the few commercial jetliners to vanish and never be found.11年前,一架亮银色波音(Boeing) 727客机从安哥拉首都罗安达起飞后失踪,之后始终没有被找到,这使其成为了史上为数不多的几架失踪商用喷气式飞机之一。Massive jet airplanes disappear more often in fiction than in real life, but it does happen. In 1979, a Boeing 707 with six people aboard was lost in the Pacific Ocean after leaving Tokyo. And dozens of smaller planes have gone missing and never been located.现实中,大型喷气式客机的失踪事件并非小说里那样多见,但也确有发生。1979年一架载有6人的波音707飞机从东京起飞后消失在太平洋上空。还有数十架小型飞机在失踪后杳无踪迹。The so-far fruitless search for Malaysia Airlines Flight 370, which disappeared early Saturday with 239 people aboard, is unprecedented because of the plane#39;s size and because the widebody Boeing 777 had been in radio and satellite contact with multiple locations on the ground. It was also flying when it lost contact over the sea in one of the world#39;s most densely populated regions, Southeast Asia, not over remote jungle or open ocean.上周六早上,搭载有239人的马来西亚航空公司(Malaysia Airlines) MH370客机在起飞后失踪。而令人没有料到的是其搜寻工作迄今仍毫无进展。之所以这么说,是因为出事的波音777宽体客机体积庞大,在失踪之前与地面多个空管站保持着无线电和卫星联络;且失联时,客机正处于人口密集的东南亚的海域上空,而非某片偏远的热带雨林或大海上。Planes have fallen, never to be seen again, from the earliest days of aviation. Others have been found only after lengthy searches or by chance decades later. Radar, satellites and other technology have become powerful aids in such situations.在航空产业的发展初期就有过飞机失事后再未找到的案例。一些失事飞机在数十年后或因偶然、或经漫长的搜寻最终被找到,雷达、卫星等技术在其中起到了极大的帮助。But as Flight 370#39;s disappearance shows, technology still has limited reach in some swaths of the planet.然而此次马航客机失踪事件凸显出这些技术在世界一些地区仍不完备。#39;The fact is that, in many parts of the world . . . radar coverage is not complete,#39; said David McMillan, Chairman of the Flight Safety Foundation and former head of Eurocontrol, Europe#39;s air-traffic coordinator. #39;It#39;s clearly an area for further improvement.#39;欧洲航空安全组织(Eurocontrol)前主管、飞行安全基金会(Flight Safety Foundation)主席麦克米伦(David McMillan)说,实际上全球许多地区……的雷达覆盖都不完整,而该地区显然有待改善。In the same region in 2007, it took crews 10 days to find the first pieces of an Indonesian Boeing 737 that crashed in the sea near Sulawesi. Searchers needed 36 hours to locate the first wreckage of Air France Flight 447, which crashed over the Atlantic five years ago with 228 people aboard.2007年在这片地区,搜寻人员用了10天的时间才在苏拉威西(Sulawesi)附近海域找到了印尼波音737失事客机的首批残骸。五年前,载有228人的法国航空公司(Air France) 447航班在大西洋坠毁,搜寻队伍用了36个小时才首次找到客机残骸的位置。#39;If a plane goes down in the ocean, it#39;s very difficult to find it,#39; said Richard B. Stone, a former president of the International Society of Air Safety Investigators.国际航空安全调查员协会(International Society of Air Safety Investigators)前主席斯通(Richard B. Stone)说,如果飞机坠入海洋,则其搜寻工作将十分困难。The Aviation Safety Network, a database tracking accidents, lists 80 planes as #39;missing#39; since 1948. No trace of the planes or their occupants was ever found, according to ASN President Harro Ranter. The aircraft range from tiny one-seat propeller planes to jetliners and a U.S. Coast Guard Lockheed C-130 Hercules -- a four-engine turboprop transport -- that crashed off the California coast in 2009.追踪航空事故的数据库公司航空安全网络(Aviation Safety Network, ASN)列出了1948年以来的80架“失踪”飞机。据公司总裁Harro Ranter称,这些飞机的踪迹及机上人员都未曾被找到过。这其中既包括只有一个座位的螺旋桨飞机,也有2009年在加利福尼亚海岸附近坠毁的美国海岸警卫队(U.S. Coast Guard) C-130运输机。The 727 that vanished over Angola is believed to have had only two people aboard. At dusk on May 25, 2003, an American mechanic for Aerospace Sales amp; Leasing Co., the Florida-based lessor that owned the 18-year-old plane, boarded the jetliner in Luanda, according to press reports at the time. He was accompanied by a Congolese assistant. Neither was certified to pilot the plane, which normally required a crew of three.据信在安哥拉上空失踪的727飞机只载有两人。当时媒体报道称,2003年5月25日傍晚,佛罗里达租赁公司Aerospace Sales amp; Leasing Co.的一位美国机械师在罗安达登上了这架喷气式客机。该公司是这架机龄18年的飞机的所有者。伴他一起登机的还有一位刚果助理。这两人均无驾驶该飞机的资格,而该飞机执行飞行任务时一般要求须有三名机组人员。Without authorization or communication, the plane began taxiing, according to press reports. Its lights and transponder remained off as it took off and started to fly over the Atlantic.媒体报道称,在无授权也无通讯联络的情况下,这架飞机开始滑翔。在该飞机起飞并开始飞越大西洋时,其航行灯和雷达收发机仍处于关闭状态。The unauthorized departure, less than two years after the Sept. 11, 2001, attacks, sparked an international search. U.S. diplomats and African authorities visited airfields across the continent, seeking hints the plane had landed. U.S. national-security authorities including the Federal Bureau of Investigation and the Central Intelligence Agency scoured satellite images. The plane was never seen again.这次未授权的飞机离港事件距2001年9月11日的袭击还不到两年时间,国际社会对该飞机展开了搜索。美国外交人员和非洲国家政府部门查看了这块大陆上的机场,希望能找到727飞机落地的迹象。包括联邦调查局(Federal Bureau of Investigation,简称FBI)和中央情报局(Central Intelligence Agency,简称CIA)在内的美国国家安全部门还查找了卫星图像。但没有人再看见过这架飞机。#39;I have no idea#39; about what happened to the 727, it is #39;one of those things we#39;ve never understood,#39; said Maury Joseph, president of Aerospace Sales amp; Leasing. #39;It#39;s unheard of for something that large, and nothing to this day has ever shown up.#39;Aerospace Sales amp; Leasing总裁约瑟夫(Maury Joseph)说,他对这架727发生了什么一无所知,这是他们一直没搞明白的事件之一。他说,这么大的一个物体凭空消失,至今再未露面,这真是前所未闻。The FBI and CIA didn#39;t immediately respond to requests for comment.FBI和CIA未立即回应置评请求。Malaysia Airlines Flight 370 is one of the first jet planes since then to disappear for this long.此事发生后,马航370航班是失踪了如此长时间的首批喷气式客机之一。#39;The fact that it#39;s so rare is the reason everyone is paying attention to it,#39; said Bob van der Linden, chairman of the aeronautics department at the Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum.史密森尼国家航空航天物馆(Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum)航空部门主席范德林登(Bob van der Linden)说,这样的事太罕见了,所以大家都十分关注。Disappearances used to be more common. Amelia Earhart was notable as one of the first female aviators to set distance records in the 1930s. But she remains in the public conscience today more because she disappeared in her Lockheed Electra near New Guinea while attempting to circumnavigate the globe.失踪事件以前更为常见。埃尔哈特(Amelia Earhart)是在上世纪30年代创造飞行距离纪录的首批女飞行员之一,并且因此扬名。但她现在还为人们所记起的一个更大的原因是,她驾驶着洛克希德-伊莱克特拉(Lockheed Electra)飞机进行环球飞行时,在新几内亚附近失踪。Today, radar can generally track aircraft large and small. But even in an age of global satellite navigation and the perception of world-wide surveillance, significant areas of Earth are untouched by radar or regular observation.时至今日,无论飞行器大小,雷达通常都可对其进行追踪。但即使到了全球卫星导航和人们以为的监控遍布世界各地的时代,地球上仍有大片区域是雷达或常规观测无法监测到的。Empty spots are shrinking. In the 1970s, the #39;Bermuda Triangle#39; loomed in the American imagination after several military planes disappeared in the Atlantic Ocean region between Florida, Puerto Rico and Bermuda, and other planes and ships were said to have vanished there. Supernatural explanations were eventually debunked.不过其实,人类未触及的空白区域正在不断缩小。上世纪70年代,几架军用飞机在佛罗里达、波多黎各和百慕大之间位于大西洋的那个地区失踪后,“百慕大三角区”便引起了美国人的丰富联想。据说其它飞机和船只也曾消失于这个三角区。种种超自然的解释最终被揭穿。#39;The accident rate in the Bermuda Triangle is no better or worse than anywhere else, but it sounds really intriguing,#39; said the Smithsonian#39;s Mr. van der Linden.范德林登表示,百慕大三角区的事故率和其他地方基本相当,只不过相关事件听上去很神秘罢了。Rational explanations haven#39;t limited people#39;s imaginations. The hugely successful TV series #39;Lost#39; focused on passengers of a jetliner that crashed on a mysterious island not found on maps.合理的解释并未遏制人们的想像力。大获成功的美国电视连续剧《迷失》(Lost)就讲述了一架飞机在一个地图上没有的神秘小岛坠毁后,机上乘客的相关故事。Disappearances are often simply accidents in remote locations, based on an analysis of planes that eventually showed up. Air France Flight 447 vanished for more than a day before searchers found floating pieces of the Airbus A330.从对一些类似事件的分析来看,飞机消失往往是在偏远地区失事。法航447航班在消失了一天多以后,搜救人员才发现了这架空客A330客机的漂浮碎片。Millionaire adventurer Steve Fossett disappeared in September 2007 while flying a single-engine propeller plane near Yosemite National Park in California. It took more than a year to find the wreckage.2007年9月冒险家史蒂夫#8226;福赛特(Steve Fossett)在加利福尼亚州约塞米蒂国家公园(Yosemite National Park)附近驾驶一架单引擎螺旋桨飞机失踪,一年多以后人们才找到了飞机残骸。Other accidents are often too difficult to investigate, or the small number of people killed is deemed too low to merit a costly search. #39;It is very expensive to do,#39; said Mr. Stone, the accident investigator.其他一些事故往往难以调查,或者说由于遇难人数较少,兴师动众地去搜索被认为有点不值得。斯通表示,那样做成本太高。The Boeing 707 that crashed off Japan in 1979 had six people aboard. A Boeing 727 that sent distress messages and vanished after taking off from Reykjavik, Iceland, in 1990 had 18 people aboard. Neither was ever found.1979年一架载有6人的波音707飞机在从日本起飞后失踪。1990年一架从冰岛雷克雅维克起飞的波音727飞机发出遇险信息并消失,机上载有18人。这两架飞机均未找到。On rare occasions, disappearances are solved by passengers. On Oct. 13, 1972, a Fairchild FH-227D with 45 people aboard, including a Uruguayan rugby team, crashed in the Andes while flying from Argentina to Chile -- an incident later dramatized in the 1993 film #39;Alive.#39; Twelve passengers died immediately or were missing and the others waited in the freezing heights for rescue, some eventually resorting to cannibalism to survive.也有极少数情况下乘客自救生还。1972年10月13日,一架载有45人(包括一乌拉圭橄榄球队)的Fairchild FH-227D飞机在从阿根廷飞往智利的途中在安第斯山脉失事,此事后来被改编为1993年的电影《天劫余生》(Alive)。当时当场死亡和失踪的乘客有12名,剩下的乘客则在冰峰上等待救援,一些人不得不通过食人肉求生。When no help arrived, three of the 16 survivors in December set off for help. After one turned back to ration food, the remaining two men walked for seven days before they spotted a sign of civilization: an empty soup can and a horseshoe. Two more days passed before they found men on horseback who sent for help. Helicopters were dispatched to retrieve the remaining survivors.由于没有等来外界救援,同年12月16名幸存者中有3名开始动身寻找救援。当其中一人返回找食物时,另外两人继续行走了七日,最终发现了人迹:一个空的汤罐和一个马蹄铁。又过了两天,他们发现了骑马的人,这些骑马的人为他们找到了帮助。于是直升飞机开过来救走了这些劫后余生的人。Modern technology increases the chance the Malaysia Airlines flight will be found, the Air France crash suggests. While floating wreckage of that Airbus plane was found in less than two days, weeks of deep-sea searches turned up no sign of the fuselage or pings from beacons on its recorders.从法航那次事件来看,现代化的技术会使马航航班被找到的几率提高。虽然搜救人员在不到两天的时间内就找到了法航空客飞机的漂浮残骸,但在之后数周的深海搜索中都没有见到飞机机身,也没有收到记录仪所发出的信号。Two subsequent searches were conducted using progressively more-sophisticated remote undersea vehicles, advanced sonar equipment and computer modeling of tidal patterns. Within days of launching the third search, almost two years after the crash, the wreckage was discovered.之后的两次搜索动用了越来越复杂的水下遥控工具、先进的声纳设备以及计算机模拟洋流。在第三次搜索启动几天,也就是失事约两年后,法航的失事飞机残骸终于被找到。#39;There#39;s going to be a trace somewhere, it will be found,#39; the Smithsonian#39;s Mr. van der Linden said of the Malaysian plane. #39;It may be a surprise about where it#39;s found, but we don#39;t know what happened on the airplane.#39;范德林登在谈到马航失联客机时表示,一些地方势必会留有踪迹,会找到的;最后发现它的地点或许会出人意料,但我们不知道飞机上究竟发生了什么。 /201403/279771Imaginative play helps develop empathy for others. They become more willing to play fair, to share, and to cooperate.过家家的游戏可以增加孩子对他人的认同感。孩子会更乐于公平竞争、分享以及合作。 Build self-confidence树立自信 Young children have very little control over their lives. Imagining oneself as a builder of skyscrapers or a superhero defending the planet is empowering to a child. It helps them develop confidence in their abilities and their potential.小孩子很难配自己的生活。让孩子假装是天大楼的建造者或者保护星球的超级英雄,他们就会自我感觉很强大。这还会激发他们的自信心以及更方面的潜能。 /201403/278001

In an era when most people eat at the kitchen island or in front of the TV, the dining room has become perhaps the least-used room of the house. Now, some luxury home owners are eliminating their dining rooms altogether, instead using the space for libraries, dens and #39;living pavilions#39; -- in which dinner may sometimes be served.如今,大部分人都是在厨房中岛旁或是电视机前就餐的,餐厅可能已经变成了家庭中最少被使用到的区域。现在,一些豪宅业主干脆彻底将餐厅的空间设计成了藏书室、小书房和偶尔作为就餐区的“生活馆”。After a two-year, .25 million renovation, Tad Dekko#39;s 146-acre Pony Up ranch outside Vail, Colo., has an equestrian center, a wellness facility with an indoor pool, and a glass-walled garage that doubles as a movie theater. In fact, the only thing the 8,600-square-foot house doesn#39;t have is a dining room.经过耗时两年、耗资625万美元的改造,塔德#12539;德科(Tad Dekko)位于科罗拉多州韦尔(Vail)郊外、占地146英亩(约合59公顷)的牧场“Pony Up”有了一个马术中心、一座带室内游泳池的康体设施和一个玻璃墙车库──它也可以作为影院使用。事实上,这幢8,600平方英尺(约合800平方米)的住宅中唯一缺少的就是餐厅。Instead, Mr. Dekko, an entrepreneur and philanthropist based in Tierra Verde, Fla., created what he and his interior designer Andrea Schumacher call the #39;dining study,#39; lined with 2,500 books. #39;It was never intended at the beginning as a dining room,#39; said Mr. Dekko, who is 59. #39;I said, #39;First of all, I want one room that can house all my books -- I had not had that in my life.#39; #39;59岁的德科是一位企业家兼慈善家,主要居住在佛罗里达州的铁拉贝尔德(Tierra Verde)。他和他的室内设计师安德烈亚#12539;舒马赫(Andrea Schumacher)设计了摆放有2,500本书的“餐厅书房”。德科表示:“我们一开始就没打算把它当成餐厅。我说,‘首先,我想要一个能装下我的所有书的房间──我还从来没有过这种房间。’”When the Dekkos throw a dinner party, the casters on the study#39;s three custom-built walnut desks can be interlocked to create one long dining table. The glass wall is designed to retract into the ceiling, so they can roll the table out onto the stone deck and dine al fresco by a man-made stream. #39;It allows us to seat probably 20 to 25 people,#39; said Mr. Dekko -- not that he does very often. #39;It took me a while just to meet 25 people,#39; he said.当德科夫妇举行晚宴派对时,书房里三张定制胡桃木书桌的脚轮可以相互扣起,组成一张长餐桌。这个房间的玻璃墙可以缩到天花板上,因此德科夫妇可以将餐桌推到石头露台上,在一条人造小溪旁野餐。德科说:“这样,餐厅里大概能坐下20-25人。”不过,这样的派对并不常常举行。他说:“与25位客人见面就够我忙活一阵的了。”Anne Dubbs and her husband, Richard, a banker, bought a prewar apartment in the landmark Eldorado building on New York#39;s Central Park West five years ago. The dining room -- a dark, boxy space facing a concrete wall -- seemed like a dead zone. #39;It didn#39;t make sense for us,#39; said Ms. Dubbs, who owns a fabric and wallpaper company.五年前,一家纺织品和壁纸公司的老板安妮#12539;杜布斯(Anne Dubbs)和她的丈夫、家理查德(Richard)买下了纽约中央公园西(Central Park West)一栋埃尔多拉杜(Eldorado)式地标建筑中的一套战前时期的公寓。餐厅──一个四四方方、面对一堵混凝土墙的昏暗空间──看起来死水一潭。杜布斯说:“在我们看来,这真是糟糕透了。”During a 15-month renovation -- Ms. Dubbs declined to reveal the cost -- her designer Alexander Doherty and contractor Chip Brian added crown moldings and baseboards to the room, and lined two walls with built-in bookcases wired with library lamps. It is now a combination library, television, and #39;check-writing room,#39; said Ms. Dubbs. There#39;s also a dog bed for the family Labrador: #39;She likes to be in the same room with us as we watch TV.#39;经过15个月的装修(杜布斯未透露装修的成本),她的设计师亚历山大#12539;多尔蒂(Alexander Doherty)与承包商奇普#12539;布赖恩(Chip Brian)在餐厅中加入了顶饰和踢脚板,并沿着两面墙摆上了带书架灯的内置式书架。杜布斯说,现在,它是一个兼具藏书室、电视室和“票签发室”功能的房间。这里还有他们的拉布拉多犬的一张小床。杜布斯说:“当我们看电视的时候,她喜欢和我们待在一个房间里面。”The Dubbs eat most of their meals at a banquette area in the kitchen. Their formal drop-leaf dining table is parked against a wall in the living room, its five leaves stowed behind a sofa. When they entertain, they set the table up in the apartment#39;s wide limestone foyer.杜布斯夫妇多数时候都在厨房条凳上就餐。他们正式的活板餐桌靠在客厅的一面墙上,五个活板收在沙发后面。当他们招待客人时,会把桌子起来,摆在公寓宽敞的石灰岩门厅中。For Ann Liston, a partner in a Democratic political media firm in Chicago, getting rid of the dining room of her four-bedroom Bucktown house was a savvy political decision. When Ms. Liston threw a fundraiser and invited 120 people, local designer Angela Stone helped her transform her dining alcove into a lounge, both expanding the available entertaining space and carving out a private nook within it. They pushed Ms. Liston#39;s dining table out into the front room, and grouped four custom-made slouchy chairs -- upholstered in cowhide for an #39;urban cowgirl look.#39; Ms. Liston#39;s new salon -- part of a ,000 decorating project -- was a hit.对芝加哥一家民主党政治媒体公司的合伙人安#12539;利斯顿(Ann Liston)来说,将餐厅从她位于巴克敦(Bucktown)的四卧别墅中去掉是一个明智的政治决定。当利斯顿发起了一项筹款活动并邀请120人来家中做客时,当地设计师安杰拉#12539;斯通(Angela Stone)帮她将餐厅区改造成了一间休息室,扩充了待客空间,而且在其中打造出了一个私人角落。在这项耗资50,000美元的装修中,利斯顿的餐桌被推到了前屋,在腾出来的私密空间中摆上了四把定制休闲椅──它们带有牛皮软垫,看上去颇具“城市女牛仔风”。这个沙龙大受她的客人欢迎。#39;At the same time the house is full of lots of people, there#39;s an intimate gathering place where conversations can occur and secrets can be shared and people can corner off -- that was my intention,#39; said Ms. Liston, 47, who recently married Chicago Sun-Times journalist Dave McKinney.47岁的利斯顿说:“当这栋别墅塞满人的同时,这里也是一个亲密的聚会场所,人们可以在这里谈天、分享秘密、结交朋友──这就是我的目的。”她最近刚刚与《芝加哥太阳时报》(Chicago Sun-Times)的记者戴夫#12539;麦金尼(Dave McKinney)结婚。When Judy Opatrny and her husband Donald, former partner at Goldman Sachs, began designing a home in Jackson, Wyo., on 35 acres near Grand Teton National Park, they gave their architect Eric Logan some mandates. The couple, both in their 60s, wanted a central living area designed around their collection of contemporary art. The space had to work for big parties, yet exude a sense of simplicity and warmth. And they didn#39;t want a dining room.朱迪#12539;奥帕特尔尼(Judy Opatrny)和她的丈夫、前高盛(Goldman Sachs)合伙人唐纳德(Donald)的家坐落于怀俄明州杰克逊(Jackson)一片35英亩(约合14公顷)的土地上,毗邻大提顿国家公园(Grand Teton National Park)。当他们开始设计这幢房子时,他们向建筑师埃里克#12539;洛根(Eric Logan)提出了一些想法。这对年过花甲的夫妇希望拥有一个围绕着他们收藏的现代艺术品打造而成的中心生活区。这个区域的面积必须满足举行大型派对的需要,但是同时需要具备简约风格和温暖的感觉,而且他们表示并不需要独立的餐厅。#39;In Europe and also back East, we did have formal dining areas,#39; said Ms. Opatrny, whose family has lived in London and Greenwich, Conn. #39;In this house, we wanted to have more of an open flow.#39;奥帕特尔尼表示:“在欧洲和美国东海岸生活的时候,我们曾经有过正式的餐厅。在这幢房子里,我们希望拥一个更加轻松自在的空间。”她的家族曾在伦敦和康涅狄格州的格林威治(Greenwich)生活过。Hewed from cedar, zinc and Montana sandstone, the contemporary house on a butte was completed almost two years ago; its market value was appraised at more than million in 2013, according to Teton County records. The central living and dining space -- what Mr. Logan calls #39;the living pavilion#39; -- is a 1,200-square-foot room with a 15-foot fireplace and walls of windows looking out at the Tetons and distant Yellowstone. A twisting Murano-glass light sculpture by Venini stretches down from the ceiling, and geometric abstractions by painter Sean Scully hang on opposite walls. The dining area, defined by a pair of glowing copper chandeliers over the table, is set next to a grand piano.这幢大约两年前完工的现代风格宅邸坐落在一个小山丘上,建筑场地是从雪松、锌岩和蒙大拿砂岩中开辟出来的;提顿县的官方记录显示,这幢宅邸在2013年时的市场估价超过了1,000万美元。中央生活与就餐区──洛根称之为“生活馆“──是一个面积为1,200平方英尺(约合111平方米)的房间,带有15英尺(约合4.57米)高的壁炉和可以眺望大提顿公园和远处的黄石公园(Yellowstone)的落地窗。天花板上挂着意大利Venini品牌的、设计复杂的穆拉诺玻璃灯,对面的墙上挂着一幅由画家肖恩#12539;斯克里(Sean Scully)创作的几何抽象画。就餐区位于一架大钢琴旁边,餐桌上方挂着一对闪闪发光的铜吊灯。#39;In the summer, it#39;s so open and airy and you#39;re part of the view. In the winter . . . the focus really revolves around the hearth.#39; The room has proved equally irresistible to local moose, she said, particularly the mothers and the calves: #39;They like to take naps in that corner window next to the piano.#39;奥帕特尔尼说:“夏日时分,这里十分开阔、凉风习习,你就是风景的一部分。冬日里……大家都会围坐在壁炉旁。”她说,连当地的麋鹿都无法抗拒这个房间,尤其是母麋鹿和小麋鹿:“麋鹿们喜欢在钢琴旁的窗子下打盹。”The prospect of outdoor living amid rolling hills and grape arbors drew Noreen McGuire to a two-bedroom home in the Napa Valley town of St. Helena, Calif. #39;I#39;m completely surrounded by vineyards,#39; said Ms. McGuire, who paid approximately million for her cottage in 2010.置身于连绵的群山以及葡萄园中的户外生活深深地吸引了诺琳#12539;麦圭尔(Noreen McGuire),因此她买下了位于加利福利亚州 海伦娜(St. Helena)纳帕溪谷(Napa Valley)的一幢双卧小别墅。麦圭尔表示:“我完全被葡萄园包围了。”她于2010年花费了约400万美元购买这幢别墅。When she#39;s in Napa -- her main residence is in Chicago -- Ms. McGuire does almost all her eating and entertaining outside. So she turned her dining room into a relaxed reception area and sitting room that bridges the indoor and outdoor spaces.麦圭尔主要居住在芝加哥,当她来到纳帕溪谷时,她几乎总是在室外用餐并在室外招待宾客。因此,她把别墅的餐厅改造成了连接室内室外区域的一处休闲接待区兼客厅。The exterior wall was blown out, replaced by a set of wide French doors and windows that open onto a pergola-covered terrace. Comfortable wing chairs are grouped around a marble table heaped with books on architecture and design. The room has become Ms. McGuire#39;s favorite place to sit with morning coffee, or to look out on her olive and lemon trees when it rains. #39;I have a couple of crystals around and there#39;s always flowers,#39; she said. #39;It#39;s how you are welcomed into the home, and that#39;s why I wanted it to be special.#39;别墅的一面外墙被拆除了,取而代之的是一套宽大的法式门窗,门窗正对一个架着藤架的门廊。几把舒适的翼状靠背椅摆放在一张大理石桌周围,桌上堆着建筑和设计类的书籍。这个房间已经成为了麦圭尔最中意的房间,她喜欢清晨坐在这里品咖啡,也喜欢在雨天从这里看窗外种植的橄榄树和柠檬树。她说:“我在这个房间中摆放了几件水晶饰品,而且这个房间从来不缺少鲜花。这是我用来欢迎客人的区域,这也正是我希望这个房间能够特别一些的原因。”However infrequently a formal dining room may be used, many homeowners aren#39;t y to abandon it altogether. Toll Brothers, a leading luxury-home builder, sold 4,184 custom-built houses in 2013 -- all with dining rooms.然而,尽管正式的餐厅被使用的机会越来越少,但许多业主并没准备好彻底取消餐厅。托尔兄弟公司(Toll Brothers)是一家行业领先的豪宅承建商,该公司2013年销售的4,184套定制豪宅中全部都带有餐厅。#39;People are coming with dining room furniture and need a place to use it,#39; said Tim Gehman, director of design.该公司设计总监提姆#12539;格曼(Tim Gehman)说:“人们总是需要一个地方来摆放餐厅家具。”But even formal dining rooms are becoming less stuffy. Designer Kelly Wearstler encourages clients to swap the long lacquered table for a group of smaller #39;modules#39; in durable materials like marble or perforated bronze to create a more casual multiuse room where the kids can work on school projects. #39;Propriety is so yesterday,#39; said home-design guru Jonathan Adler, who only began using the living room of his Manhattan apartment after he put a ping-pong table in it.但是,即便有正式的餐厅,它的设计也正变得越来越简单。设计师凯利#12539;威斯勒(Kelly Wearstler)建议客户舍弃涂漆长餐桌,而采用一组较小的、以大理石或黄铜等耐用材质打造的“模块”,以便打造出一种更加随意的多功能房间,在这里孩子们可以完成他们的课后项目。室内设计专家乔纳森#12539;阿德勒(Jonathan Adler)表示:“一板一眼的设计早就过时了。”他从来没有用过自己位于曼哈顿公寓中的客厅,直到他在那儿摆了张乒乓球台。When it comes time to sell, high-end homes that lack a dining room can pose challenges. #39;If you#39;re looking at the luxury market on [New York#39;s] Upper East Side, 99% of the time, people are looking for a formal dining room,#39; said Eleonora Srugo, an agent with New York City#39;s Skroka DE team. Were she to market an apartment with a converted dining room, #39;I#39;d pull up the original floor plan and identify the dining room as a dining room.#39;那些没有餐厅的高端住宅在出售时会面临销售压力。纽约Skroka DE团队的经纪人奥诺拉#12539;斯拉格(Eleonora Srugo)说:“看看(纽约)上东区的豪宅市场,你就会发现99%的时候,人们还是在寻找有正式餐厅的住宅。”她说在销售餐厅经过了改造的住宅时,“我会把原始的建筑平面图摊开,给客户指出餐厅的具体位置”。But the true beauty of a dining room conversion may be how simple it is to undo. Sotheby#39;s agent Colette Harron cites an 1870 riverfront mansion now on the market in Essex, Conn., for .48 million. The owner transformed a staid dining room with river views into an inviting family room, adding a gas fireplace and built-in bookshelves and columns. #39;It#39;s bright and it#39;s elegant . . . and it#39;s versatile,#39; she said. #39;It could be turned into a dining room again.#39;餐厅改造真正吸引人的地方可能在于它可以轻易地被还原成传统的餐厅。苏富比(Sotheby)经纪人柯莱特#12539;哈伦(Colette Harron)例举了目前在康涅狄格州艾塞克斯市(Essex)销售的一幢1870年建成的水岸别墅,这幢别墅要价348万美元。业主此前把一间可以看到河景的正式餐厅改造成了一间颇具特色的家庭房,并添加了天然气壁炉、嵌入式书架以及廊柱。哈伦说:“房间明亮、简洁……并且功能多样。另外,这个房间还可以再次还原为餐厅。” /201407/316539

Brazil doesn’t celebrate Thanksgiving. But it does celebrate another form of giving; uniquely American in its frenetic, media frenzied salute to the holidays: good ole Black Friday.巴西不庆祝感恩节。但是这个国家确实会用另一种形式来庆祝感恩节;以巴西特色的狂热,媒体的谄媚,来向美好的黑色星期五致敬。Carnival and the soccer field, Brazil has taken to imitating that day when millions of Americans camp out on frozen sidewalks in dilapidated tents in front of Walmart, all in the spirit of giving of their time and precious cash, in the hunt to trample and claw their way to a Panasonic可悲的是,除了狂欢节和绿荫场外,巴西自创的庆祝形式为数不多,反而是开始学起美国人。而这一天的美国,数百万美国人露宿在冰冷的街头,沃尔玛(Walmart)门前密布着破旧的帐篷,所有人都是本着付出时间和宝贵金钱的精神,就为了等大门一开争先恐后地购买一台松下平板电视机或者XBox One游戏机。But in the U.S., if Black Friday is a score card for Christmas retail sales, in Brazil it is more of a means for retailers to fraud eager shoppers, happy to participate in an American tradition that is still as foreign to them as the moon. If Brazilians were doing Black Friday right, they’d have people camping out in front of Patio Higienopolis Thursday night, or at least barging through the doors at 00:01 on Friday at the nearest FNAC.在美国,如果说黑色星期五是一张圣诞节假期的零售业绩记分卡,那么在巴西,它却更像是零售商欺骗热切的、愿意接受美国传统节日的购物者的一种手段,因为这个节日对他们而言还相当陌生。如果巴西人懂得怎么过黑色星期五的话,那就应该在周四晚上到Patio Higienopolis卖场门口扎营,或至少在周五凌晨第一时间闯入最近的FNAC门店。And as Black Friday approaches the second most populous nation in the Americas, city and state governments are taking to warning their shop-a-holic citizens, full of holiday cheer, that there are many Brazilian Grinches looking to take advantage of their gift giving selves by selling them up a river without a paddle.鉴于黑色星期五逐渐被巴西这个美洲第二人口大国所接受,市、州政府开始向他们的市民——那些充满假期欢乐的购物狂发出警告——有许多“巴西怪杰”打算利用他们奖励自己点礼物的想法打捞一笔。The consumer protection bureau of S#227;o Paulo, Brazil’s largest city, released a list Tuesday morning of 325 companies Brazilians should avoid this holiday season, primarily for e-commerce. The bureau, known as Procon, or Pro-Consumer, also published a list of tips today on what to look out for when shopping online. So while Black Friday in the U.S. is a day of deals, in Brazil it’s come to be known more as a day of fraud. As a result of last year’s fraudulent fiasco among on line and traditional retailers, the local government is using Black Friday as a way to remind consumers of their rights.在巴西最大的城市——圣保罗的消费者保护局周二早晨公布了一份巴西人应该在这个假期回避的325家公司名单,主要是针对电子商务。被称为消费者保护组织(Procon)或者维护消费者权益(Pro-Consumer)的保护局还在当天发布了有关在网络购物注意事项的指南清单。因此,虽然美国的黑色星期五是场购物盛宴,但到了巴西却变成诈骗盛宴。考虑到在去年发生的网络和传统零售商的诈骗丑闻,巴西地方政府把黑色星期五当成了提醒消费者维权的契机。This is quite different from the U.S., of course, where consumers are more than aware of their rights, and might even tend to abuse them. Brazil is not a litigious society. You get trampled, you grin and bear it. There is a new Brazil emerging. One acutely aware of fair play. A web based company called ReclameAQUI, or Complain Here, set up a site to give consumers in Brazil a voice. This of course is their busiest time of year.这与美国相比,真是一个天一个地。当然,美国的消费者更清楚他们的权利,甚至是变得滥用自己的权利。巴西并非一个好打官司的社会。你的权利被践踏也只能咬咬牙认了。不过,巴西正在改头换面,这是一个更加认同公平交易的巴西。一家名为Complain Here的网络公司创建了一个网站,让巴西的消费者发出自己的呼声,当然,这是他们一年之中最忙碌的时候。Brazil is getting y for its fourth Black Friday, but this year is getting extra attention due to last year’s abundance of consumer complaints.巴西正为其第四个黑色星期五做准备,但是鉴于去年大量的消费者投诉,今年得到了越来越多的关注。Brazilian daily Estado de Sao Paulo has even taken to posting up to the minute story items about Black Friday, serving as a watchdog to the bad boys of Brazilian retail.巴西报纸圣保罗州报(Estado de Sao Paulo)甚至已经开始发布有关黑色星期五的详细的新闻报道,以监督巴西的零售业中的“坏孩子”。Last year, many Brazilians went to stores promising discounts upwards of 70%, only to find out the discounts were much lower, or were tied to other offers. Some stores simply raised prices weeks before Black Friday, only to lower them on the actual date in order to give consumers a sense that prices had dropped precipitously.去年,许多巴西人涌进那些宣传三折大减价的商家,结果却发现折扣根本没那么多,或者是附加了种种条件。一些商店干脆在黑色星期五前几周抬高售价,只是在节日当天降低价格,继而让消费者们感觉到是在大减价。“This year’s Black Friday will be a testing ground for retailers, ” said Rodrigo Bore, vice president of online retailer Buscapé. The company said it spent around 0 million on software and staff to build a system that validates price offerings from the retailers it showcases on its search engine. The prices of items marked down for Black Friday will be compared with the average value of the same goods sold over a three month period to see if there really is a discount in play, Bore told Estado on Tuesday.“今年的黑色星期五对于零售商而言是一块试验田。”电商Buscapé副总裁罗德里戈·尔(Rodrigo Bore)说。这家公司表示,为了建立一个系统,来验其搜索引擎中零售商报价的真实性,它在软件和人员方面投资了大约2亿美元。该系统将对黑色星期五打折商品的价格与前三个月同类商品的平均售价进行比对,以此来判断折扣是否真实。Search engine Busca Desconto, which helps organize Black Friday on line in Brazil, partnered with the Brazilian E-Commerce Chamber to create a code of ethics for participating e-tailers, in an effort to move them into good ole gringo-style customer service.搜索引擎Busca Desconto,不仅组织巴西的黑色星期五在线购物活动,同时还与巴西的电子商务商会(E-Commerce Chamber)合作,为参与电商制定行为准则,以此来规范他们的顾务,向“外国佬”的水平看齐。Chamber director Gerson Rolim said Brazilian retailers are notorious for phony sales. Part of the new code of ethics is to guarantee consumers that Black Friday sales are actual sales, below the average three month price. Another target, said Rolim, is to get e-tailers in particular to clarify exactly what items are on sale and what shoppers have to do in order to secure the discount. Getting a free TV if you buy a Mercedes C is not really a Black Friday sale.该商会负责人格尔森·罗里姆(Gerson Rolim)说巴西的零售商因虚假打折促销而臭名昭著。制定这套新的行为准则,一定程度上是为了向消费者们保,黑色星期五的打折是真实的,低于三个月的平均价格。罗里姆表示,另一个目标是让零售业者,尤其是电商,明确哪些商品在打折促销以及为了享受折扣,消费者们需要满足哪些要求。买奔驰车送电视机,这种活动算不上是黑色星期五的打折促销。If companies violate the code of ethics, they will be banned from participating in Black Friday sales in 2014. By then, Brazilians will be in their fifth year of Black Friday madness. Forget the phony sales. I say, let the trampling begin!如果有公司违反了这套行为准则,那么他们将被禁止参加2014年的黑色星期五减价促销活动。届时,巴西人将迎来黑色星期五疯狂的第五个年头。忘记虚假促销。我是说,让盛宴开始吧! /201312/268166

Editor#39;s note: You are mistaken if you think that Westerners do not believe in superstitions. The superstitions might be different, but pretty much every country around the world has them.We compiled a list of some of the common superstitions followed in the West to help you get a better insight into their cultures and customs.要是你认为西方人不迷信,那你就大错特错了。不同国家迷信内容或许不同,但几乎所有国家都存在迷信。我们整理了一份西方共有迷信清单,以方便大家深入了解西方文化与风俗。 /201407/309846

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