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NOT LONG AFTER EMILIO PUCCI launched his line of kaleidoscopic patterns and slinky, body-conscious jersey knits in 1947, he chose his home as his base of operations: the Palazzo Pucci, a Renaissance palace in the center of Florence. Owned by the family since they were political advisers to the Medicis in the 1400s, the palace boasts precious paintings by Botticelli and other Old Masters, as well as an atelier, boutique and company headquarters. For decades, Pucci#39;s archives-which include 18,000 print variations, 15,000 scarves, 1,000 bolts of vintage fabric and 200 custom fabric colors-were stored in a cantina beneath the property. But the designer#39;s fashion legacy was not secure in the ancient subterranean space, and Laudomia, Emilio#39;s daughter who took over when he died in 1992, knew it.1947年,埃米利奥#12539;璞琪(Emilio Pucci)发布了以万花筒般图案和紧身修身针织衫为特色的同名品牌。不久后,他选择自己的家作为品牌的运营基地:位于佛罗伦萨中心的复兴时期宫殿Palazzo Pucci。这处宅邸从璞琪家族15世纪担任美第奇家族(Medicis)的政治顾问起就为其所有,拥有波提切利(Botticelli)及其他绘画大师的珍贵画作,也是一座画室、精品店以及公司总部的所在地。璞琪的档案包括18,000种印花图案、15,000条围巾、1,000匹复古面料和200种定制面料颜色,这些都存在这座宫殿地下的酒吧里。但这位设计师的时尚遗产在这个古老的地下空间里并不安全,埃米利奥的女儿劳多米亚(Laudomia)心知肚明。她是在1992年父亲去世时接管这里的。Laudomia, now the brand#39;s image director and deputy chairman, remembers the devastating flood of the Arno River in 1966, which killed more than a hundred people and destroyed countless works of Florentine art, architecture and literature. It also wiped out the cantina. #39;The water was two meters deep. My father lost everything. You wake up and suddenly everyone is in their galoshes trying to save pieces,#39; says Laudomia, who continues to live on the Palazzo#39;s top floor with her husband, three children and her mother, Marchesa Cristina Pucci di Barsento, Emilio#39;s widow. Though the company replenished after that disaster, since then, flash flooding has periodically steeped the Pucci archives in swampy water. When it happened again in 2012, she realized her heritage was at risk.劳多米亚现任该品牌的形象总监及副董事长。她记得1966年阿诺河(Arno River)那场毁灭性的洪灾,100多人不幸遇难,无数佛罗伦萨的艺术、建筑和文学作品被毁。这个酒吧也未幸免。劳多米亚说:“水有两米深。我父亲失去了一切。一早醒来,突然所有人都穿着橡胶套鞋在试图抢救东西。”劳多米亚现在仍和丈夫、三个孩子,还有她的母亲──埃米利奥的遗孀Marchesa Cristina Pucci di Barsento──住在Palazzo的最顶层。虽然公司在那场灾难后补充了档案,但从那以后,洪灾会周期性地令璞琪的藏品浸没在泥泞的洪水里。2012年再度遭到侵袭后,劳多米亚意识到自己的遗产处于危险之中。#39;If I wanted to pass on what the company has created, I had to do something about it,#39; says Laudomia. #39;Why let it die? And why by a flood, when I have this whole place in front of me?#39;劳多米亚说:“如果我想把公司创造的东西传下去,就得采取点措施。为什么要让它死掉?既然我面前有一个完整的地方,为什么要让它被洪水吞没?”This whole place is Granaiolo, the family#39;s sprawling 150-acre country estate in Castelfiorentino, 45 minutes southwest of Florence. Starting in the fall of 2012, Laudomia began to transfer most of the company#39;s vast archives to the countryside, and built a laboratory for fashion students to study fabric technology, design and history.这个地方就是Granaiolo,璞琪家族位于Castelfiorentino的占地150英亩(约60公顷)的乡村庄园,在佛罗伦萨西南方向驱车45分钟距离处。2012年秋季开始,劳多米亚开始将公司庞大档案库的大部分藏品转移到乡下,并修建了一座实验室,供时装专业学生学习面料技术、设计和历史。#39;I have more than enough space here, and I want to share it,#39; she says. #39;People used to have so much time to explore and develop things. My father had this time. But young creatives today don#39;t-the business rules have become so cutthroat. So I really hope this can be a place of reflection, study and creativity.#39;她说:“在这里我有足够的空间,我想跟人分享。人们从前有那么多时间探索和开发新东西。我父亲就有这种时间。但如今年轻的创意人没有──商业规则变得太残酷了。所以我真心希望这里能成为一个反省、学习和获得创意的地方。”At Granaiolo, the Pucci family legacy runs back to the 13th century, when their noble forebears built an imposing fortress atop the honey-colored land. Over time came a convent graced with frescoes, stables and farmhouses for the peasants who worked the fields for wheat-#39;Granaiolo#39; means #39;wheat barn#39;-wine grapes and tobacco.在Granaiolo,璞琪家族的产业可追溯至13世纪,当时他们的贵族祖先在这片蜜色的土地上建造了一座壮观的城堡。后来又有了一座壁画装饰的修道院,还有为在地里种小麦──Granaiolo意思是“小麦谷仓”──葡萄和烟草的农民修建的马厩和农舍。The income from Granaiolo powered the family#39;s concerns until the early 20th century, when Emilio#39;s grandfather built the town#39;s train station. The young Pucci, a marchese by birth, enrolled as a fighter pilot in World War II before launching his lucrative fashion career. Granaiolo remained a working gentleman#39;s farm up until the 1980s, when it finally ceased agricultural operations. By then, Pucci had become a global brand, and the family didn#39;t need Granaiolo for support.到20世纪初,Granaiolo的收入一直维系着璞琪家族的实力,当时埃米利奥的祖父修建了镇里的火车站。出生时就是侯爵的年轻的璞琪在二战期间入伍做了飞行员,后来才开始他利润丰厚的时装事业。Granaiolo一直是一座农场,直到上世纪80年代才最终停止了农业经营。那时璞琪已经成为一个全球性品牌,璞琪家族还不需要Granaiolo的持。WHEN EMILIO FELL ILL in 1989, Laudomia stepped into the CEO job at age 29. After Emilio#39;s death, she took over both the business and creative sides. But Laudomia-who had worked only for her father, and in production for Hubert de Givenchy for three years-found it a challenge.1989年,埃米利奥患病,劳多米亚在29岁的年纪担任了首席执行长的职务。埃米利奥去世后,商业和创意两方面都由她接管。但劳多米亚发现这是个挑战。她只为自己的父亲、以及纪梵希(Hubert de Givenchy)的生产部门工作过。#39;This was our weekend hobby,#39; says Laudomia of the renovation project. They tasked regional artisans with laying floors in handmade terra-cotta and pitching roofs of reclaimed wood. The workers restored the fortress#39;s blue-gray facade of local pietra serena stone, original iron grates on the windows and massive wooden stable doors. The main house, its upper guesthouse and pool will remain the family#39;s private retreat, but the property#39;s once crumbling agricultural buildings have been reimagined as a lightly modernized version of themselves. As the restoration progressed, treasures came to light, like a graceful arcade of columns in the old winery, and some 16th-century paintings Laudomia found hidden in the granary.劳多米亚谈到庄园的翻修工程时说:“这是我们周末的爱好。”他们让当地的工匠用手工陶土铺地板,用再生木材盖屋顶。工人们修复了当地城堡塞茵那石(pietra serena stone)垒砌的蓝灰色外 、窗户原有的铁门和巨大的马厩木门。主屋、楼上的客房和泳池仍然会是家族的私人度假地,但那些曾经摇摇欲坠的农用建筑变得更现代了。随着翻修工程的进行,许多宝藏开始呈现出来,比如旧酒庄里优雅的圆柱拱廊,还有劳多米亚发现的藏在谷仓里的16世纪画作。#39;We have a richness and a heritage,#39; she says of Pucci#39;s history. #39;It#39;s my opportunity to make it into something special. More and more with globalism, celebrity and mass fashion, you need this weight and substance, or you turn into any other brand.#39;她谈到璞琪的历史时说:“我们有丰厚的底蕴和悠久的传统。这是我让我们的历史变得特别的机会。随着全球主义、明星效应和大众时尚的普及,我们需要这种厚度,否则就和别的品牌没差别了。”#39;Archives are the soul of our brands, but it#39;s a privilege when you have someone who knows the heritage better than anyone,#39; says LVMH fashion group CEO Pierre-Yves Roussel.路易威登(LVMH) 时装集团首席执行长皮尔-伊芙#12539;罗塞尔(Pierre-Yves Roussel)说:“时装档案是我们品牌的灵魂,但是拥有一个比任何人都了解品牌传统的人是一个优势。”#39;It#39;s a hell of a job,#39; adds Roussel. #39;It becomes a logistical challenge to store and maintain these fragile things. The Givenchy archives are in the basement of Avenue George V, and most other [LVMH brands] are outside Paris in temperature-controlled warehouses. This is very unique.#39;罗塞尔说:“这是个大工程。存放和维护这些脆弱的东西在后勤上是个挑战。纪梵希的档案是在乔治五世大道(Avenue George V)上的地下室,其他大多数品牌〔路易威登品牌〕都在巴黎郊外的温控仓库里。这是很独特的。”Luckily, Granaiolo#39;s immense barn turned out to be a perfectly arid place to store and display all the vintage jersey that was #39;so fine, you could#39;ve folded the dresses down and put them in a cigarette box,#39; says Rome-based fashion historian and curator Enrico Quinto. #39;Emilio Pucci was an absolute trailblazer-he industrialized Italian fashion by introducing a range of y-made sizes, which was an unheard-of idea in Europe. Dior could have repetitions made, but Emilio had 10 sizes and 10 colors of one design. He became the most influential and powerful designer in Italy.#39;幸运的是,Granaiolo的大谷仓成了存放和陈列复古针织衫的完美的地方。罗马时装历史学家及策展人恩里科#12539;昆托(Enrico Quinto)说,那些复古针织衫“太精致了,都可以叠起来放在烟盒里”。埃米利奥#12539;璞琪是一个绝对的开拓者──他通过引进在欧洲闻所未闻的一系列成衣尺码将意大利的时装工业化。迪奥(Dior)本来可以仿制,但埃米利奥每种设计都有10个尺码和10种颜色。他成为了意大利最有影响力和最有实力的设计师。Laudomia selected some of her father#39;s designs to be displayed on vintage mannequins, as well as work by past creative directors Julio Espada, Christian Lacroix and Matthew Williamson, and Pucci#39;s current designer Peter Dundas. Another two rooms, once filled with wine bottles and tractors, are now lined with neoclassical furniture, historic armoires from Pucci#39;s #39;50s Florence boutique and newly built oak closets organized by garment and decade. Some of the armoires contain a rainbow of garments in the company#39;s custom Pantone colors so synonymous with Pucci#39;s vibrant look: Rosso 02 335 or Bordeaux 02 456 and so on. #39;Armani had his beiges. These colors are my father#39;s,#39; says Laudomia. #39;I call it the alphabet of Pucci.#39;劳多米亚选了她父亲的一些设计在复古道具模特上陈列,还有历届创意总监朱利奥#12539;埃斯帕达(Julio Espada)、 克里斯汀#12539;拉克鲁瓦(Christian Lacroix)和马修#12539;威廉姆森(Matthew Williamson) 、以及璞琪现任设计师彼得#12539;邓达斯(Peter Dundas)的作品。另外两个曾经满是酒瓶和拖拉机的房间现在摆放着新古典主义家具,璞琪50年代佛罗伦萨专卖店的大衣橱,还有新做的按装和年代整理的衣橱。有些大衣橱里有按照公司定制的Pantone色制作的五颜六色装,和璞琪活力四射的设计如出一辙:Rosso 02 335、Bordeaux 02 456等等。劳多米亚说:“阿玛尼(Armani)有他的米黄色。这些颜色是我父亲的。我称之为璞琪的字母表。”Outside, the sweeping lawn features a staircase by landscape designer Niccolo Grassi-a nod, in a way, to the dramatic stepped-grass garden that the late Gae Aulenti designed for the fortress in the #39;60s. Laudomia also planted palm trees amongst the existing cypress and olive trees #39;for a touch of kitsch.#39; Stables have metamorphosed into a dining room for 20-the number of bedrooms available in the smattering of converted peasant houses on the hillside.庄园外面,宽阔的草坪上有一个景观设计师尼科洛#12539;格拉斯利(Niccolo Grassi)设计的楼梯──在一定程度上是在向已故的加埃#12539;奥伦蒂(Gae Aulenti)于60年代为城堡所设计的夸张的阶梯式草坪花园致敬。劳多米亚还在现有的柏树和橄榄树中间种了棕榈树,为的是营造“一点世俗感”。马厩变身成为可容纳20人的餐厅──山腰上的几间改造农舍也有20间卧室。Visitors can unwind in a second pool or at the gym, where exercise machines hum within the restored brick walls and wood beams of a former livestock stall. The relics of the old farm are juxtaposed against slick design throughout, including Pucci carpets, modern Christian Liaigre furniture, Cappellini couches covered in Pucci terry cloth and a tapestry based on a Pucci print that Laudomia commissioned from the Italian artist Francesco Vezzoli-part of an ongoing project to have contemporary artists create works inspired by the archive. #39;I want a mix of art, fashion, design,#39; explains Pucci, #39;so I#39;m doing Granaiolo in a very versatile way.#39;游客可在泳池或健身房里放松,健身房以前是禽畜舍,健身器材在修复的砖 和梁木里嗡嗡作响。旧农场的遗迹与整体的流畅设计并存,后者包括璞琪的地毯、现代的Christian Liaigre家具、覆盖有璞琪毛巾布的Cappellini沙发,还有一块按照劳多米亚委托意大利艺术家弗朗西斯科#12539;维佐利(Francesco Vezzoli)设计的璞琪印花图案制作的挂毯──这是一个正在进行的项目的一部分,即邀请当代艺术家创作灵感来自璞琪档案的作品。璞琪解释说:“我想要艺术、时尚和设计融合的东西,所以我把Granaiolo弄得很多样化。”Aly Pucci has hosted several educational events, including two Journ谷es Particuli豕res: LVMH-sponsored open house events. Two groups of students from Polimoda, the Florentine fashion school where Pucci serves on the board, have come to study sewing and print design. Laudomia is hoping to extend the educational activities to international fashion schools for longer visits.璞琪已经举办过多项教育活动,包括两场Journees Particulieres:路易威登赞助的开放参观活动。来自佛罗伦萨时装学校Polimoda的两群学生来到这里学习缝纫和图案设计。劳多米亚希望将教育活动扩展至国际时装学校,并将学习时间延长。璞琪是该校董事会的成员。#39;We should encourage students to relate to archives,#39; says Laudomia, who believes such study will teach young designers to appreciate their fashion forebears. At Granaiolo, she sees a future where the next generation will find a place to rest, recharge and, most importantly, find inspiration for innovative fashion. #39;Heritage means a lot,#39; she says, #39;but only if you pull it out and make it alive. Otherwise it#39;s just another dead museum.#39;劳多米亚说:“我们应该鼓励学生认同和欣赏这些档案。”她认为这样的学习会教会年轻的设计师欣赏他们的时尚前辈。在Granaiolo,她认为在未来,下一代人会找到一个休息、充电的地方,最重要的是找到创造性时装的灵感。她说:“传统的意义很重大,但只有把它拿出来让它重生才可以。否则只会成为又一个死亡物馆。”#39;The level of what I was giving was never enough. People wanted more. Colette wanted my stuff. In 1998, I brought the first collection to Milan to show. I had just lost my brother, and I had just had my son. I was relaunching the company. I managed to hold it together by chance,#39; says Laudomia. #39;And I thought to myself, I don#39;t want to be in that situation. So I started playing by the rules. I hired a brand strategist and some designers, and while I was running around, LVMH banged on the door.#39;劳多米亚说:“我付出的程度远远不够。人们想要更多。柯莱特时尚店(Colette)想要我的东西。1998年,我带着第一个系列时装去米兰走秀。那时我刚失去我的哥哥,而且刚有了儿子。我开始重新启动公司,没想到慢慢坚持了下来。我对自己说,我不想处在那种环境里。所以我开始遵守规则。我聘请了一位品牌策略师和一些设计师。在我东奔西跑的时候,路易威登找到了我。”By 2000, Laudomia had navigated the sale of 67-percent interest in the company to LVMH, which still owns it (sales figures are not public), but she retained ownership of the extensive archive. #39;Archives weren#39;t instrumental to the business in the way they are today,#39; she says. #39;But it was never a question that I would sell it. You don#39;t sell your family#39;s memories.#39; The freedom has allowed Laudomia and her financier husband, Alessandro Castellano, to take on Granaiolo#39;s transformation, which they have personally funded.到2000年,劳多米亚将公司67%的股权转给了路易威登,但她保留了巨大档案库的所有权。目前路易威登依然持有股权(销售数据未公开)。她说:“在过去,档案对时装业的意义没有现在重大。但我绝不会把它们卖掉。家族的记忆是不可能卖掉的。”这种自由让劳多米亚和从事金融业的丈夫亚历山德罗#12539;卡斯特利亚诺(Alessandro Castellano)得以对Granaiolo进行改造。费用由他们个人承担。 /201408/320691The entrepreneur talks to Amy Chozick about airplanes, spaceships, submarines and second chances.企业家同艾米·柯西克(Amy Chozick)畅谈飞机、太空飞船、潜水艇和第二次机会。A poll in Britain found that one in four respondents chose you as their “dream boss.” Is that what inspired you to write this book on management, “The Virgin Way”?问:一项英国的调查表明,1/4的应答者认为你是他们的“理想老板”。这是否启发你写下了这本关于管理的书《维珍之路》(The Virgin Way)?Well, polls are always flattering when they’re nice. I’ve been an entrepreneur for nearly five decades, so I’ve learned quite a bit over those years. I think, by and large, people who work for Virgin are happy. They enjoy working for Virgin. They don’t like leaving Virgin.答:好吧,调查结果如果很好,总是让人高兴的。我当企业家已经有快50年了,所以也学到了不少东西。我觉得总体来说,在维珍工作的人都很快乐。他们喜欢为维珍工作,也不想离开维珍。When I fly, I often get the sense that people are unhappy working in the airline industry.问:坐飞机的时候,我总觉得航空业的人都不快乐。It’s not necessarily the staff’s fault they’re disgruntled. They’re not given the tools to do the job properly. For example, if somebody wants a kosher meal and it’s not on the plane, the crew member has to explain that to the passenger, and the passenger takes it out on the crew member. If that happens day after day, you soon turn a friendly person into someone defensive and unfriendly.答:有情绪不一定是机组人员的错。并没有可以让他们自动完成好工作的工具。比如说,如果有人想要犹太餐,飞机上没有,空人员就得向乘客解释,乘客就会拿这个空人员出气。如果这样的事经常发生,你很快就会从一个友善的人变成一个戒心强、不怎么友好的人。You’ve floated the idea of starting a “Kids’ Cabin.” When can we expect it?问:你想过设立“儿童舱”的主意,什么时候能实现呢?We’re still pushing regulators to allow us to do that. They’re nervous that if there’s an incident, you know, parents are going to be running in one direction and kids in another direction. We’ve been flying for 30 years without an incident. And in any event, we’ve got cabin crew to look after them. Have you got children?答:我们仍在致力于推动监管者,让我们能够实现这个想法。他们对此感到不安,因为如果发生事故,父母们会往一个方向跑,孩子们又往另一个方向跑。但我们飞行了30年都没有事故。如果真有什么事,机组人员会照顾他们的。你有孩子吗?I don’t. I’m one of those travelers who don’t want to sit next to little kids.问:没有。我是那种不希望和孩子坐在一起的乘客。O.K., perfect. We’ll put them in the back of the plane for you.答:太棒了。为了你这样的人,我们会把孩子放在飞机后部的。In the book, you tell a story about an employee at Virgin Records who stole from you. You didn’t fire him, and he went on to discover Boy George. Should managers follow your example?问:在这本书里,你讲了个故事:有个维珍唱片的雇员偷东西,你并没有解雇他,后来他发掘了乔治男孩(Boy George)。管理者们应该学习你的榜样吗?We hire a lot of ex-convicts, and not one of them has reoffended. They’re just human. I messed up with the tax man when I was a teenager, and I was given a second chance then. If I hadn’t had that second chance, there wouldn’t be 60,000 people working for Virgin today. We wouldn’t be going to space in a few months’ time. Second chances should be allowed. But, I mean, not always.答:我们雇过不少犯过罪的人,他们后来没有人再犯。他们只是普通人。我十几岁的时候曾经逃税,后来我得到了第二次机会。如果我没有得到这个机会,就不会有如今拥有6万名雇员的维珍公司,我们就不会在几个月之后登上太空。人们应该得到第二次机会。不过,这也不绝对。You asked Twitter to come up with potential titles for your book. I think my favorite was “I’m Considerably Richer Than You.”问:你在Twitter上向粉丝征集书名。我最喜欢的是《我可比你有钱多了》。Wealth is something that Americans dwell on. But most entrepreneurs don’t. They love to create things they’re proud of. And they hope that more money will come in than go out.答:财富是所有美国人都渴望的东西。但大多数企业家并不是这样。他们热衷于创造能让自己为之自豪的东西。他们只希望赚的钱比花的多。Was selling your record label to save the airline in 1992 a difficult decision?问:1992年你卖出唱片厂牌去拯救航空公司,这是一个艰难的选择吗?People thought we were absolutely mad taking our money out of a really successful industry and putting it into a very perilous industry. But it turned out to be the right decision.答:人们都觉得我们把资金从一个很成功的行业撤出来,投入一个非常危险的行业,这是发疯。但最后明这是一个正确的选择。Is Virgin Galactic’s maiden space voyage really going to happen soon?问:维珍公司的处女太空航行真的就快到来了吗?It has taken longer than we thought, but we have a date in mind.答:它花费的时间已经比我们预想的要长了。但我们心里有数。Do you worry that you’ve turned a trip to space, which costs 0,000, into just another luxury product?问:你推出的太空游开价25万美元,你会不会担心到头来它只会成为一件奢侈品?Not at all. If you go back to the 1920s, when aviation started, it cost the equivalent of about 0,000 to cross the Atlantic. Over the years, the price has come down. You’ve got to start somewhere.答:根本不会。回到20世纪20年代飞行事业刚刚开始的时候,飞跃大西洋需要花费相当于20万美元。这么多年来,价格下降了很多。总得有起步阶段。The British tabloids have been speculating about whether you would allow your pregnant daughter to travel to space or not. Would you?问:英国小报都在推测,你会不会让自己怀的女儿上太空,你会吗?My wife definitely would not allow my pregnant daughter to go to space. And in truth her father would not like to see his daughter in space right now. I think the pressure most likely wouldn’t be ideal for twins.答:我妻子肯定不会让我们怀的女儿上太空。说实话,她爸爸也不会让女儿现在就上太空的。我觉得太空的压力对双胞胎来说不是很理想。You’ve also looked into submarine tourism with Virgin Oceanic. Is that easier than going up into space?问:你还想过用“维珍海洋”开发潜水艇游?这是不是比太空游容易一点?It’s difficult. I mean, it’s easy to put — well, not easy — it’s easy-ish to put a lump of metal to the bottom of the ocean, hit the bottom, come back up again. But to get a submarine that you can see out of and can travel at the bottom, to build it strong enough to withstand 1,600 times the pressure of an airplane, that’s hard.答:这也很难,我是说,把一大堆金属弄到海下,触到海洋最底部,然后再回来,这很容易——好吧 ,也不容易,就是看上去容易一些。难的是怎样建一艘让人能看到外面的潜水艇,可以在海地旅行,让它结实到足以承受海底巨大的压力,这种压力相当于飞机所承受压力的1600倍。You could incorporate that into your Virgin cruise ships.问:你可以把它和你的维珍游轮结合起来。We may launch spaceships from our cruise ship. Who’s to know?答:我们也可以从游轮上发送太空船,谁知道呢! /201409/329420BERKELEY, Calif. — TO those of us who visit beaches only in summer, they seem as permanent a part of our natural heritage as the Rocky Mountains and the Great Lakes. But shore dwellers know differently. Beaches are the most transitory of landscapes, and sand beaches the most vulnerable of all. During big storms, especially in winter, they can simply vanish, only to magically reappear in time for the summer season.加利福尼亚伯克利——对于只在夏天去海边游玩的人来说,海滩仿佛是一种永久的自然遗产,就像落基山脉和五大湖一样。然而,住在海边的人知道,事实并非如此。海滩是最容易转瞬即逝的地貌,而沙滩又是其中最为脆弱的一种。遇到大风暴,尤其是在冬天,它们会消失,待到来年夏季将至的时候又会神奇地及时重现。It could once be said that “a beach is a place where sand stops to rest for a moment before resuming its journey to somewhere else,” as the naturalist D. W. Bennett wrote in the book “Living With the New Jersey Shore.” Sand moved along the shore and from beach to sea bottom and back again, forming shorelines and barrier islands that until recently were able to repair themselves on a regular basis, producing the illusion of permanence.物学家D·W·本内特(D. W. Bennett)在《与新泽西海滩共度时光》(Living With the New Jersey Shore)一书中写道,“海滩是沙子在继续前往别处之前停留片刻的地方。”曾几何时,的确可以这么说。沙子沿着水岸运动,从滩涂到海底再到滩涂,塑造了海岸线和堰洲岛。直到不久前,这些地貌还能经常自我修复,制造出一种永恒的假象。Today, however, 75 to 90 percent of the world’s natural sand beaches are disappearing, due partly to rising sea levels and increased storm action, but also to massive erosion caused by the human development of shores. Many low-lying barrier islands are aly submerged.然而今天,世界上75%到90%的自然沙滩正在消失。部分原因在于海平面上升和风暴活动增加,但更重要的是,人类对海滩的开发造成了大规模的侵蚀。许多地势较低的堰洲岛已经被海水淹没。Yet the extent of this global crisis is obscured because so-called beach nourishment projects attempt to hold sand in place and repair the damage by the time summer people return, creating the illusion of an eternal shore.可是,由于所谓的“人工育滩”计划,这一全球性危机的严重程度遭到了忽视。这些工程努力在夏季游客到来之前将沙子留在原处并修复损失,制造出一种海滩永在的幻象。Before next summer, endless lines of dump trucks will have filled in bare spots and restored dunes. Virginia Beach alone has been restored more than 50 times. In recent decades, East Coast barrier islands have used 23 million loads of sand, much of it mined inland and the rest dredged from coastal waters — a practice that disturbs the sea bottom, creating turbidity that kills coral beds and damages spawning grounds, which hurts inshore fisheries.下个夏天到来之前,看不到尽头的自卸车队会运来材料填补裸露的地表并修复沙丘。光是弗吉尼亚海滩,就被恢复了逾50次。近几十年里,美国东海岸的堰洲岛用掉了2300万车的沙子,其中许多采自陆地,其余则从沿海水域挖掘。挖沙的做法会干扰海床,产生不利于珊瑚礁生存并会破坏生物繁殖地的浑浊海水,从而损害近海渔业。The sand and gravel business is now growing faster than the economy as a whole. In the ed States, the market for mined sand has become a billion-dollar annual business, growing at 10 percent a year since 2008. Interior mining operations use huge machines working in open pits to dig down under the earth’s surface to get sand left behind by ancient glaciers. But as demand has risen — and the damming of rivers has held back the flow of sand from mountainous interiors — natural sources of sand have been shrinking.砂石行业的增长如今比整体经济更为迅猛。在美国,开采出来的沙子已形成了每年上十亿美元的市场规模,2008年以来的年增长率为10%。内陆采砂采用大型机械露天作业,挖开地表,以便开采出古老冰川留下的砂石。不过,随着需求的增加,以及在水上修建大坝的行为阻止了泥沙从多山的内陆地区向外的迁移,砂石自然资源一直在缩减。One might think that desert sand would be a y substitute, but its grains are finer and smoother; they don’t adhere to rougher sand grains, and tend to blow away. As a result, the desert state of Dubai brings sand for its beaches all the way from Australia.人们或许会认为,来自沙漠的沙子应当是现成的替代品。但实际上,这种沙粒更细、更光滑,不能与较为粗糙的沙粒黏合,而且容易被吹走。因此,沙漠之国迪拜需要为了本地的海滩万里迢迢从澳大利亚进口沙子。And now there is a global beach-quality sand shortage, caused by the industries that have come to rely on it. Sand is vital to the manufacturing of abrasives, glass, plastics, microchips and even toothpaste, and, most recently, to the process of hydraulic fracturing. The quality of silicate sand found in the northern Midwest has produced what is being called a “sand rush” there, more than doubling regional sand pit mining since 2009.现在出现了海滩用沙的全球性短缺,而导致这种短缺的是越来越依赖砂石的各大行业。沙子是生产磨料、玻璃、塑料、微芯片乃至牙膏的关键用料,最近还成为水力压裂工艺中不可或缺的一环。美国中西部北面发现的硅砂在当地掀起了一股“淘沙热”,使得该地区的沙坑开采活动自2009年以来翻番有余。But the greatest industrial consumer of all is the concrete industry. Sand from Port Washington on Long Island — 140 million cubic yards of it — built the tunnels and sidewalks of Manhattan from the 1880s onward. Concrete still takes 80 percent of all that mining can deliver. Apart from water and air, sand is the natural element most in demand around the world, a situation that puts the preservation of beaches and their flora and fauna in great danger. Today, a branch of Cemex, one of the world’s largest cement suppliers, is still busy on the shores of Monterey Bay in California, where its operations endanger several protected species.不过,所有工业生产中耗沙量最大的是混凝土行业。自19世纪80年代以来,来自长岛华盛顿港的砂石——1.1亿立方米——一直在为曼哈顿的通道和路面建设贡献力量。采砂业的80%产量目前依然流向了混凝土行业。除了水和空气,沙子是全球范围内需求量最大的自然产物。这一现状威胁到了对海滩和生长在其中的动植物进行保护的工作。就在当下,世界最大的水泥供应商之一西麦斯集团(Cemex)旗下的一家分公司,仍然在加州蒙特雷湾的海滩积极采砂,危及到了数种保护物种。The huge sand mining operations emerging worldwide, many of them illegal, are happening out of sight and out of mind, as far as the developed world is concerned. But in India, where the government has stepped in to limit sand mining along its shores, illegal mining operations by what is now referred to as the “sand mafia” defy these regulations. In Sierra Leone, poor villagers are encouraged to sell off their sand to illegal operations, ruining their own shores for fishing. Some Indonesian sand islands have been devastated by sand mining.全球范围内兴起的大型采砂活动中,许多都属非法行为,但它们并未进入发达国家的视野,也未被放在心上。不过在印度,政府已出手限制在海岸附近采砂,但那些已被人称为“采砂黑手党”的非法开采集团对这些监管规定视而不见。在塞拉利昂,贫困村民受到鼓励,要将沙子卖给非法企业,从而彻底破坏了当地的近海环境。一些印度尼西亚的沙岛因采砂而遭遇重创。It is time for us to understand where sand comes from and where it is going. Sand was once locked up in mountains and it took eons of erosion before it was released into rivers and made its way to the sea. As Rachel Carson wrote in 1958, “in every curving beach, in every grain of sand, there is a story of the earth.” Now those grains are sequestered yet again — often in the very concrete sea walls that contribute to beach erosion.是时候让我们了解沙子的来源和去向了。它曾被困在山上的岩石里,经过亿万年的侵蚀才得以进入山川河流,然后来到海里。正如蕾切尔·卡森(Rachel Carson)1958年写下的那样,“在每个蜿蜒的海滩,在每颗沙粒之中,都藏有大地的故事。”现在,这些沙砾却再次受困——往往就在那些助推海滩侵蚀的混凝土防波堤里。We need to stop taking sand for granted and think of it as an endangered natural resource. Glass and concrete can be recycled back into sand, but there will never be enough to meet the demand of every resort. So we need better conservation plans for shore and coastal areas. Beach replenishment — the mining and trucking and dredging of sand to meet tourist expectations — must be evaluated on a case-by-case basis, with environmental considerations taking top priority. Only this will ensure that the story of the earth will still have subsequent chapters told in grains of sand.我们不能再认为沙子取之不尽用之不竭,而是要把它当成一种稀缺的自然资源。玻璃和混凝土可以通过回收最终变回沙子,但这永远不够满足度假村的需求。因此,我们需要更好的办法来保护海滩和沿海地区。“海滩修复”项目——用采砂、运沙和挖沙的手法来满足游客的期待——必须一个一个通过评审,并让环境方面的因素成为优先考虑的对象。只有这样,才能确保大地的故事还可以在沙粒中写就后续的篇章。 /201411/340991

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