黑龙江哈市第五医院是正规的豆瓣助手

来源:搜狐娱乐
原标题: 黑龙江哈市第五医院是正规的飞助手
Business商业报道3D films struggle Flat expectations预期值过高3D films, cinemas great hope, have become niche products电影公司最大的希望—3D电影—让人失望了Voldemort looks no prettier in 3D3D版伏地魔并没有更好看TEN years after it took off, Hollywoods biggest film franchise has finally alighted from its broomstick.十年前首映的好莱坞最大电影系列《哈利波特》,今日终于走向尾声。Between July 15th and July 17th Americans shelled out 9m to see Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows Part 2—a record for any film, in nominal terms.7月15至7月17日,《哈利波特与死亡圣器 第二部分》从美国人的口袋中掏走了1.69亿美元—这是任何影院都无法企及的记录。But barely a third of the audience opted to watch the boy wizard battle his snake-faced foe in three dimensions.但只有仅仅三分之一的观众选择3D版。Two years ago it seemed as though a new, improved 3D projection system could rescue a film business battered by falling DVD sales.两年前3D模式看似可以挽救一个被DVD打得伤痕累累的电影行业。Fully 71% of the box-office spending on Avatar on its opening weekend, in December , went on the 3D version.年12月,《阿凡达》上映一周就有整整71%的票房来自3D影院。The 3D showings of Shrek Forever After accounted for 61% of American box-office spending.《怪物史瑞克》的美国票房有61%来自3D影院。Cinemas generally charge at least more for a 3D showing—far more than the glasses cost.一般来说,电影公司会向3D影院的观众多收取至少3美元—那副眼镜远远值不了这个价。This lucrative business is now looking flat.这个获利丰厚的行业现在看起来似乎不大乐观。Despite rapid growth in digital projectors and 3D-capable screens, the proportion of total box-office spending that goes on 3D has dropped this summer.且不说数码投影仪以及3D功能屏幕的发展迅速,今夏3D电影的总票房比例也下降了。Four of the past five 3D blockbusters—Pirates of the Caribbean, Kung Fu Panda 2, Green Lantern and Harry Potter—made more money from 2D screens on their opening weekend than from 3D ones.刚刚热映的五部3D巨片—《加勒比海盗》、《功夫熊猫》、《绿灯侠》以及《哈利波特》—上映第一个星期赚的票房更多来自2D影院,而非3D影院。That was true of only one widely released 3D film last summer, and none the year before.去年夏天热映的唯一一部3D电影的时候,情形也是这样,前年就不会这么冷淡。Richard Gelfond, the boss of IMAX, reckons customers have become picky.IMAX的老总Richard Gelfond认为消费者变得越来越精明了。People used to see something just because it was in 3D, he says.过去人们因为3D而选择3D。他说道。Now they ask how much pleasure the glasses will add.现在人们会质疑这副眼镜能带来多大的愉悦感。The explosive Transformers 3 did well in 3D; perhaps the 2D version was not sufficiently headache-inducing.巨作《变形金刚3》3D版很卖座,也许是2D版的画面不够震撼。The key to three-dimensional profits, then, is to put out hugely popular films with extraordinary special effects.这样说来,要让3D版盈利的关键,就是在那些备受欢迎的影片里加入更多特效。 点击此处下载本期经济学人讲解PDF与音频字幕 /201302/226204Apple and Google used to be close. Googles CEO Eric Schmidt was even a member of Apples board for three years.苹果和谷歌曾经关系很进。谷歌的首席执行官Eric Schmidt曾经有3年都在苹果公司董事会。You know, Ive got the privilege of joining the board, and there is a lot of relationships between the boards. And I thought, you know, if we just sort of merged the companies,we can call them AppleGoo.你知道,我曾加入过董事会,董事会中人脉很多。我想,如果合并两家公司,我会取名AppleGoo。A lot of love there from Schmidt on stage of the Iphone Launch in 2007.Why? Because every phone Apple sells includes Google maps, and Youtube,and the Iphones default search engine is Google. But since then, competition has been building. In November of that year, Google said it was coorporating with alliance of hardware companies to develop Android, a software platform for mobile phones to directly challenge the Iphone. HTC, Motorola and Samsung have all released their own Android phones. And earlier this month Google released a phone under its own brand , the Nexus one. Now it also released a web browser to compete with Apple Safari, and announced plans for operating system called Chrome OS. Apple said Googles emergence as a competitor was one reason why Schmidt left the board of Apple last August. Apples move has been a little bit more secretive. Reports say it bought a mapping company called PlaceBase in July. Business Week reported last week that Apple is in talk to the old rival Microsoft to make Bing, the default search engine on the Iphone. On search is what Google is most famous for, but it makes most of its money from advertising.Now Google is turning its attention to Mobile advertising by Admob in November.Then why the sudden interest in Mobile ads?The answer is on AdMob homepage, Apples Iphone. AdMobs CEO said the Iphone led to a landside of massive improvement in Mobile advertising , so its not surprising to learn that earlier this month , Apple bought a mobile advertising firm of its own, Quatro Wireless. And selling mobile ads it might not be as exciting as selling music or phones, but it could be Apples boldest move yet and another shot at its one-time ally Google. 2007年苹果出售的iphone有Schmidt的许多心血。为什么这么说?因为苹果公司出售的每一步手机都包含谷歌地图,YouTube,和默认的谷歌搜索引擎。但那之后,两家公司就变成了竞争关系,那年的11月,谷歌声称正在与硬件公司联合开发安卓系统,安卓系统被视为直接挑战Iphone的软件平台。HTC,Motorola和三星都已经发布了自己的安卓系统。当月早些时候,谷歌也发布了自己的品牌的手机Nexus1,现在还发布了一款浏览器与苹果的Safari抗衡,并宣布计划命名操作系统为Chrome OS。苹果表示谷歌作为竞争者的合并行为是Schmidt8月离开苹果公司的原因之一。相比之下,苹果公司的动作就秘密隐蔽得多。有报道显示苹果在7月购买了一家名叫PlaceBase的绘图公司。商业周刊报道说上周苹果正在和老对手微软必应谈判默认搜索引擎事宜。谷歌公司最出名的莫过于搜索了,但其大部分收入都来自于广告收入。11月,谷歌通过AdMob将注意力转移到手机广告。为什么是手机广告呢,看AdMob的主页就能知道,AdMob的首席执行官表示Iphone引领了手机广告的新发展,所以听闻本月早期苹果购买了一家名叫Quatro Wireless的手机广告公司你绝不会感到意外了。但这可能是苹果公司最大胆的一次行动,也可能是对曾经的合作伙伴谷歌的一次打击。Kristie Lu Stout,CNN HongKong.Kristie Lu Stort,CNN香港报道。注:本篇文章英文来自普特论坛,译文属原创,,。201205/183179Now from the Boston Museum of Science, Sci-tech today, on NECN.有线新闻波士顿消息,欢迎收看今天的Sci-tech Today。We are talking about a breakthrough in the battle against heart disease. Harvard and MIT scientists have developed a new technology that requires no surgery: its called Nanoburrs. And Dr. Brindha Muniappan joins us live from the Museum of Science in Boston and tells us about it. Thanks for being here.今天我们要聊的是心脏病抢救的新突破。哈佛和麻省理工的科学家们研发出一种不用开刀手术的治疗方法:Nanoburrs。老子波士顿科学馆的Brindha Muniappan士将向我们做详细介绍。Thanks Beth. Its nice to be here.谢谢Beth,很高兴来到这里。So explain to us a little bit about what a Nanoburr is?那么,请向我们解释一下Nanoburr是什么?Sure. So a nanoburr is a nanoparticle. So very very tiny particle we cant see with our naked eyes on such a small scale. But these particles have been designed to sort of be like burrs you might find out in nature. So if you are out on a walk for example, maybe youve aly encountered some of these burrs stuck to your socks or maybe to your pet. These nanoparticles were designed just like these burrs to stick but to a specific place in our body to damaged heart vessels.好的。nanoburr其实是纳米粒子,一种非常非常小用肉眼无法看到的微小分子。这些分子就像大自然中的细小毛一样。举个例子,如果你出门散步,也许就会有一些细小毛刺粘到你的袜子或是你的宠物身上。纳米粒子就像是这种毛刺,但是粘到了人类身体一个特殊的部位,引发心血管的病变。And how are they able to do that?这些纳米粒子是如何做到的呢?Well, the team of researchers that you mentioned earlier designed the nanoparticles to have a very special protein coding the outside of them. And that protein really just wants to bind to another protein thats only exposed when heart vessels are damaged.之前你提到过的研究小组的成员将这种纳米颗粒设计为含有一种特殊编码的蛋白质。而这种蛋白质只依附于另一种只存在心血管损伤处的蛋白质。And so, I have got a little demonstration here. If you imagine that this tube is like a blood vessel, the clear area is a normal tissue and the white area is a site of damage. We would inject the nanoburr and it will bind only to the site of damage. You can do that with multiple nanoburrs. There they stick only to the site of damage. And thats the high technology here.我在这里能展示出来。如果你想象这根管道是一根血管,透明部分是正常组织,白色部分是受损组织。我们注射的纳米粒子会附在受损的白色区域。我们放入多个纳米粒子,都会附在白色区域,这就是它的高科技所在之处。So once the nanoburr attaches to that tissue, how does it help improve the condition of the heart?一旦纳米粒子附着在受损区域,它是如何修复心血管的呢?Well, the inside of the nanoburr contains medicine. So once the burr is bond to the site of damage, it can very slowly release medicine to treat the site of damage. And thats another improvement of this particular technology: the ability to very slowly release the medicine over 12-14 days.在Nanoburr中包含有药物。一旦毛刺附在受伤的血管部位,它就能慢慢释放出来药物来治疗伤处。这项技术的另一个特殊之处就是释放速度可以很缓慢,慢至12到14天。So how is this improvement over conventional treatments for blocked or damaged arteries?那么,这一发明如何能取代传统方法治疗血栓和血管损伤?Well, in one way, as I mentioned, there is a slow release of drug. But also, these nanoburrs dont have to be surgically implanted, they can just be injected. And there is a little bit more of an advantage, there is a possibility of using this technology for treating other diseases, including cancer or severe inflammation.我刚才提到了一点,就是药物的缓慢释放。还有一点就是Nanoburrs不用外科手术植入,直接注射即可。还有另一个优点,那就是这项技术还能应用于治疗其他疾病,包括癌症或者严重的炎症。So a team of scientists at Harvard and MIT developed the technology. Where is it and its availability to patients?一只由哈佛和麻省理工科学家组成的小组研发这项技术。而,这项技术对换着来说可行吗?Well, this technology unfortunately is still in very early stages. Scientists have done some initial tests in rats in their laboratory.They are hoping to do a bit more tests in animals. Maybe within about five years, they might be able to do some small clinical tests in human patients.不幸的是,这项技术还处于起步阶段。科学家们已经在实验室用老鼠做一些基础实验。他们希望能在动物身上做更多的实验。也许在五年内,他们可以再人类患者身上做一些临床试验。So it sounds like the idea of this isnt just to treat a heart that has aly undergone something like a heart attack but more to prevent it from happening?因此,这项技术不仅是治疗得过心脏病的患者,更是预防心脏明的技术?Well, it certainly might be used before a heart attack, but it could also be used in conjunction with current treatments like stents that are currently used to keep open a previously blocked artery. So its possible that there are multiple uses for this technology.这项技术能用于预防心脏病,但也能同心脏架,一种使血栓过的心血管保持通畅的治疗方式相结合。Alright, Dr. Brindha Muniappan, thanks so much for joining us. Thank you, Beth.好的,谢谢你,Brindha Muniappan士。谢谢,Beth。注:本篇文章英文来自普特论坛,译文属原创,,。201205/183438

Wed better develop our interest in English at the beginning of our study. To develop interest in English study is not very hard. We may have the feeling of satisfaction and achievement from our English study when we are able to say something simple in English, talk with others or foreigners in English and act as others interpreters. Plans are always very essential, so we must make some elaborate and workable plans before study.在英语学习之初,我们应该注重培养对英语学习的兴趣。培养对英语的兴趣并不难。当我们可以说点儿简单的英语,用英语与别人或与老外交谈,或作别人的翻译时,我们就可以从英语学习中得到满足感和成就感,这样,兴趣就培养起来了。制定英语学习计划太重要了,所以我们必须在学习前制定精细的和可操作的计划。And we should certainly carry out these plans to the letter. Notes should be made whenever we study any book. We may follow this advice: Dont book without making notes. As we know that notes are the summarization, the core content, our understanding and the abbreviations of the books. Our notes are much thinner than the books so that we can learn them by heart more easily and can often review and them.并且我们一定要严格执行这些计划。无论学习什么,我们都要作笔记。我们可以参照下面的忠告:不作笔记就不要读书。如您所知,笔记是我们对所学课本的总结,中心内容,我们的理解和课本的缩略。笔记要比课本薄的多,我们可以较容易的记忆和经常复习他们。更胜一畴的做法是把笔记录成音,这样我们可以经常听一听来加深印象和减轻记忆负担。201303/232816

Wangari Maathai旺加里·马塔伊Wangari Maathai, Kenyan environmentalist and political activist, died on September 25th, aged 71.旺加里·马塔伊,肯尼亚环保专家,活跃的政治家,于九月二十五日逝世,享年71岁。 In many ways it seems odd that Wangari Maathai’s life should have been so closely associated with struggle. Success appeared to come almost effortlessly to her, even though her origins were humble. She was born to a Kikuyu family of peasant farmers in Ihithe, a small village in the central highlands of Kenya, which was then a British colony. Though it was far from common in the 1940s for girls like her to receive an education, Wangari was sent to primary school—at her brother’s suggestion—at the age of eight. From then on accomplishments seemed to drop into her lap. She got to secondary school, graduated top of her class and went on to earn a degree in biology in Kansas, an MSc in Pittsburgh and, after studying in Germany, a PhD on gonads in bovines in Nairobi. That made her the first woman in east Africa to hold a doctorate. Jobs followed, in academic and civic positions which no black woman had filled before, and on their heels came award after award, none grander than the 2004 Nobel peace prize.旺加里·马塔伊的人生怎会如此紧密地与斗争相联系,不可谓不怪。因为尽管出身微寒,成功于她唾手可得。她生于肯尼亚中部高原一个名叫伊希特(Ihithe)的小村庄,出身基库尤农民家庭,当时肯尼亚还是英国的殖民地。在二十世纪四十年代,像她这样的非洲女孩多半没机会受教育,马塔伊却很幸运,在哥哥的建议下,家里让她在八岁进了小学。从此各样成就纷纷收入囊中,她进了中学,并以全班第一的成绩毕业,后来留学美国在堪萨斯获得生物学学士学位,在匹兹堡获得理学硕士学位,又赴德国学习,然后回到肯尼亚,在首都内罗比获士学位,研究方向为牛科动物生殖腺研究。这样,她成了东非第一个女士,获得黑人女性未曾有过的学术与行政职位,接踵而来的是一项又一项荣誉与奖励,最为荣耀的是在2004年获得诺贝尔和平奖。In truth, these successes were not effortlessly achieved. Dr Maathai laboured hard all her life, never taking shortcuts, never adopting airs, never asking others to do tasks she would not do herself. And with this conscientiousness and lack of self-importance came another quality, a keen ability to empathise with others and fight their corner when she believed they were being wronged. Most of the struggles with which her life was associated were not her struggles; they were other people’s.诚然,成功背后,她付出了很多。马塔伊士一生辛勤工作,从不走捷径,已所不欲勿加于人。她做事尽职尽责,从不认为自己有多了不起,同时又有路见不平拨刀相助的侠气。她的一生是斗争的一生,然而其中大部分的斗争本来都和她没什么关系,她是为他人而战。And, boy, were there lots of them. Colonial Kenya was hardly idyllic for Africans. Towns were de facto segregated and blacks had few political rights, especially during the Mau Mau rebellion in the early 1950s, when both sides committed hideous atrocities. Moreover, although Dr Maathai’s father worked for a benign white landowner, he was obliged to sell to his employer almost all the crops he grew on his allotted patch at whatever price was offered.可是若她有路见不平拨刀相助的侠气,这一路上却有太多的不平。作为殖民地的肯尼亚并不是非洲人的乐土,各个城镇实际上被隔离,黑人几乎没有政治权力,尤其在二十世纪五十年代茅茅党叛乱的时候,英方与叛乱方都种下滔天罪行。此外,尽管马塔伊的父亲耕种的土地属于一个比较善良的白人地主,定价权毕竟在地主手上,他种出的粮食,几乎所有的都要卖给地主。Laurels, but not for resting on荣誉的月桂树,却并不供人休憩When Dr Maathai came home after half a decade in America, she found huge changes. They were not all for the better. Kenya had gained its independence just two years before, and political power was now in the hands of Africans, but new forms of discrimination had appeared. Tribalism, reinforced by sexism, was her first antagonist: the job promised to her in an official letter of appointment as a research assistant to the professor of zoology at the University College of Nairobi had been withdrawn. It was given instead to a man, still in Canada, of the same tribe as the professor. She had to find another job.马塔伊在美国求学六年之后,回到肯尼亚,此时祖国已经发生了巨大的变化。境况并未变好,尽管肯尼亚已在两年前独立了,政治权力现在在非洲人手上,可是新的歧视却已产生。她遇到的第一个对手就是部落歧视加性别歧视:官方曾委任她做内罗比大学一名动物学教授的研究助理,可是又被取消了,因这一职位给了还在加拿大的一名肯尼亚男性,他与该教授是同一个部落的。马塔伊只得另谋它职。Another change soon started to concern her. All her life she had had a kinship with the land, helping to make the mud plaster for the walls of the family house, tilling the fields with her mother and delighting in wet soil which, “when you rubbed it between your fingers you could almost feel the life it held”. She was drawn to water, too, especially, as a child, to the clear, clean water that gushed from an underground stream called Kanungu, close to a sacred fig tree.接着,肯尼亚大地上发生了许多让她为之忧虑的变化。马塔伊一生亲近土地,家里做房子,她帮忙和泥浆砌墙,家里的地板是她和母亲一起铺好的,她喜欢玩湿软的泥土,“手指与泥土相擦,几乎能感知到泥土的生命。”又好水,孩提时,总被卡努恩姑涌过的清澈水流吸引,那是一条地下河,边上有株圣洁的无花果树。But even before she went abroad, pressure on the land was increasing. On her return, many of her favourite places had been dug up, the wild trees cleared in favour of tea or coffee plantations, and local plants and animals had disappeared. Land, and therefore food, were scarce, logging was causing erosion and villagers had to walk ever farther to find firewood: this, not the shortage of petrol, was for many Kenyans the real energy crisis.环境的压力在她出国之前已经在步步增加。回国之时,昔日她最爱的地方多被开垦,原始森林被清理了,用来种植茶叶和咖啡,乡土植物和动物消失了。土地稀缺,粮食紧张,大量伐木导致水土流失加剧。村民要砍柴得走很远很远的路,这是肯尼亚人民的能源危机,是肯尼亚人民的“石油短缺”。No wonder Dr Maathai found herself on a collision course with Kenya’s new masters, especially the members of the crony-ridden and corrupt court of President Daniel arap Moi. Setting aside her academic career, she found herself drawn into civic causes, feminist campaigns and politics, both at her husband’s side (he became a member of parliament) and in her own right (she too eventually won a seat and in 2003 was made a junior minister).难怪马塔伊士与肯尼亚新政府、尤其与丹尼尔·阿拉普莫伊总统唯亲是任、腐败滋生的朝廷格格不入。她放下学术,一心为公民的利益,为妇女权利运动,为政治运动斗争。其丈夫是国会议员,自己也在2003年最终获得国会一席职位,成了新近大臣。As ever, she had her triumphs. Against the odds, she prevented a 60-storey skyscraper from being built in a park in central Nairobi. It had been designed to house, among other things, the headquarters of President Moi’s party. And she succeeded, at least for a while, in stopping the government from handing out parcels of public land to reward its supporters. That followed her attempt to plant a tree on forested land earmarked for a golf course.她一如既往地收获胜利。成功地阻止了内罗比中心一个公园里建六十层天大楼的计划,本来计划阿拉普莫伊总统所在政党的办公总部就要设在该天大楼内。她在一块指定用来建设高尔夫球场的荒木林地上植下树木。而且,至少暂时地阻止了政府将大片公共土地分发给政府持者。In this episode, as in others, she and fellow-protesters were beaten by the police. She was also arrested with some regularity, particularly when her Green Belt Movement tried to hold protests. Yet that movement, by concentrating most of its efforts on planting trees (30m or 40m in Africa so far), had enormous popular support. And from this Dr Maathai, no matter how much she was frustrated by the courts, the bureaucracy and the political establishment, drew her strength.马塔伊士,和她身边的抗议者常遭警察毒打,也经常被捕入狱,尤其在城市绿化带运动各次抗议中总是被捕。城市绿化带运动致力于植树造林工作,目前在非洲种下三到四千万株树木,赢得了广泛的持。因此,无论法院、官方和政府如何为难马塔伊,她总有力量。Many Kenyan men, including her husband, who divorced her, found her too strong a character. She certainly had courage galore, as well as the gift of impressing foreigners, who often rallied to her in times of need. But she remained close to her Kenyan base, especially the women among them, and surely did more good for Kenya than all the men together who found her principled politics so unsettling.许多肯尼亚男人,包括与她离了婚的丈夫,都认为她太强势了。当然,她有着非凡的勇气,总能给外国人留下很深的印象,在她需要的时候外国人总是持她。可是她与肯尼亚大地、尤其是和肯尼亚妇女,紧密地联系在一起,那些男人们为她富有原则的政治感到不安,可是她对肯尼亚的功劳,比他们所有人加起来还要多。201207/189280Books and Arts; Book Review;文艺;书评;A history of mapmaking;Views of the world;地图史;世界景象;There is no such thing as an objective map;准确地图谁见了;A History of the World in Twelve Maps. By Jerry Brotton.《12幅地图中的世界历史》,作者杰里·布洛顿。 Around 150AD an astronomer named Claudius Ptolemy wrote a book about how to make a proper map of the world. Penned in Greek on a papyrus scroll, the work, known as the “Geography”, is one of the most famous ancient texts on the science of mapmaking. It placed the job firmly in the domain of the geographer, who could use astronomy and mathematics to calculate from the stars what the world looked like below.公元150年前后,一位名叫克劳狄斯·托勒密的天文学家写了一本关于如何恰当绘制世界地图的书。该书用希腊文书写在一卷莎草上,这部被称为《地理学》的著作是地图制图学方面最著名的古文献之一。该书毫不含糊地将这项工作归于地理学家范畴,因为地理学家可以使用天文学和数学知识推测从星球上观测下面的地球是什么样子。Ptolemys “Geography” was an attempt to take myths out of maps. It recommended using geometric lines of latitude and longitude to convey a three-dimensional Earth on a two-dimensional surface, and it included the co-ordinates of over 8,000 locations in the ancient world. Whether Ptolemy drew his own maps is unclear. The “Geography” disappeared for a thousand years, only for an unoriginal copy to appear in the 13th century, replete with coloured maps drawn by Byzantine scribes. Regardless, these geographic drawings and all other maps based on scientific calculation are his legacy.托勒密的这部《地理学》试图揭开地图的神秘面纱。它告诉人们如何用经纬线这样的几何线条在二维的平面上表现出三维的地球来,书中还有古代世界8000多个地点的坐标。托勒密是否亲手绘制地图,目前尚不可知。《地理学》曾消失了一千年,直到13世纪才有一个副本出现,这个副本里倒是有很多拜占庭抄书官绘制的色地图。不管怎样,这些经过科学计算的地理绘图和其它地图都是他留给后人的宝贵财富。But as Jerry Brotton explains in “A History of the World in Twelve Maps”, Ptolemys scientific influence tells only part of the story. Mapmakers operate in environments of subjective knowledge. Their work is influenced by politics and patrons, regional assumptions and religious beliefs, all of which jostles with the science in determining what a map looks like and what it is used for. Mapmakers may be geographers and cartographers, but they can also be artists and imperialists, storytellers and propagandists.但正如杰里·布洛顿在《12幅地图中的世界史》中解释的那样,托勒密的科学影响力只是这个故事的部分。地图绘制者生存的环境主观色浓厚,他们的工作受到政治、赞助人、区域假设以及宗教信仰等因素的影响,在确定地图的面貌及用途时,这些因素与科学相互碰撞。地图绘制者可能是地理学家和制图专家,但他们同时也可能既是艺术家又是帝国主义者,既是故事讲述人又是宣传分子。Mr Brotton, a professor of Renaissance Studies at Queen Mary University of London, examines the complexity of mapmaking through the stories of 12 maps, which stretch across space and over time. The examples are impressively varied, from Ptolemys toils to Google Earth, and include some lesser-known Islamic and East Asian works. Despite their differences, these maps enjoy some intriguing similarities, largely for the way they illustrate the priorities of their authors.作为伦敦玛丽女王大学文艺复兴研究的教授,布洛顿先生通过12幅地图的讲述对绘图的复杂性进行了考察。这些地图跨度巨大,分属于不同时期、不同地区,既有托勒密艰苦劳作的产物,也有谷歌地球,还有一些更鲜为人知的伊斯兰作品和东亚作品。尽管它们之间各不相同,但也有一些有趣的相似之处,主要是由于这些地图反映了制图者在制图时所考虑的优先次序的方式。The medieval Mappa Mundi in Englands Hereford cathedral, for example, is little more than drawings on vellum, or stretched calfskin, and it lacks Ptolemys geometric method. Yet it is a beautifully detailed map of the Christian world, based on the topography of the Bible—bewildering to the geographer, but sensible to people of faith. Oriented east, Jerusalem sits at the centre. Britain clings insignificantly to the edge.比如,中世纪制作的英格兰赫里福德教堂世界地图不过是些绘在羔皮、或者说拉伸了的犊皮上的图案,没有使用托勒密的几何方法。但这幅基督教界的地图,取材于圣经上的记录,细节做得非常漂亮。这张地图让地理学家困惑不解,但对于基督徒来说则是顺理成章。它以东方为重心,把耶路撒冷放在地图的正中,英国则偏居一隅。Time would change this view of the world in the eyes of British mapmakers. By the 19th century maps often placed the British Isles at the core. One such map in the book features a view of the globe with Britain and the North Atlantic in the centre to better portray the empires sea power; Australia and half of South America are left off. Many of these maps, like those of the Spanish and Portuguese imperialists of the 16th century, did more to illustrate dominance and ambition than to improve cartographical practice.在英国制图者看来,人们对于世界的看法会随着时间的改变而改变。到了19世纪,不列颠群岛常被放在地图的中心。这本书中就有一幅这样的全球地图,将英国和北大西洋放在中心位置,以更好地彰显大英帝国的海洋实力。澳大利亚以及半个南美竟被忽落。这其中的很多地图,比如16世纪西班牙和葡萄牙的地图,更多地是为了显示帝国的统治和野心,而不是为了提高制图技术。Even now, when mapmakers have access to tools such as satellite images, there is still no objective and universally accepted map, argues Mr Brotton. “The idea of the world may be common to all societies; but different societies have very distinct ideas of the world and how it should be represented.” The author reckons that Google Earth and other digital mapping applications are just as vulnerable as their predecessors to national priorities and cultural norms. These maps can be cluttered with links to commercial enterprises and are subject to censorship. At their most penetrating, they raise questions of privacy.布洛顿先生认为,即便是现在,虽然绘图者有卫星影像这样的工具可用,准确的、可被普遍接受的地图依然难觅。“世界的概念对所有的社会来说是可能是共同的,但不同的社会中的世界概念及其表现形式千差万别”。作者认为,谷歌地球以及其他的数字制图程序与其前身一样,在国家利益和文化传统面前都显得脆弱不堪。这些地图与商业有着千丝万缕的联系,并且要遵守各种各样的审查制度。最严重的还会牵扯到隐私问题。Though he sets out to examine a mere 12 maps, Mr Brotton cannot help but give dozens more at least a passing mention. Ironically, this can be disorienting. Still, there is much to gain from this rich if overly detailed book. As the products of both art and science, maps are often fascinating interpretations of the perceived world. They are about data and spatial awareness, but also about money, empire and discovery. They tend to reveal more about the mapmakers than the lands they chronicle. Mr Brotton may fall short of providing the promised “history of the world”, but he offers plenty of good reasons to see old maps as windows to lost times.尽管最初着手研究的地图只有区区12幅,但布洛顿先生在书中提及的地图却有很多,令人啼笑皆非地是,这可能让读者有些找不到方向。但不管怎样,只要你仔细阅读定会受益良多。地图既是艺术品,又是科学产品,常常是对这个被感知世界的美妙诠释。这些地图呈现给读者的是数据和空间感,但它也涉及到金钱、帝国和发现,向人们提供更多的是地图背后那些地图制作者的故事。布洛顿先生可能没有提供给读者所谓的“世界历史”,但是,他提供了大量理由来解释,为什么可将看老地图作为了解已逝时代的窗口。 /201209/198385

What a light bulb and an egg have in common? The shell of an egg and the glass exterior of a light bulb have more than one thing in common. First, both protect something delicate inside: the exterior of the light bulb keeps the delicate internal wiring protected and an eggshell protects a developing chick.The need to protect chicks and wiring requires that eggshells and light bulbs be structurally strong.电灯泡和鸡蛋有什么共同点呢?鸡蛋的外壳和灯泡的玻璃外罩的相同点可不止一处。首先,两者都在保护内部脆弱的东西:灯泡的外罩保护精细的内部接线,而蛋壳保护还未孵化的小鸡。为了保护小鸡和灯丝,要求蛋壳和灯罩的结构性很强。Second, both are made of thin material. A chick, y to hatch, has to be able to peck its way through the shell. And because light bulbs are usually made of opaque rather than clear glass, the glass exterior must be thin so that light can shine through.其次,两者都由薄型材料构成。一只待孵化的小鸡必须能够破开蛋壳钻出来。且因为灯泡通常由不透明的玻璃做成,所以玻璃外罩要很薄,这样灯光才能透过灯罩射出去。So how can a structure be strong and yet made of thin material at the same time? By using a carefully-designed oval shape. Picture for a moment a square egg. If you took that imaginary object in your hand and squeezed it very hard between your thumb and finger, the pressure youd exert would be localized in the exact part of the flat surface your thumb and finger were pushing. Even a slight pressure would be great enough to break the thin shell into pieces.那么什么样的结构即坚固同时又能由薄层的材料制成呢?通过利用一种精心设计的椭圆形。暂且先描绘一个方形的蛋。假设你把这个虚构的对象拿在手里,用拇指和食指用力挤压,你施加的压力会落在拇指和食指接触到的平面上。即使是轻微的压力也足以将薄薄的蛋壳打得粉碎。But if you do the same thing to a real egg, the force you exert is not localized in one point, but is distributed into all directions around the surface of the egg. Though you can eventually break an egg by doing this, it takes a great deal more force to do so. Of course, its no coincidence that the shapes of light bulbs and eggs are similar. When the light bulb was invented and perfected, it was patterned after a shape that nature had come up with hundreds of thousands of years ago.但是如果你挤压一个真正的鸡蛋,那么你施加的压力并不着力在一个点上,而是分散在蛋壳表面的各个方向。尽管你最终还是可以将鸡蛋捏碎,但在那之前你要使更多的劲。当然,灯泡的形状跟鸡蛋相似并不是偶然现象。灯泡的发明和完善还是仿照了大自然几十万年前就有的形状。原文译文属!201301/220892

As the warm humid air from the south meet the cold Arctic, the moisture is crystalized and snowflakes form from the sky. Each crystal froms around a particle of dust. All have a six-fold symmetry, but no two have ever been found with exactly the same shape. Their variety and complexity is breathtaking.Each snowflake is water waiting to be released in spring. For this reason, snow is the lifeblood of these silent forests and all that live here depend on it in one way or another.Some, like the great grey owl, appear in spring for the booming times then vanish like phantoms. Others, like their lemming prey, are here year around beneath the snow, insulated from the cold air above.The northern forests are across road for seasonal visitors and Arctic specialists. But they are so much more than this. Together they make up the tiger an unbreaking forest that stretches seven thousand miles around our planet and contains 1/3 of all trees on earth.当南方温暖潮湿的空气遭遇极地的寒冷,天空出现了由湿气形成的冰晶及雪花。每一片水晶都是由灰尘粒子组成。两者都是对称的六边形,但没有两片是一模一样的形状。他们的多样性和复杂性令人为之惊讶。每片雪花都是等着春天被释放的水。因为这个原因,雪是这些静默森林及一切在这里以这样或那样的方式生存生命的源泉。一些动物,比如这头灰色猫头鹰,在春天万物复苏时出现,然后像幽灵般消失。而其他动物,就像其猎物一样,常年在雪下隔绝上面的冷空气。北方森林主要由季节性的游客和北极专家组成。但是却远不止此。他们一起构成了一个绵延七千英里的不可侵犯的森林,包含我们这个星球所有的树木的1/3。注:听力文本来源于普特201201/169624;Give me your tired, your poor...your huddled masses yearning to breathe free...挤在一起渴望自由呼吸的大众,那熙熙攘攘的被遗弃了的,可怜的人们。把这些无家可归的,饱受颠沛的人们一起交给我...These words, written by American poet Emma Lazarus and inscribed at the base of the Statue of Liberty, encouraged immigration to America in the early years of the twentieth century. For decades, a steady stream of immigrants arrived and assimilated themselves into American life.这是爱玛·拉扎露丝写的十四行诗,被雕刻在自由女神像底座上,用以鼓励移民来到在上世纪早期的美国。几十年过去了,移民们源源不断的涌进并融入到美国生活中。 But by the mid 1970s, Congress was hearing from Americans who believed they were losing jobs to illegal aliens. Senator Alan Simpson and Representative Romano Mazzoli proposed what came to be known as the Simpson-Mazzoli Immigration Reform and Control Act. It imposed sanctions on employers who hired undocumented aliens, while making allowances for aliens aly living and working in the U.S. Not everyone was in favor of this bill.但是到20世纪70年代,国会听了来自美国人的词,他们认为工作机会正向非法移民转移。参议员阿兰·辛普森以及国会代表 Romano Mazzoli 建议进行移民改革,后来发展为众所周知的 Simpson-Mazzoli 移民改革和控制法案。这条法案对雇佣非法移民的雇主实行制裁,同时为已经移居美国的移民发放津贴。但这项法案并不是对所有人都有利。Some believed it would handle illegal immigrants in an arbitrary fashion, and hurt local businessmen. Others thought it would prove to be too be costly, and in the end, ineffective. The Simpson-Mazzoli bill was ultimately signed into law on November 7, 1986.有人认为这是以一种独断专行的方式处理非法移民问题,同时也损害了地方商人的利益。其他人则认为这是一项吃力不讨好的决策。最终 Simpson-Mazzoli 法案于1986年被签署成为法律。A delicate compromise, passed after five years of trying, the new law didnt solve the problems of immigration, but alleviated them. Immigration policies that challenge Congress today are even more complex… balancing new security issues with the desire to preserve the diversity and strength that immigrants bring.经过五年的努力,法案通过了微妙的妥协。最新的法律并没有解决移民问题,但却缓和了矛盾。如今国会面临的移民政策的挑战愈加复杂...移民会带来多样性和新的力量,在这样的愿景下权衡新出现的安全问题。原文译文属!201211/207602

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