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哈尔滨妇科检查包括哪些排名晚报黑龙江省农垦总局总医院妇产科怎样

2019年11月12日 06:46:36
来源:四川新闻网
求医乐园

Science and technology科学技术The history of AIDS艾滋病的历史Heroes and villains英雄与熊The story of AIDS involves many larger-than-life characters, good and bad艾滋病的故事涉及一些富有英雄色的人物,有好,也有坏。ANNIVERSARIES are times for reflection, and this one should be no exception, for the 30-year history of AIDS is a mirror in which humanity can examine itself.人们往往在纪念日反思,这次也会不例外:艾滋病30年的历史是一面能使人类自我审视的镜子。From questionable scientists to philanthropic billionaires, peoples actions against AIDS, and reactions to it, have shown up the best and worst that humans have to offer.从被人质疑的科学家到仁慈的亿万富翁,人们与艾滋病抗争行动,以及对它的反应,已揭露出了人类所表现出来的善与恶。Such dualism was there from the beginning, in the question of who discovered the AIDS-causing virus.这种二重性从一开始便存在,就在谁发现了艾滋病致病病毒问题上。There were two claimants.有两个自认有功者:One, Robert Gallo, is American. The other,Luc Montagnier, is French.一位是美国的罗伯特盖洛;另外一位是法国的吕克?蒙塔尼。Dr Gallo called his discovery HTLV-3.盖洛士称他发现HTLV-3病毒。Dr Montagnier called his LAV.蒙塔尼士称他发现LAV病毒。They were in fact the same thing.HTLV-3病毒和LAV病毒实际上是相同的东西。It turned out, however, that Dr Gallos virus had come from Dr Montagniers laboratory.然而,结果明,盖洛士的病毒是源于蒙塔尼士士的实验室。It was never conclusively proved how, though a contaminated sample may have been to blame.但是从来没有确凿地据明病毒怎样从蒙塔尼士士的实验室传播开来,虽然可能追究于受污染的实验样本。And Dr Gallo was exonerated of any wrongdoing by an official investigation and is universally recognised to have done important work on AIDS.经过正式调查,盖洛士摆脱了一切不道德行为的罪名,并被普遍认为他在艾滋病方面做出重大贡献。But only Dr Montagnier won the Nobel prize—eloquent testimony to some peoples opinion of the whole affair.但是,蒙塔尼士获得诺贝尔奖是对整件事某些看法的最有说力的据。Another source of conflict was whether HIV, as the virus eventually came to be known, was truly the cause of AIDS.另一个冲突的源头在于现在广为人知的HIV病毒是否是引起艾滋病真正成因。At the beginning of the epidemic, that might have been debatable.在艾滋病的刚刚开始盛行时,这可能性是富有争议的。Perhaps HIV was merely a passenger that took advantage of an immune system weakened by another cause?也许HIV病毒仅仅个过客,而造成免疫系统衰弱的真凶另有其人?One once-respected scientist, Peter Duesberg, who did early research on viral causes of cancer, would not drop the idea.曾备受尊重的从事滤过性毒菌引起的癌症的早期研究的科学家彼得?迪斯贝格没有终止这想法。He insisted—and still insists—that the weakening of the immune system characteristic of AIDS is caused by drug-taking, and that HIV is, indeed, a passenger.他坚持认为—现在仍然坚持—,认为艾滋病的特征免疫系统的衰弱是由吸毒引起的,因而HIV病毒确实只是个过客。This theory would not have mattered much except that Thabo Mbeki, a former president of South Africa, latched on to it.但南非前总统塔?姆贝基对这一观点感兴趣,就会引起重大影响。Since South Africa has the worlds largest number of AIDS cases, and one of its highest infection rates, this was bad news,由于南非拥有全世界最多的艾滋病患者而且是其最高感染率国家之一,这个前总统对这种理论一感了兴趣,可糟了。as was Mr Mbekis health minister, Manto Tshabalala-Msimang, who was appointed mainly because she agreed with him, and recommended beetroot and garlic as treatment for the disease.他居然还任命曼托查巴拉拉-姆西曼为卫生部长,只是因为这位认同这位前总统的观点,而且那部长还建议用建议用甜菜根和大蒜来治疗艾滋病。Only with the election of Jacob Zuma, who has himself been publicly tested for HIV, did South Africa return to sensible anti-AIDS policies.直到雅各布?祖玛当选,亲身公开对HIV病毒进行测试,南非在反艾滋病政策才重返理智。Among the heroes, Bill Gates looms large.在众多英雄好汉之中,比尔盖茨赫然耸现。The foundation into which he poured much of his Microsoft fortune took AIDS seriously from the beginning, forming a particularly fruitful partnership with the government of Botswana, one of the worst-affected countries.他用很大一部分微软的财富的捐资建立的基金会从源头治理艾滋病,特别从富有伙伴关系的受灾最严重国家之一的茨瓦纳政府开始。And Nelson Mandela, the heroeshero, also cleaved eventually to the path of righteousness, even while admitting he had not done enough to combat AIDS during his own presidency of South Africa.而纳尔逊?曼德拉也是英雄中的英雄,在正义的路径上披荆斩棘地前进,即使他承认在他当总统时在与艾滋病抗战上留有余力。Mr Gates and Mr Mandela are easy to admire.盖茨先生和曼德拉先生很值得欣赏。One hero that many AIDS activists have difficulty accepting, though, is George Bush junior.不过,许多艾滋病活动家难以接受,另个英雄,是小布什。Activists do not much like born-again Christians, who take a dim view of the sort of sex lives that help to sp HIV.活动家极不喜欢那些信仰重生的基督徒与其蔑视“性生活能传播艾滋病”的行为。But Mr Bush was responsible for setting up the Presidents Emergency Plan For AIDS Relief and for making sure it had plenty of money.但是布什先生负责建立艾滋病救济总统紧急计划,并确保提供充足的资金。PEPFAR is one of the two main organizations, along with the Global Fund, that dish out the cash that rich countries give poor ones to combat AIDS.PEPFAR是两个富裕国家给贫穷国家在与艾滋病抗争上提供现金救济的主要组织之一,与环球基金齐名。Last year, it spent almost billion on AIDS and the tuberculosis that often accompanies it, and it is responsible for helping half of the 6.6m people now on anti-retroviral drugs.去年,它在抗艾滋病和往往伴随出现的结核病上将近花费70亿美元,而且在逆转病毒药物上六千六百万患者中半数都能受惠。Many activists may be reluctant to give Mr Bush credit. But handsome is as handsome does.许多活动家可能不太愿意嘉许布什的功劳。但是,行为美才是真美。 /201304/235921宾县四维彩超多少钱哈尔滨省五院妇科Television in America美国电视产业The bandit of broadcast广播电视业界的强盗The Supreme Courts decision on Aereo may affect more than the TV business最高法院将对Aereo案件进行裁决,而其影响范围或许会超出电视产业本身CHET KANOJIA, the founder of Aereo, wonders which actor will play him, when Hollywood makes a film about his startup disrupting the television industry. “Probably a white guy,” Mr Kanojia, who is Indian-American, says drolly. Whether his firm will feature on the big screen or rapidly be forgotten depends on the outcome of a lawsuit between Aereo and Americas big free-to-air broadcast networks—such as A, CBS and Fox—which is being weighed by the Supreme Court. Oral arguments in the case were heard on April 22nd and a decision is due within months.当好莱坞的电影公司想要拍一部关于Aereo创始人Chet Kanojia如何瓦解整个电视产业的电影之时,这位老板也在思考着到底让哪一位演员来扮演自己。“或许会挑个白人,”印度裔美国人Kanojia先生戏谑地说道。最后他的电影到底是能成功登上大荧幕,抑或是迅速被大家所遗忘,要取决于一场官司的最终结果。最高法院正在对这场官司进行权衡,而对抗双方则是Aereo与美国免费广播电视巨头,如美国广播公司、哥伦比亚广播公司和福克斯广播公司。案件的口头辩论在4月22日已经完成,而最终裁决将在数月之内宣布。Mr Kanojia and Aereo are not yet household names, but are the subject of much debate among geeks, copyright lawyers and TV executives. Aereo picks up the signals of free-to-air channels and streams them to its subscribers over the internet, so they can watch them with the same good picture quality as they get via cable, but for a fraction of the average monthly cable bill. Each subscriber is assigned one of a huge number of thumbnail-sized aerials in Aereos warehouses. Aereo claims this is in principle no different—and thus no less legal—than the subscriber putting an antenna on his roof. But broadcast bosses see it differently. They say Aereo is violating copyright law by not paying them for a “public performance” of their content.Kanojia与Aereo目前还不是一对家喻户晓的名字,但对于极客、版权律师以及电视主管们来说,这确实是极为火热的话题。Aereo公司接收免费广播电视的频道信号,并把这些频道转化成流媒体以供他们的付费订阅用户在线观看。因此,这些用户在付出相当于普通有线电视月租费用的很小一部分,就可以享受跟有线电视一样的高画质电视务。相当于在Aereo公司的仓库里,有数以百万计的“微缩远程天线”,而每个订阅用户都能分到其中一条。Aereo公司宣称,这与免费广播电视的务没什么不同,就像是让他们的客户在自己家的房顶安装天线接收信号一样,是非常合法的行为。但广播电视公司的老板们却不这么认为。他们坚持Aereo公司违反了版权法,因为后者没有给他们提供的节目内容付费,就进行了“公开传播”。So far Aereo is available in only 11 cities. But broadcasters worry that it threatens a fast-growing revenue stream: the fees they get from cable- and satellite-TV operators that retransmit their channels. Such fees came to about .3 billion in 2013, according to SNL Kagan, a data firm. The pay-TV companies would not want to keep paying these if Aereo did not have to. So broadcasters have threatened that if Aereo wins, they will take their content off the public airwaves and offer it through pay-TV only.目前,Aereo的务范围仅限于11个城市。但是,广播电视公司担心这样的务会威胁到自身的快速增长利润源:对有线或者卫星电视运营商处所收取的转播费用。数据公司SNL Kagan所提供的资料显示,2013年该转播费用总计为33亿美元。如果Aereo公司无需为转播权买单,那么其他付费电视公司也将停止为自己的转播权付费。因此广播电视公司对Aereo公司做出了相应的警告:如果Aereo公司胜诉,那么他们将停止在公共无线频道上提供电视转播务,转交由付费电视公司独家供应给观众。Aereo has raised around 0m from various investors, including Barry Diller, a veteran media executive. Mr Dillers volte-face is worthy of a prime-time drama: having launched Fox, one of Americas four big broadcast networks, in the 1980s, he is now a booster for broadcasts bandit. But if Aereo loses it will probably shut down. The government has supported the big broadcasters, undermining Aereos chances. As for the courts, so far their judgments on Aereos legality have been mixed: last year two federal courts sided with Aereo, but in February a federal court in Utah ordered it to close its operations in that state.Aereo已经得到了各路投资者约1亿美元的资金,这其中还包括传媒大亨巴里·迪勒。迪勒先生截然不同的投资转变就像是一出黄金时段的电视剧:80年代,他成立了福克斯广播公司,而现在他却成了电视业大盗的赞助者。然而Aereo公司一旦败诉,很可能对其意味着关门大吉。目前政府已经与各大广播电视巨头在统一战线,使Aereo公司的胜诉几率大减。在法庭方面,他们对Aereo合法性的判决并没有达成共识:去年两个联邦法庭持Aereo公司,但今年2月犹他州的一个联邦法庭则勒令其停止在本州内的所有业务。Legislation has not kept up with new technology. Cable in America is regulated by a 1992 law, and copyright by a 1976 one. Both were written before the rise of the commercial internet, notes Rich Greenfield of BTIG, a research firm.法律法规没有跟上新科技的步伐。有线电视产业受1992年出台的法律管制,而版权问题则受1976年的法律所管理。来自调查机构BTIG的Rich Greenfield表示,在网络商务兴起之前这两部法律就已经制订完成。Many are watching the case to make sure the verdict does not imply that it is piracy to transfer any sort of content via the internet without a licence from whoever owns the copyright to it. That could be costly for firms that store media files in the “cloud” for paying clients, such as Apple and Google. As Stephen Breyer, one of the Supreme Court justices, said in this weeks hearing, “What disturbs me…is I dont understand what the decision for you or against you…is going to do to all kinds of other technologies.”许多人正关注着本案的进展。他们要确定本次的宣判是否意味着在网络上传播任何未经版权拥有者许可的内容,都会被认定为盗版行为。一旦如此,许多为付费用户提供“云端”影音资料储存的公司将会出现极大的经营成本负担,比如苹果和谷歌。最高法院的法官之一斯蒂芬·布雷耶在本周的聆讯过程当中表示:“困扰着我的问题是...我不能确定本案的判决会对其他各类科技产生什么样的影响,无论好坏。” /201405/294430Anyone who has vacationed in the higher elevations of Colorado, such as Vail and Estes Park, will tell you altitude sickness can be a real problem.任何在科罗拉多的高海拔地区如韦尔和洛杉矶国家公园等旅游胜地度过假的人都会告诉你,高原反应真的是要命的问题。Loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, weakness, dizziness, and difficulty sleeping can plague those visiting areas over eight thousand feet.食欲不振,恶心,呕吐,身体虚弱,头晕,入睡困难等症状可能折磨那些在海拔超过8000英尺区域旅游的人们。Altitude sickness results from the lack of oxygen at high elevations.由于海拔较高而缺氧造成高原反应。At thirteen thousand feet, every lungful of air holds only sixty percent of what it would at sea level.在13000英尺高的地方,肺仅能容纳海平面高度时60%的空气。Despite that fact, many indigenous people live in areas of low oxygen concentration with few adverse effects.尽管如此,许多在低氧地区的原居民很少有不良反应。The big question is, how do they survive?那么值得我们思考的是,他们是怎样存活的呢?The body can adapt to low oxygen levels by making more hemoglobin, an oxygen-carrying molecule in red blood cells.在氧气稀薄的情况下,身体能够产生一种适应环境的血红蛋白,这种血红蛋白即是红细胞的氧气载体。But too much hemoglobin over a long period of time can put a person at risk of blood clots, stroke, or chronic mountain sickness.但是太多的血红蛋白长时间存在可能导致人体产生血液凝块,患上中风或者患慢性高原病。Scientists wondered how mountain people can remain healthy living at high altitudes.科学家想知道在高原生活的人们怎样维持健康。To see if genes contribute, scientists analyzed the genomes of three ethnic groups living at altitudes over twelve thousand feet, two from Ethiopia, and Tibetans.科学家们为了实基因是否有关,他们对3组生活在超过12000 英尺区域种族群体做了染色体分析,其中有两组人来自埃塞俄比亚,另外一组来自西藏。One Ethiopian group, the Oromo, cope the same way lowlanders do, by making more hemoglobin.其中一组的埃塞俄比亚奥罗莫人与其他地方人一样,他们的身体产生更多的血红蛋白抵抗低氧环境。The Amhara and Tibetans, on the other hand, have hemoglobin levels ten percent lower than the Oromo.阿姆哈拉人和西藏人的血红蛋白含量比奥罗莫人低10%左右。Does genetic variation account for this?是基因变异导致这种情况吗?Scientists found that both the Amhara and Tibetan highlanders possessed genetic variants associated with low hemoglobin levels.科学家发现阿姆哈拉人和西藏人都有基因变异以维持低血红蛋白水平。But they were not the same genes.但是他们的基因却不同。It appears that each group took a different evolutionary path to achieve the same outcome of dampening the usual response of increased hemoglobin.看起来他们走了不同的进化历程,却达到了相同的结果,那就是抑制人体在患高空症时血红蛋白的增长。How about all those vacationers in Colorado?在科罗拉多度假的人们怎么办呢?They will have to make do with their own lowland genes, for now.目前只能用他们的低地基因来勉强应付了。 /201309/258034黑龙江省哈尔滨市第八医院收费标准

哈尔滨市第四医院生孩子好吗哈尔滨人流哪里那好Plants may appear to be helpless in the face of hungry,toothy animals but many plants have evolved interesting systems of self-defense.植物在饥饿的咀齿动物面前似乎毫无防御,然而许多植物已经进化出了有趣的自我保护体系。Coarse meadow grasses are a good example.粗糙的蓝草是一个很好的例子。If you run your finger along a blade of coarse grass,you just might cut yourself.当你的手指滑过它的叶子,很可能将自己划伤。What makes it so sharp?它为什么如此锋利呢?A row of microscopic silica blades lines thegrass like tiny teeth, and most grasses have silica inside as well.因为在蓝草叶片边缘有一排细小的像牙齿似的硅片,并且大部分蓝草体内也含有硅。Although the silica doesn’tprevent animals from feasting on the grass, it is hard enough to wear down the animalsteethover time.虽然这些硅质不能阻止动物的尽情咀嚼,但它的硬度很高,长期食用会磨损动物的牙齿。Imagine trying to chomp that tough meadow grass with dull, worn teeth, you wouldn’tget too far!试想一下,用又老又钝的牙齿咀嚼那样的牧草,显然不会逍遥很久。The grasses must have evolved this bristling defense fairly early in their relationship with grazinganimals, because the anatomy of the animalsmouths has changed in response.蓝草一定很早以前就在与草食动物的“对抗”中进化出这种密集的齿状硅片。因为动物的口腔结构发生了相应的变化。The teeth ofmost mammals stop growing in adulthood.大多数哺乳类动物的牙齿在成年以后就停止了生长。But, the teeth of grazing animals like horses and cowshave evolved in a different way.但是马和牛等食草动物的牙齿,却产生了不同的进化。They continue to grow from the roots over the course of theanimalslives.它们从牙根不断生长,贯穿动物的整个生命周期。As the grassessilica blades wear away the teeth, continuous growth from the rootsat least partially compensates for the loss.由于蓝草的硅片磨损牙齿,从牙根不断生长的牙至少部分弥补了磨损。If an animal’s diet consists mostly of coarse meadowgrasses with silica blades, the animal still could develop extensive wearing and damage to its teeth.如果食草动物的食物以这种粗糙蓝草为主,那么磨损仍会加剧并对牙齿造成伤害。 201404/285009哈尔滨做无痛打胎好的医院Can you see that, theres a dolphin, dolphins, right down there.看见没?海豚。就在那边。To spot dolphins immediately was really unexpected.一下子就看到海豚,真是让人出乎意料。Come back, lets go, quick ,quick.过来,本,快点,快点!Ben and Nick, trying catch up with the dolphins.本和尼克想追上海豚。But soon find themselves tracing them up and down the beach.但很快就发现,他们在把鱼赶到海滩边。By late morning, they failed to catch a single shot.直到中午,他们还没有拍到一只。But the only wildlife around is a growing number of flies.周围只有苍蝇围着他们。Flies are unbelievable, they are such a pain.苍蝇太讨厌了,让人很痛苦。You just stand there when the action is going to start, they just..having like that.行动开始时,根本没想到会是这样。To help the team out, biologists Eric and Shane set up a lookout high above them in the cliff though.为了帮助摄制组,生物学家艾瑞克和谢伊在悬崖上设置了观察点。201407/315403双城区人民医院专家

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