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2019年10月17日 00:51:00 | 作者:最新口碑 | 来源:新华社
The mobile computing war officially moved from phones to “smart” watches on Tuesday, as Google formally launched entered battle with Apple to get its technology on to people’s wrists.谷歌(Google)周二发布了可在智能手表上运行的安卓移动软件新版本,与苹果公司(Apple)展开了对用户的“手腕之争”。这也意味着移动计算的战场正式从手机转移至智能手表。The internet search giant released a version of its Android mobile software designed to work on watches made by other companies – replicating the strategy it used to make its technology the dominant software platform for smartphones.这家互联网巨头发布了名为Android Wear的安卓移动软件。按照其一贯策略,这个软件可以用于其他公司制造的智能手表。凭借这类策略,谷歌技术也主导了智能手机软件平台。The release of Android Wear came a day after information was leaked to a technology blog showing Apple’s plans for a service allowing people to track personal health and fitness data.就在Android Wear发布一天前,一家技术客曾透露,苹果计划推出跟踪个人健康及健身数据的务。Rather than focusing on making their own “wearable” devices, the moves showed the rival companies were aiming to create broader platforms, capable of supporting devices from other companies, as they seek to dominate the next big personal tech opportunity.这对竞争对手的一系列举措表明,为寻求对下一次个人技术巨大机遇的主导权,两家公司并未将主要精力放在制作自己的“可穿戴”设备上,而是将目标放在了影响更为广泛的技术平台上,这类技术平台为其他公司生产的设备提供持。This platform approach also reflects the more fragmented nature of the emerging wearables market, which is aly starting to spawn a wide range of different gadgets – many of them designed as fashion accessories. Many different apps are also starting to appear, adding to the need for platforms that can draw personal data together or present it in an easy way.就在本周,谷歌表示,会将Android Wear开放给应用开发商,后者可以用它来修改现有安卓应用,使其可以在新一代智能手表上运行。LG已发布一张新款智能手表照片,这款智能手表将于今年年中前推出,运行的正是新的Android Wear系统。Google said it would give app developers access to its software this week, to let them start adapting their existing Android apps to work on the new generation of smartwatches. In one of the first hints of when the devices will start to become available, LG released an image of a smartwatch due sometime before the middle of the year and running the new Android Wear software.苹果公司也在开发智能手表,去年年中该公司加大了对智能手表的开发力度。不过目前还不清楚这款被广泛称为iWatch的可穿戴设备将于何时推出。Apple has also been working on a smartwatch, stepping up its development effort in the middle of last year, though it is unclear when the device, which has aly been widely nicknamed the iWatch, will appear.就在本周早些时候,客网站9to5mac上披露了一项名为Healthbook的苹果公司未公开务。该爆料显示,苹果希望通过收集和存储所有个人健身和健康的数据,令其产品成为用户个人生活的中心。Meanwhile, details of an unannounced Apple service, called Healthbook, were leaked earlier in the week to the blog site 9to5mac. These suggested that Apple hopes to put itself at the centre of users’ lives by giving them a place to collect and store all their personal fitness and health data, from their exercise patterns to the results of medical tests like blood analyses.这一爆料信息表明,苹果打算采取一种平台战略,通过从不同应用和监控设备收集数据来保自己的核心地位。The broad nature of the information pointed to a platform approach that would see Apple acting as the central point in collected data from different apps and monitoring devices.谷歌周二在网上推出的概念视频显示,安卓智能手表在极大程度上依赖谷歌的务及智能手机上已经存在的其他应用。 /201403/280867Are you certain your online activities are private? Think again.你确定你的上网活动是隐私吗?再想一想。Not only are your surfing sessions tracked by websites, search engines and social networks, but often your Internet provider, Web browser, government and potentially hundreds of online tracking companies.据《今日美国报》网站报道,不仅是你的浏览过程被网站、搜索引擎和社交网络跟踪,还会被你的网络务提供者,网页浏览器,政府以及上网络追踪公司所追踪。Whether it#39;s to collect valuable marketing data or prevent criminal activity, everything you think you#39;re doing privately in the comfort of your home is anything but private.不论是收集可贵的市场营销数据,或者是防范犯罪活动,所有你认为你在家里私下做的事情绝不是保密的。That said, there are a few ways to spend time online anonymously. The following are a few suggestions.即便如此,我们仍有一些方法匿名地畅游网络。以下便是一些建议。SMART SOFTWARE智能软件How does Facebook know to show you ads for your local gym or supermarket? In part it#39;s because your computer#39;s unique Internet Protocol (IP) address, assigned by your Internet provider, reveals your geographical whereabouts. Even if your computer generates a different IP address every time you boot up or log online, this number (e.g. can still tell your general location.脸书是如何向你呈现你当地的健身房或者超市的广告的?一部分是由于你电脑唯一的IP地址。这个地址注册在你的网络务提供商之下,揭示了你的地理位置。即使你的电脑每次连接登陆网络时,都产生一个不同的IP地址,这个数字(例如:仍然会暴露你的大体位置。There are a variety of solutions that can hide your Internet connection, allowing you to remain anonymous while online.你有许多的方法可以隐藏你的网络连接,使得你上网时保持匿名。Some are websites, such as free ;online proxy servers; that conceal your identity. Simply point the Web address (URL) to the proxy server and surf right from its website (check out proxy.org for a list of great options).一些是网站,例如免费的“网络代理务器”——可以隐藏你的身份。简单地将网络地址(URL)改成代理务器,并直接从网页浏览网站(请查看proxy.com的一张列出许多选项的清单)。Others prefer to download Virtual Private Network (VPN) software that encrypts your online sessions.其他的就倾向于下载虚拟专用网(VPN)软件——可以将你的网络部分加密。The browser-independent Hotspot Shield from AnchorFree (anchorfree.com), for example — available for Windows, Macs, iPhone and Android — channels all Web activities through a personal VPN and secures Internet communications by turning all HTTP traffic into the safer HTTPS (which is what your bank uses for a safe connection). There#39;s an ad-supported free version and a beefier ;elite; option (.95/year) with more bells and whistles.来自于AnchorFree(anchorfree.com)的独立浏览器热点屏蔽软件,举个例子——对于Windows,Mac,Iphone和Android操作系统均有效。它通过一个个人的VPN疏导所的网页活动,并转变所有HTTP通讯成为一个更安全的HTTPS来使网络交流更为安全(这就是你的运用的更为安全的连接)。一个无广告持的免费版本和一个更结实拥有更多修饰的“精锐”可供选择(.95/年)。Similarly, Tor is free software that defends you against Internet surveillance that threatens personal freedom and privacy. Short for ;The Onion Router; — which gets its name for its ;layered; approach to the encryption process — Tor (torproject.org) provides online anonymity as the software routes Internet traffic through a worldwide volunteer network of servers to conceal your location or online usage patterns.相同地,Tor是一个免费的软件——保护你不被威胁个人自由和隐私,免于网络监视。Tor是“The Onion Router; (洋葱路由器)的缩写。这名字的由来是由于它保密途径的”分层的”方式。该软件通过一个世界范围的志愿务器网络——可以藏匿你的位置或者上网习惯,将网络交流分路,Tor(torproject.org)提供网络的匿名性。USB STICKSU盘In some cases, software to encrypt your connection is kept on a USB drive — so you can remain safe and secure even when using a public PC.在一些情况下,软件对于你的连接保密是存储于一个USB储存盘上的——因而当你用一个公共的电脑时,你可确保安全和保密。SurfEasy Private Browser (.99 one-time fee; surfeasy.com) is a tiny USB key that fits into a credit card-shaped case to be kept in your wallet. When you plug it into a PC or Mac — be it your own computer or a public one — it instantly launches its own password-protected browser and you#39;re good to go (no proxy or network settings to configure).SurfEasy Private Browser (方便浏览的保密浏览器,.99 一次性缴费;surfeasy.com)是一个小小的USB钥匙——可以放入一个信用卡形状的盒子,并且放进你的钱包。当你将它插入一个电脑或者苹果电脑——随便是你自己的电脑或者一个公共电脑——这钥匙会立刻安装它自己的有密码保护的浏览器,如此一劳永逸(无需设定代理或者网络设置)。Your browsing session is handled through SurfEasy#39;s fast and secure private proxy network. Your IP address will be masked throughout the session.你的浏览部分通过SurfEasy快速和安全的隐私代理网络处理。你的IP地址在整个过程中都会被掩藏。The company also has a new downloadable product called SurfEasy VPN that can protect computers, smartphones and tablets.这家公司同时也有个新的可供下载的产品叫做SurfEasy VPN (轻松浏览虚拟专用网)——可以保护电脑,智能手机以及平板电脑。Also consider Tails (tails.boum.org), which can be downloaded and installed onto a USB stick to run independently of the computer#39;s original operating system. Like SurfEasy, it lets you browse the Web anonymously — on virtually any computer — as all connections are channeled through the aforementioned Tor network.另外,考虑一下Tails (tails.boum.org)——可以单独下载并且安装于U盘上,并且可独立于电脑原本的操作系统单独运行。例如 SurfEasy,让你匿名地浏览网页——实际上在任何电脑上——因为所有的连接都由上述提及的Tor网络引导。BROWSER TWEAKS特殊浏览器Anonymous proxy software is a great way to mask your IP address online, but there is still plenty of information about your Web-surfing habits stored on your computer — which could also be viewed over a network, say, at the office, by your IT department.匿名代理软件是一个隐藏你IP地址的绝妙方法,但是却仍有许多关于你的网页浏览习惯的信息存储于你的电脑,这些也可以被网络查看,比如说,在办公室,被你的IT部门(网路技术部门)。At least it#39;s somewhat easy to control your privacy settings directly in your Web browser, unless your company forbids non-administrators from making changes to your browser settings.至少这样直接在你的网络浏览器里,控制你的隐私设置比较容易,除非你的电脑禁止非管理员对你的浏览设置做出改变。You can disable cookies — tiny text files stored on your computer with information about where you#39;ve been online, passwords and other info — and you should also delete your browser history to cover your tracks. All major Web browsers — such as Internet Explorer, Firefox, Chrome or Safari — allow you to delete your surfing history: Simply go to the Options or Settings in your favorite browser and you#39;ll see how to do this.你可以使得信息记录程序(cookies)——储存于你的电脑的一点点的关于你上网浏览过什么,密码以及其他信息的文字文档,不工作。你也应当删除你的浏览记录来掩藏你的轨迹。所有主要的网络浏览器——例如Internet Explorer(网络探索者),Firefox(火狐),Chrome(谷歌浏览器)或者Safari(苹果浏览器)——都允许你删除你的浏览历史:简单地找到选项或者设置菜单,你会明白如何删除浏览历史。You might want to turn off auto-complete or someone on your computer could type in a few letters in a search engine or Web address (URL) bar and any recent places you visited could fill in automatically. And don#39;t click to allow sites to ;remember my password; or someone could gain access to your private or financial information.你或许想要关闭自动完成功能,否则某人在你的电脑上仅仅在搜索引擎或者地址栏中输入一些字母,任何你的近期浏览过的地址会自动地填写。还有,不要选择允许网站“记住我的密码”否则某人可以获得你的隐私或者账户的信息。The easiest thing to do, however, is to see if your Web browser has settings for surfing incognito — most of the major browsers do today. By enabling these privacy settings, your browser won#39;t save any history (and download history), search queries, cookies or passwords.不过最简单的方法是,看你的网络浏览器时候有无痕浏览的选项——大多数主要的浏览器确有此项功能。通过启动这些隐私设置,你的浏览器不会保存任何历史(以及下载历史),搜索词条,信息记录(cookies)或者密码。When it comes to your search engine, you could choose not to save your history. Google, for example, was recently ordered to make this easier for users, to avoid European privacy rules. You could also choose not to log into your Google account when using these services (or not use them at all) or you might want to install one of the free browser plug-ins that tell Google and other advertisers to back off.说到你的搜索引擎,你可以选择不保存你的历史,举个例子,比如谷歌,最近接到命令为客户把此项功能简易化,来防止欧洲的隐私条例。当你运用这些务的时候(或者根本不用),你也可以选择不登陆你的谷歌账户,否则你或许会想要安装某个免费的浏览器插件,让谷歌以及其他的广告商远离你。Finally, you might have heard Facebook is going to start sharing Web-browsing history it collects with advertisers to display more targeted ads — yes, even on non-Facebook sites you visit. But you can opt out of this within Facebook#39;s Privacy settings.最后,你或许已经听说过脸书将会和广告商分享它收集的网页浏览历史,来呈现更有针对性的广告——是的,甚至你浏览的非脸书的网站上。但你可以在脸书的隐私设置中选择逃离这些。 /201406/308587

If you were to track the upgrades for your Apple iPhone or Toyota Prius from their introduction to today, you will see a familiar arc in the technology industry: performance multiplies, the product is refined, jobs are created, even entire industries are reworked.如果回顾一下苹果公司(Apple)的iPhone或丰田(Toyota)普锐斯(Prius)混合动力车从最初型号到现有版本的发展过程,人们会发现技术行业一个常见的轨迹:性能翻倍提升,产品更精致,创造了无数就业岗位,甚至颠覆了整个行业。Consider, for example, that the iPhone’s theoretical maximum download speed on cellular networks went from 1 megabyte per second for the 2007 “2G” iPhone to 300 mbps for today’s 5s model. Its display more than doubled in pixel density, its camera transformed from cheap afterthought to serious photography tool, and its software capabilities are far more robust than when the device was introduced. (Even the App Store is a second-generation feature.)例如,iPhone在蜂窝网络中最大的理论下载速度已从2007年“2G”iPhone的1兆字节/秒上升至如今5s型号的300兆字节/秒。其显示屏的像素密度增加了一倍多,摄像头已从廉价的配件转变为一种实用的照相工具,而且其软件能力要比iPhone诞生之时强大太多太多。(即便是苹果应用商店如今也已发展到第二代了。)Similarly, Toyota’s Prius hybrid car evolved from a neighborhood oddity (and celebrity eco-accessory) in 2000 to a best-selling vehicle in Japan and California. The engine in today’s model is 20 percent lighter (and offers 20 percent more total horsepower) than the original. Its distance-per-charge is longer. Without the Prius, it can be argued, there would be no Tesla.同样,丰田的普锐斯混合动力车从2000年的邻家怪胎(以及明星彰显其环保态度的配饰)摇身一变为日本和加州最畅销的交通工具。当前车型引擎的重量较最初型号轻了20%(总功率增加了20%),而且单次充电后行驶的里程更长。有人会说,没有普锐斯,就不会有如今的特斯拉电动车(Tesla)。There’s is one component of all of these things that hasn’t changed in that time period: the lithium-ion battery. Whether in the iPhone, the Prius, and even the Tesla Model S, the Li-ion battery is essentially made of the same stuff as those first introduced by Sony in 1991. That’s not to say that innovation hasn’t happened around them, of course. Device-makers have become better at charging them, cooling them, and controlling how much power they draw into our phones, cars, laptops, and USB gadgets. But they’re still largely the same battery. Even Tesla’s billion plans for a “giga”-sized battery factory involve the manufacture of—you guessed it—lithium-ion packs.然而在这些设备中,有一个组件这些年来一直没有变化,那就是锂离子电池。不管是在iPhone,还是普锐斯,甚至是特斯拉S车型,锂电池用的还是1991年索尼公司(Sony)推出这一产品时所用的材料。当然,这并不是说人们没有针对这种电池进行过创新。设备制造商在充电效率、冷却和控制进入手机、汽车、笔记本和USB元件的电流流量方面做得越来越好,但这些电池的芯却没有怎么换过。即便是特斯拉计划建造的50亿美元超大型电池生产厂生产的仍是(如你所料)锂电池组。Upon further investigation, there is little consensus on what kind of battery technology may replace lithium ion. There aren’t even rumors.进一步的调查发现,人们对于哪一种电池技术可能能够取代锂电池仍是众说纷纭,甚至连这方面的谣言都是寥寥无几。To find out why, Fortune posed a simple question to five established researchers working on next-generation batteries, a behavioral economist, and a battery industry executive: Why is battery technology moving so much slower than hardware?为探究其原因,《财富》(Fortune)向致力于开发下一代电池的5名知名研究人员、一名行为经济学家和一名电池行业高管提出了一个简单的问题:为什么电池技术的发展速度要比硬件慢如此之多?As you’ll soon find out, the answer is one part chemistry, one part psychology, and two parts the answer to a counter-question: Who really wants to be the first to drive with a new type of battery that hasn’t benefited from two decades of development?接下来你便会发现,的一成与化学有关,一成与心理学有关,而两成则与上述问题的反问有关:对于一项未经过二十年发展的新电池技术,一旦装上汽车,谁想成为首位驾驶该车的人?Today’s battery tech: dense, hot, tricky当今的电池技术:密度大、发热量大、问题多Lithium-ion battery technology is in many ways the workhorse of portable power.锂离子电池技术在很多方面都是移动电源的主力军。Lithium’s atomic number is three, which, if you remember middle-school chemistry, means that it has three protons, is very lightweight, and can be packed more densely than any element other than hydrogen or helium. Lithium is a known quantity to chemists, says Carlo Segre, professor of physics at the Illinois Institute of Technology in Chicago, and we mostly understand how it flows inside a battery.锂的原子量是3,如果你还记得中学化学的话,这意味着它有三个质子,非常轻,是除了氢和氦之外单位体积可填充密度最高的元素。芝加哥伊利诺伊州理工大学(Illinois Institute of Technology)物理学教授卡洛o塞格雷表示,锂的物理量为化学家们所熟知,我们几乎掌握了锂离子在电池中流动的方式。“I think it really boils down to, the reason lithium is so good, is that it’s very light, and you can get it through a membrane very easily,” Segre says. “And the potential difference (voltage) you can generate is one of the highest we know.”塞格雷说,“我认为归根结底,锂如此好的原因在于,它非常轻,而且能够轻易地穿透隔离膜。而且其产生的电压是已知材料中最高的之一。”It’s not just lithium that goes into a Li-ion battery. The element gets mixed with magnesium (for personal gadgets and vehicles), iron phosphate (for heavy-duty work), and other metals. That mixture flows into another material to create voltage: graphite, titanium solutions, silicon, and different forms of carbon, depending. In most non-industrial devices used in relatively safe conditions, you have lithium manganese oxide flowing into graphite, because those materials are cheap, relatively safe, and dense.锂并不是锂电池里的唯一材料,其中还混有锰(个人电子产品和交通工具)、磷酸铁(高强度工作)和其他金属。为了产生电压,这种混合物会流经另一种材料:石墨、钛溶液、硅和不同形式的碳(依情况而定)。对于大多数在相对安全的环境中所使用的非工业设备来说,流经石墨的是锂锰氧化物,因为这种材料价格低廉,相对安全,而且密度高。But there are quite a few problems with the old faithful. The process generates heat in a dense space, requiring some kind of cooling system. (A tremendous amount of work went into Tesla’s car-length liquid cooling rig, for example.) The electrolyte that conducts lithium’s flow adds weight. The cells lose their capacity over time. Charging the battery, which makes the lithium flow back, could be quicker. And though it’s rare, we have seen that tightly packed batteries full of fluids, made very hot, can sometimes puncture or explode.但是这一老产品也存在一些问题。这一进程会在一个高密度空间内产生热量,需要采取一些冷却措施。(例如,与特斯拉车身长度相当的液态冷却设备担负了大量的冷却工作。)传导锂离子的电解液增加了电池的重量。电芯的容量在一段时间后就会下降。充电会让锂离子回流,但这一进程可以更快一些。充满电解质的高密度锂电池在发热量超过一定程度之后有时会爆浆或爆炸,虽然这一情况很少见。What we might use next: air今后我们可能会使用空气Chandrasekhar “Spike” Narayan, director of science and technology at IBM Research, is part of the Battery 500 Project. The goal is to get batteries to power a car of average cost on a 500-mile trip. IBM won’t build the batteries itself, but will partner with manufacturing and consumer companies to get them into the wild.IBM研究院(IBM Research)科技部主任钱德拉塞卡尔o纳拉延是电池500项目(Battery 500 Project)的成员。该项目的目标是,开发能够提供行驶500英里路程所需电量的电池。IBM公司自身并不会生产电池,而是与消费类产品制造商开展合作,将这一技术带到现实中。After years of work, Narayan sees a future for lithium-air technology, which replaces graphite and other metals with oxygen, refreshed by the car itself. Such batteries could be lighter, safer, and last far longer. But working with new mixtures, pushing them into new materials, and seeing how safe they are over thousands of charge cycles takes a very, very long time.经过多年的努力之后,纳拉延看到了锂-空气技术的前景,即用汽车自身补给的氧气取代石墨和其他的金属。这类电池可以变得更轻,更安全,而且供电时间也更长。但是研发新的混合物,将它们制成新材料,并检测其在数千辆汽车上的安全性,需要花费非常漫长的时间。“There is no guiding principle that suggests you get improvement from year to year,” Narayan says. “There is no magic knob you can turn. The only way we can get to that kind of paradigm is a completely new kind of chemistry, and innovation doesn’t work like that.”纳拉延说:“目前没有一个指导性原则显示,我们能够年复一年地获得进步,也没有捷径可以走。要得到这种范式,唯有创建一种全新的化学反应,而这一点并非创新所能企及的。”Currently, lithium-air batteries have to overcome problems with blockages, internal rust, and stability. Even if air batteries are smoothed into a viable product, Narayan sees a future where battery technology is no longer one-size-fits all. “It may not be a great technology for power grid storage, for example. Especially when there is a size requirement, we may see differentiation among battery types soon.”当前,锂-空气电池必须克堵塞、内部腐蚀和稳定性问题。即便空气电池能够顺利地演变为一种可行产品,纳拉延认为,在今后,电池技术将不再是“通用型”。“例如,对于电网存储来说,它或许不是什么好技术。尤其是有尺寸要求的行业,我们或许很快将看到多种多样的电池类型。”What we can do in the meantime: get cheaper当前我们能做些什么:降低价格Kevin Bai and Xuan “Joe” Zhou at Kettering University work in labs and in battery industry research, but they talk like car shoppers than laboratory wonks. With the hybrid vehicles of today, Zhou notes, there are lots of trade-offs, in several ways.凯特林大学(Kettering University)的凯文o白和周轩(音译)在实验室中从事电池行业研究,但他们的谈吐更像是买车人而不是实验室的书呆子。周轩表示,现今的混合动力车存在多方面的优缺点。“Right now [hybrid] batteries are selling for 0 to 0 per kilowatt hour, but they should be 0,” Zhou says. “And every dollar you spend in the battery is another dollar in cooling. If the car needs a ,000 battery, it’s a ,000 cooling system.” What’s more, Bai notes, the size of such a battery eats up trunk or seating space. The scientists agree that an electric vehicle should feel like less of a financial albatross.周轩说:“目前,混合动力的售价是每千瓦时500-600美元,但合理的价格应该是200美元。而且冷却系统的价格跟电池的价格是差不多的。如果汽车需要6,000美元的电池,那么就需要6,000美元的冷却系统。”此外,凯文o白指出,这类电池的体积蚕食了本应属于后备箱或乘坐的空间。两位科学家也认为,电动汽车不应给人们带来沉重的财务负担。But it’s anybody’s guess as to which current materials may work out to have the safest, coolest, and most lightweight mix, while still selling for less than today’s offerings.但是谁也不知道,哪些现有材料才能构造出最安全、发热量最低和重量最轻的电池混合材料,而且其价格要比现有的产品便宜。Zinc-air batteries, used in hearing aids today, are seeing renewed interest, especially given zinc’s easy availability. The same goes for sodium-air, which are cheaper and easier to assemble, if not as potentially powerful as lithium-air. There are also attempts to replace the graphite and carbon solids in batteries with silicon, though silicon isn’t cheap. Or we might just improve the cost and performance of the lithium-iron batteries in our drills and motorcycles in the meantime.现今在助听领域使用的锌-空气电池重新激起了人们的兴趣,而且尤为重要的一点在于,锌很容易获取。钠-空气电池也是一样,成本更低,而且组装起来更容易,只是潜在功率赶不上锂-空气电池。人们还尝试过用硅来取代石墨和固体碳,但是硅并不便宜。或者,我们可以只专注于改善实验室和托车使用的锂-铁电池的成本和性能。In many ways, Bai says, building larger battery plants, better battery management tools, and a smarter power grid for charging is going to bear greater fruit than waiting on one or another chemical combo to pay off.凯文o白表示,建造更大规模的电池厂、开发更好的电池管理工具以及更加智能的充电电网在很多方面要比等待一两项新化合物获得成功更为实在。“We are actually very far away from a brand-new battery for vehicles,” Bai says. “The automotive industry, they must feel they can stand behind 10 years of testing before they are comfortable trying a new material.” It will be at least 2020, he says, before you see zinc-air batteries in the first four-wheeled vehicles–and then a long while more before that battery technology matures.凯文o白说:“我们实际上离使用全新电池的交通工具还很远很远。只有在新材料经过10年的测试之后,汽车行业才能放心使用新材料。”他表示,人们至少要等到2020年才能看见使用锌-空气电池的四轮车辆,然后,人们需要更长的时间才能看到这一电池技术的成熟。What we can do in the future: nano-engineer materials未来我们能做什么:纳米工程材料Don’t give up on lithium-ion just yet, says Partha Mukherjee, a professor at Texas Aamp;M University and leader in the American Society of Mechanical Engineers’ Nanoengineering for Energy and Sustainability group. We might still be using it, but with materials that have gained some new powers in the lab.德克萨斯农工大学(Aamp;M University)教授、美国机械工程师协会(American Society of Mechanical Engineers)能源和可持续性纳米工程小组成员帕沙o穆克荷吉表示,现在还没到放弃锂离子电池的时候。我们可能仍会用它,但它将与我们在实验室中获得新能力的材料混合使用。Nanoengineers might dig into the molecular structure of battery materials to speed up how they transfer more voltage per cell. There might be a change in the way the electrolyte conveys lithium ions so that “traffic jams” don’t occur and charging is much faster. You could design a thinner, stronger, but still flexible membrane for batteries that allows for swelling under heat but never breaks. Or go for broke and develop a material that absorbs more lithium ions than carbon, air, or any material we know.纳米工程师可能会对电池材料的分子结构进行深入研究,以加速电池单元电压的产生速度,并提升其转换效率。电解质携带锂离子的方式可能会发生改变,以杜绝“交通拥堵现象”,并缩短充电时间。人们可能会设计出更薄、更强大但伸缩依然自如的电池膜,这样,即便电池受热膨胀,也不会爆浆。或者一心一意开发能够比碳、空气或任何已知材料吸附更多锂离子的材料。“The fundamental question we need to ask is, ‘How about starting from the bottom up?” Mukherjee says. “That is the mesoscale paradigm that must be addressed. Can we make materials that are more tolerant of what we need batteries to do?”穆克荷吉说:“我们需要询问的最根本的问题在于,‘是否可以从头再来?’。这就是必须解决的中尺度模型。我们是否能增加材料的宽容度,以满足我们对于电池的诉求?”In the meantime: get perspective与此同时:着眼于长远A year ago Segre, of the Illinois Institute of Technology, received a .4 million prize from the U.S. Department of Energy to develop a “flow battery” for car applications. Flow batteries store their active chemicals in external tanks and pass it through the battery structure itself. Segre’s work focuses on developing a liquid that is reactive and powerful enough to compensate for the liquid weight trade-off.一年前,伊利诺伊理工大学的塞格雷从美国能源部获得了340万美元的奖金,用于开发汽车用“流体电池”。流体电池将其活性化合物储存在外部储罐中,然后流经电池结构内部。塞格雷的工作专注于开发具有足够活性和能量的液体介质,以抵消液体的重量劣势。A flow battery might work in cars and power grid applications, but it will never work for a phone or laptop. Segre, like most researchers, knows it will be a long series of experiments until researchers hit upon a few different material combinations for batteries. In the meantime, “It’s especially frustrating for most of us because the battery dies, the capacity drops, after a couple years, while the electronics it powers could go on and on.”流体电池或许可以应用于汽车和电网,但却无法适用于手机或笔记本。与其他的研究人员一样,塞格雷深知,这将是一个漫长的实验过程,除非研究人员能够在偶然间发现几种能用于电池的不同材料组合。与此同时,“对于大多数人来说,这是一件尤为痛苦的事情,因为几年过后,电量没了,容量也下降了,然而电池供电的电子产品却在不断前进。”For decades, we lived within Moore’s Law, which predicted that the number of transistors packed into a processor would double every two years, providing a steady gallop of technology improvement. We are now approaching a point at which transistors are near atomic-scale, chips can’t fit many more processors, and we’re unhappy with having the same kinds of batteries in our devices.过去几十年中,我们一直生活在尔定律(Moore#39;s Law)当中。根据该定律,处理器中的晶体管数量每两年会翻一番,而这也说明了技术进步的稳定性。我们目前所面临的局势是,晶体管尺寸已接近原子水平,芯片无法容纳更多的处理器,而且我们对设备中一成不变的电池感到不满。In other words, when it comes to physics, there’s no app for that. Which can be a bitter pill for tech-savvy consumers to swallow as they become acclimated to regular advancements in every other part of their electronic devices, says Michal Ann Strahilevitz, a professor of marketing at Golden Gate University.换句话来说,物理中是没有应用程序的。金门大学(Golden Gate University)市场营销教授米盖尔o安o斯特拉赫维茨表示,这对于深谙技术的消费者来说可能有点难以接受,因为他们已经习惯了电子设备每一部件都会定期改良。“Adapting to upgrades is easy, and the more you are upgraded, the more you expect further upgrades,” Strahilevitz says. “In a world where [gadgets] keep getting better and more efficient, we feel we have a right to that. We ask, ‘Why can’t they be more wonderful than this?#39;”斯特拉赫维茨说:“适应升级很容易,得到的升级越多,对进一步升级的期望也就越大。在这个电子产品越来越好,性能越来越高的世界中,我们觉得这是我们应享有的权利。我们会问,‘为什么电池不能变得更好呢?’” /201408/323621

The last time we wrote about Doug Kass -- a small hedge fund manager with a large presence on CN -- it was to document a neat little trick he played on his Twitter feed in February, the day before Apple#39;s annual shareholder meeting.我们上一次提到道格#8226;卡斯还是在今年 2 月,苹果年度股东大会的前一天。卡斯是一家小型对冲基金公司的经理,在美国全国广播公司财经频道(CN)颇有影响力。当时那篇文章提到了他在Twitter上玩的一个小把戏。Apple#39;s (AAPL) share price was down and Kass was long the stock. He tweeted a rumor that the company was about to announce a split, the stock went up, he sold his shares at a profit, tweeted that the rumor was baseless and then spent the rest of the day hurling insults at his critics. (See A day in the Twitter life of Doug Kass.)当时,苹果(Apple)股价下跌,而卡斯正在做多苹果股票。他在Twitter上发布传闻称,苹果即将宣布分拆。受此消息影响,苹果股价出现上涨,而卡斯在盈利之后便抛售了所持股票。他随后又发布消息称传闻并无依据,随后遭到了大量指责。(参阅道格#8226;卡斯在Twitter上的一天。)Well, Kass is at it again. On Sunday, citing the same ;Gnome; that was the source for his stock split story, he tweeted:如今,卡斯又故伎重施。他援引与其股票分割传闻为同一个消息来源的“Gnome”的说法称:Kass, it turns out, is not alone in suggesting that the solution to Apple#39;s woes on Wall Street is to fire its CEO. We#39;ve been hearing whispers to that effect from disgruntled shareholders for weeks, but now -- two days before Cook is scheduled to report Apple#39;s March quarterly earnings -- they#39;ve come to the surface.为了取悦华尔街,苹果应该炒掉库克,持这种观点者不仅仅只有卡斯一个人。数周以来,不满的股东们都在私下议论纷纷,大体意思都是要求库克下台。如今,距离苹果发布 2013 财年第二财季财报还有两天,这些不满情绪正在浮出水面。And who#39;s doing that? Let#39;s take a look:我们来看看放出这些风声的都是谁:We#39;ve got the tweet from Doug Kass, whose main Apple-related claim to fame was to publish his ;Bear Case for Apple; the day before the stock began a nosedive that lopped 0 billion off the market cap of the world#39;s most valuable company.我们已经知道了道格#8226;卡斯通过Twitter发布的消息。而真正使他备受关注的是在苹果公司股票暴跌,使这家全球最有价值公司市值缩水3亿之前,他所发表的《看跌苹果》一文。We#39;ve got The impossible task of fixing Apple by Rob Enderle, a consultant for Dell (DELL), Microsoft (MSFT), Hewlett-Packard (HPQ) and others, who has made a career of bad-mouthing Apple in print and on TV. (For background on Enderle, you can start with John Gruber#39;s 2003 Putting the #39;anal#39; in #39;analyst#39;.)知名科技行业顾问罗#8226;恩代尔撰写了一篇题为《修复苹果,不可能完成的任务》的文章。他是戴尔(Dell)、微软(Microsoft)和惠普(Hewlett-Packard)等公司的顾问,长期以来一直在纸媒和电视上唱空苹果。(关于恩代尔的背景资料,可从2003年约翰#8226;格鲁布的《堵住‘大嘴分析师’的嘴》一文开始查阅。)We#39;ve got Sunday#39;s Is Apple Looking For A Replacement For CEO Cook? in Forbes.com, the online arm of a once-respected business publication whose experiment in what it calls ;incentive-based, entrepreneurial journalism; has led to what Macworld calls ;a relentless clown show of anti-Apple contributors.;《福布斯》网站上周日刊登了一篇题为《苹果是否正在寻找 CEO 库克的接班人》的文章。作为一家商业期刊的网络版,这个网站一度倍受尊敬。不过这篇文章被 Macworld 杂志指责为“代表反苹果作者的小丑表演”。Make no mistake, the people who want Tim Cook#39;s head on a spike are not friends of Apple. As far as I know, he still has the deep respect of the analysts who know the company best and -- most important -- the confidence of the board of directors who granted a million restricted shares of Apple as an incentive for him to stick around for at least a decade.毫无疑问,希望库克下台的投资者并不是苹果的朋友。据我所知,了解苹果的分析师对库克仍然非常尊重。更重要的是,苹果董事会向库克提供了 100 万股受限股,作为吸引库克留在苹果的激励措施。它体现了董事会对库克的信心。For the record, Apple is still trading higher today than it was when Cook replaced Steve Jobs. The forces that drove the stock up to over 0 and then down to below 0 seem to me to have more to do with a dysfunctional securities market than anything Cook has done as CEO.目前,苹果股价仍高于库克接替乔布斯出任苹果 CEO 时的价格。我认为,苹果股价上涨至 700 多美元,随后回落至 390 美元,更多的是因为股票市场的机能失调,与库克担任 CEO没有什么关系。;The market is crying uncle and something has got to give,; says Oracle Investment#39;s Laurence Isaac Balter, who has been banging the ;Cook must go; drum for weeks.投资公司Oracle Investment 的劳伦斯#8226;艾萨克#8226;巴尔特过去几周中一直在鼓吹“库克必须离开苹果”。他说:“市场已经投降,必须有所作为。”;If a stock rally hits on this rumor before earnings it will be a sign for sure.;“如果在财报发布前股价受这一传闻刺激出现上涨,那么将是肯定的信号。”Now that#39;s rich.这可真够搞笑的。UPDATE: Rocco Pendola, who blows hot and cold on Apple, weighed in to say he#39;s been publicly lobbying for Cook#39;s ouster in his column on The Street since last Wednesday, including a piece Monday morning that called the decision to recommend Cook as CEO the worst decision Steve Jobs ever made.最新消息:对苹果的态度一直摇摆不定的知名投资人洛克#8226;彭多拉也在 The Street 网站的专栏上发布消息称,他从上周三开始一直在公开游说苹果驱逐库克。他在本周一的一篇文章中表示,选择库克作为 CEO 是乔布斯一生中最大的决策失误。 /201304/236758

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