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铁东区私密整形多少钱长春权威的妇科医院Dermatologists have been telling patients for years that using sunscreen regularly can protect skin against aging. Now there#39;s research to back that up.皮肤科医生多年来一直告诫患者,经常使用防晒霜能够防止皮肤老化。如今,这种说法有了研究据的持。In a study published in the Annals of Internal Medicine, researchers showed that people instructed to apply sunscreen every day showed 24% less skin aging, as measured by lines and coarseness of the skin, than those told to use the cream as they usually do.在《内科学年鉴》(Annals of Internal Medicine)上刊登的一篇论文中,研究人员指出,按指示每天涂抹防晒霜的人皮肤老化程度比被告知只是按照平时习惯使用防晒霜的人低24%。皮肤老化程度是以皮肤的皱纹和粗糙度来衡量的。#39;This is great fodder for us to encourage people to use sunscreen, #39; said Jeffrey Dover, a dermatologist in Chestnut Hill, Mass. #39;I will e this paper every day.#39;马萨诸塞州切斯纳特希尔(Chestnut Hill)的皮肤科医生杰弗瑞#8226;多弗(Jeffrey Dover)说:“这是我们鼓励大家使用防晒霜的绝佳依据。我每天都会引用这篇论文。”Sunscreen has long been touted as a way to stave off photoaging, or changes to the skin caused by sun exposure. But there wasn#39;t hard evidence in humans to support the claim, study authors said. A trial published in 1995 involved 35 people with past skin cancer and found no evidence of sunscreen#39;s protective effect, measured by looking at skin biopsies under a microscope. But larger, randomized trials open to the larger community hadn#39;t been done, for logistical and cost reasons.防晒霜长久以来一直被说成是抑制光老化(由日晒导致的皮肤变化)的方式。但论文作者称,以往的人体试验中并没有持这种说法的有力据。1995年发表的一项试验覆盖了35名曾罹患皮肤癌的人,该试验未发现防晒霜具有保护效果的据(通过显微镜下皮肤活检来衡量)。但受具体操作和费用等因素影响,针对较大群体的大规模随机试验并未进行。This study, part of a long-running skin-cancer-prevention trial, covered 903 adults younger than 55 living in Nambour, Australia, near the country#39;s Sunshine Coast. All study participants were given sunscreen with a sun protection factor (SPF) of 15+. Half were randomly to be instructed to apply the sunscreen daily to exposed areas, reapplying after water immersion, heavy sweating or several hours spent outdoors, while half were told to use it as they normally would.该研究是一项长期性皮肤癌预防试验的组成部分,覆盖了903名55岁以下、居住在澳大利亚楠伯(Nambour)(靠近该国的阳光海岸(Sunshine Coast))的成年人。研究人员给所有试验参加者发放了防晒系数(SPF)为15+的防晒霜。研究者随机选择其中半数的试验对象,要求他们每天在皮肤裸部位涂抹防晒霜,并在被水浸泡、大汗淋漓或在户外待几个小时后补涂防晒霜。另有半数的人被要求按他们自己平时的习惯使用防晒霜。By the end of the study, which was funded by the Australian government, 77% of those told to use sunscreen daily were using it at least three to four days a week, compared with 33% of the control group. (The sunscreen was provided by a sunscreen manufacturer.)这项研究由澳大利亚政府资助。到试验结束时,被要求每天擦防晒霜的受试者中有77%的人一周至少使用三到四天,而控制组则只有33%的人使用(试验中使用的防晒霜是由一家防晒霜生产商提供的)。Researchers took silicone impressions of the backs of participants#39; hands at the beginning of the study and after 4#189; years. Trained assessors then graded the patterns of lines and skin coarseness on the hand impressions on a scale of one to six. The damage seen on the surface of the skin reflects the tissue damage underneath the skin, said Adèle Green, senior scientist and head of cancer and population studies at Queensland Institute of Medical Research in Australia and lead author of the study.研究人员在研究刚开始时以及四年半后对受试者的手背取了硅胶印模。接下来,经过专门训练的评估人员按照从一到六的等级对手部印模的纹路和皮肤粗糙程度进行评分。澳大利亚昆士兰医学研究院(Queensland Institute of Medical Research)高级科学家、癌症和人口学研究负责人、该研究论文第一作者阿黛尔#8226;格林(Ad口le Green)称,皮肤表面的受损情况能够反映出皮下组织的损伤。Participants were under 55 to assure that aging effects were the result of sun exposure, not the natural aging process, Dr. Green said.格林说,为了确保老化效应是由日晒,而不是由自然衰老过程引起的,试验参加者年龄都在55岁以下。The results have a #39;double significance, #39; she said, since the reduced skin damage from UV rays also translates to a lower risk of skin cancer.她说,这些结果有“双重意义”,因为减少紫外线引起的皮肤损伤也会降低皮肤癌风险。Dermatologists said vanity is a strong motivating force when it comes to sunscreen use. That#39;s particularly true for young people, whose sunburns may put them at risk for skin cancer decades later, said James Spencer, a dermatologist in St. Petersburg, Fla. The threat of wrinkles is often a more powerful behavior-changer than the threat of cancer, he said. (Neither Dr. Spencer nor Dr. Dover was affiliated with the study.)皮肤科医生表示,虚荣心是人们使用防晒霜的强大动力。佛罗里达州圣彼得斯堡(St. Petersburg)的皮肤科医生詹姆斯#8226;斯潘塞(James Spencer)表示,对年轻人来说尤其如此,年轻人被晒伤可能会使他们在几十年后面临患皮肤癌风险。他说,与癌症风险相比,产生皱纹的风险通常更能促使人们改变行为(斯宾塞医生和多弗医生均未参与此项研究)。Rules implemented last year by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration say that only sunscreens that are broad-spectrum─protecting against both UVA and UVB rays─and that have an SPF of 15 or higher can claim to reduce the risk of early skin aging and skin cancer. Both types of rays are implicated in photoaging and cancer, Dr. Green said. Products that don#39;t protect against both types of rays or that have an SPF between 2 and 14 can claim only to help prevent sunburn.根据美国食品和药物(U.S. Food and Drug Administration)去年实施的规定,只有广谱防晒霜──能同时防范长波紫外线和中波紫外线─和防晒系数在15或以上的防晒霜才可以声称能够降低皮肤提前老化和皮肤癌风险。格林说,这两种紫外线都与光老化和癌症有关联。不能同时防护这两种紫外线或者防晒系数在2到14之间的防晒霜只能声称有助于防止晒伤。The new rules also say that products claiming water resistance must say how long a user can expect to get that protection while swimming or sweating, either 40 minutes or 80 minutes. And sunscreens can no longer be called #39;sunblocks#39; or be labeled as #39;waterproof#39; or #39;sweatproof.#39;此外,根据新规定,声称具有防水效果的产品必须说明使用者游泳或出汗时防晒效果能保持多久,是40分钟还是80分钟。此外,防晒霜(sunscreen)不能再被称为“日光隔离霜”(sunblock),标签上也不能再单纯使用“防水”(waterproof)或“防汗”(sweatproof)等字眼。Dr. Spencer recommends that people look for water-resistant, broad-spectrum products with an SPF of at least 30. #39;Don#39;t be shy about putting it on, #39; he said. #39;You#39;re not getting the SPF on the bottle if you#39;re putting it on too lightly.#39;斯潘塞建议人们使用防晒指数至少为30的防水广谱产品。他说:“别怕抹防晒霜,如果你抹得太薄,就达不到瓶子上说的防晒指数。”#39;Look for something you like, or you won#39;t use it, #39; Dr. Dover added. #39;And don#39;t have a full tube by the end of the summer.#39;多弗补充称:“要找你喜欢的防晒霜,否则你是不会用的。不要等到夏天结束时还有一整管。”Since experimental evidence has suggested that antioxidants consumed orally, such as beta carotene, can reduce signs of sun-related skin damage, the study also looked at whether a daily 30-milligram beta carotene supplement could protect against skin aging.由于有试验据显示每日口抗氧化剂(如β胡萝卜素)能够减少日晒引起的皮肤损伤痕迹,该研究也考察了每天用30毫克β胡萝卜素补充剂能否减缓皮肤老化。Researchers found no difference between those who took the supplement and those who didn#39;t, though because of the number of study participants, researchers said they couldn#39;t rule out a small effect one way or the other in certain groups of people.研究人员发现,用补充剂者和未用补充剂者并没有区别,不过研究人员表示,考虑到受试者的人数有限,他们不排除β胡萝卜素会对特定人群产生一定的微弱影响。 /201306/245499吉林长春市妇幼保健院在那个区 长春无痛人流手术妇科医院

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长春看妇科病那家医院比较好 In the past eight months before Cyprus erupted people have frequently reminded me, often with a smirk, of a forecast I made in late November 2011. On these pages, I declared that eurozone leaders had 10 days to save the euro. I made an ultimately similar, though less dramatic, prediction in 2006 when I wrote that Romano Prodi’s administration offered Italy’s last chance to achieve a sustainable position in the eurozone.塞浦路斯危机爆发之前的8个月里,人们经常面带得意的笑容提起我在2011年11月末曾做的预测。在那篇文章中,我断言欧元区领导人只有10天的时间来拯救欧元。2006年的时候,我也做过类似但却没有这么极端的预测,当时我写道,罗马诺普罗迪(Romano Prodi)政府为意大利提供了在欧元区获得持久地位的最后机会。Mr Prodi’s administration did not deliver. The 10 days in 2011 passed without action. It is 2013, the euro is still there, Italy is still in it – and I am still making forecasts. Undeterred, I will double down today. A eurozone that compromises countries as diverse as Germany and Cyprus is not sustainable, even if the EU and Cyprus manage to find a last-minute compromise. An operational banking union that comprises supervision, resolution and deposit insurance would have been a minimally sufficient condition to make a divergent monetary work against the odds. It would have solved the problems of the Cypriot banks for sure. But the eurozone does not have such a banking union. It will not have such a banking union in five years. Germany rejects it flat out on the grounds that it is too expensive for the German taxpayer. Ironically, Cyprus would also reject it as it would kill the country’s business model as an offshore centre for foreign deposits. Whatever banking union will ultimately emerge in thelong run will be irrelevant to this crisis.但普罗迪政府却并没有交出满意答卷。2011年的那10天欧元区也没有任何行动。到了2013年,欧元依然存在,意大利也依然留在欧元区。而我,也依然在预测。现在我毫不畏惧,并且会翻倍下注。一个包括德国和塞浦路斯这样差异明显的国家的欧元区是不可持续的,即使欧盟(EU)和塞浦路斯能够达成最后一刻的妥协。一个包括监督、清盘机制和存款保险的业联盟,是确保存在分歧的货币体系克各种艰难险阻的最低条件。它肯定能够解决塞浦路斯的问题。但欧元区却没有这样的业联盟,五年内也不会有。德国断然拒绝,原因是对于德国纳税人来说代价太高。颇有讽刺意味的是,塞浦路斯也会拒绝这一联盟,因为它会破坏该国作为外国储蓄离岸中心的商业模式。长期来看,不管最终会出现什么样的业联盟,都与这场危机无关。What happened in Cyprus last week is not a deep cause of anything. But it is a perfect illustration of the eurozone’s collective action problem. This latest escalation began with the dangerous agreement to bail-in insured depositors. Eurozone officials are as legally literate as they are economically illiterate. Their ever so brilliant idea was not to haircut insured deposits of under #59244;100,000, but simply to tax them. They did not realise that if they take away the promise inherent in deposit insurance, they are in default, and in danger of starting a bank run.上周塞浦路斯发生的情况并不会是任何危机的根本导火索,但却非常清晰地暴露了欧元区集体行动存在的问题。事态的最新升级始于一项危险的协议,即让受保险保护的储蓄者提供内部纾困。欧元区官员们有多精通法律,在经济上就有多无知。他们“聪明透顶”的想法不是减记10万欧元以下受保险保护的存款,而是对它们征税。他们没有意识到,如果他们拿走存款保险中固有的承诺,他们就是在违约,可能引发挤兑的风险。The Cypriot parliament was right to reject this mad deal. But the Cypriot government then committed three subsequent blunders. The first was the decision by President Nicos Anastasiades to seek help from Russia. Instead of working with the eurozone, he worked against it. The Germans, in particular, saw this as an openly hostile move. It was also ill-judged because the Russians rejected the offer. The second was the decision not to communicate with the European finance ministers and the euro working group for three critical days last week. The third was the Cypriot government’s proposal on Thursday to create a sovereign wealth fund backed by a raid on the pension fund and other state assets. On Friday Angela Merkel swiftly dismissed it.塞浦路斯议会拒绝这份疯狂的协议是正确的(编者注:欧盟与塞浦路斯于本周一达成救助协议)。但塞浦路斯政府接着却犯了三个大错。第一就是总统尼科斯阿纳斯塔夏季斯(Nicos Anastasiades)决定寻求俄罗斯的帮助。他并没有与欧元区合作,而是对着来。德国尤其将此看作一个公开的敌对之举。同时这也是欠思考的,因为俄罗斯拒绝提供帮助。第二,在上周关键的三天内,塞浦路斯政府决定不与欧洲各国财长以及欧元工作组对话。第三,塞浦路斯政府上周四决定从养老基金和其他国家资产中紧急抽取资金创建一个主权财富基金。第二天安格拉默克尔(Angela Merkel)就立即否定了它。What happened last week is a fitting example of European political leaders, in a most unprofessional pursuit of narrow national interests, failing to defend the common good.上周发生的情况突显了欧洲政治领导人物的典型特征,他们以一种非常不专业的方式追求狭隘的国家利益,却损害了共同利益。The main risk I want to emphasise is, however, not a big accident. It might happen, of course. But I suspect the single biggest risk ultimately stems from the eurozone’s repeated policy errors. Their effect is slow but cumulative.然而,我想强调的主要风险并不是发生一次严重事件的风险。当然这是可能发生的,但我认为最大的风险最终来自欧元区不断重复的政治错误。它们的影响比较缓慢,却是累积性的。Of those, the most damaging has been the policy of asymmetric adjustment through austerity. Banks in Cyprus are falling now because the Greek state and Greek banks fell earlier, and because the eurozone forced a private-sector involvement. In Italy, it was also austerity that turned a recession into a depression. That, in turn, transformed an anti-euro, anti-establishment protest movement into the single largest political party in the Italian parliament at the last elections. There is a good chance that its leader, Beppe Grillo, could end up with an absolute majority if Italy were to hold another round of elections later this year.毫无疑问,最具破坏性的是通过紧缩来进行非对称调整的政策。当前塞浦路斯纷纷陷入困境,是因为希腊政府和希腊之前陷入困境,也因为欧元区强行把私营领域牵涉进来。意大利也是由于紧缩而从衰退步入萧条。正是因为这个原因,在最近的选举中,一个反对欧元、反对传统政党的抗议运动成为意大利议会中最大的单一政党。如果今年晚些时候意大利举行另一轮选举,该政党领导人贝佩格里洛(Beppe Grillo)很可能会赢得绝对多数选票。If austerity in the south had at least been compensated by fiscal expansion in the north, the overall fiscal stance of the eurozone would have been macroeconomically neutral. But since the north joined the austerity, the eurozone ended up with a primary fiscal surplus in a recession. In such an environment, economic adjustment simply does not take place. Without that, there can be no solution to the crisis.如果欧洲南部的紧缩至少能够得到北部财政扩张的弥补,那么欧元区的整体财政立场在宏观经济层面上就会趋向中立。但由于北部也加入了紧缩,结果欧元区在衰退中反而实现了基础财政盈余。在这种环境下,一般不会发生经济调整。而如果没有调整的话,危机就没有解决方案。I have believed for some time that it is impossible for Germany, Finland and the Netherlands to be in a monetary union with Cyprus, Greece and Portugal. Either the two sides agree to adjust more symmetrically, politically and economically, or this experiment should end.一段时间以来我一直认为,德国、芬兰、荷兰不可能与塞浦路斯、希腊、葡萄牙在同一个货币联盟中。如果双方不能够更加平衡地在政治和经济上做出调整,这一尝试就只能结束。The prediction I made in November 2011, and which I am repeating today, is that it will probably end one day, though that day may still be a long way off. I cannot exclude the possibility that the various governments will do the right thing, but three years of crisis management suggest otherwise.2011年11月我所做出的预测就是,有一天欧元区很可能会终结,尽管这一天或许依然很遥远——今天我还要重复这样的预测。不能排除各国政府会采取正确行动的可能性,但三年以来的危机管理显示的正相反。With the current policy, they will need force to keep it going against the interests of the people. You do not need to be a eurosceptic to conclude that such a monetary union is also deeply immoral.在当前政策下,要让欧元区违背人民的利益存在下去,他们得使用强制力。就算你不是欧元怀疑论者,也会给这样一个货币联盟贴上“极不道德”的标签。 /201303/232064长春妇科检查哪里好长春市医院妇科

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