原标题: 泉州自体隆鼻要多少费用69中文
Ever since the Eastern Han Dynasty, ethnic minorities in northwestern and northern areas kept migrating inland, which complicated the relations among different nationalities in the north of China.东汉以来,分布在西北、北边疆的少数民族已陆续向内地迁徙,形成了复杂的民族关系。These minorities were en-couraged or forced to immigrate into the inner land for sake of effective management and the needs for working hands since the labors were scare then.魏晋时期,汉族统治者为了加强对各少数民族的控制和补充内地劳动人手的不足,经常招引和强制他们人居内地。With years of staying and under the influence of Han nationality, these nomadic people led a more settled life, which bound them on the farm lands.各少数民族人民内迁后,在汉族的长期影响下,逐步由游牧生活向定居的农业生活过渡。At that time, the population of the various minorities accounted for about half that of the total one millions, taking for example, the Guanzhong area in the Jin Dynasty. Among them are the most prominent five : Xiongnu, Jie, Di, Qiang and Xianbei, which referred as “Wu Hu”(the five major minorities) in history.当时,在内地不少地方,少数民族人数相当多,关中户口百万,其中少数民族占了一半左右,而且种族很多,主要有匈奴、羯、氐、羌以及鲜卑五族,史称为“五胡”。The land system of the Western Jin stipulated the taxes paid, in addition, the minorities were often forced to be slaves and tenants of Han landlords and royal clans.西晋占田制明确规定了他们的负税。汉族的官僚、地主多以少数民族人为奴婢、佃客。Consequently, they were not only brought under control but also were oppressed and exploited by the Chinese government and its citizens, which triggered the heart-felt hatred towards the governing class and forged consistent uprising of these minorities.残酷的民族压迫,使各少数民族对西晋统治者“怨恨之气,毒于骨髓”,因而反抗不断发生。In the later Western Jin Dynasty, there broken out the rebels led by Qi Wannian, Li Te, Zhang Chang, etc, among which the most threatening one was in 301, Li Xiong, son of Li Te ,captured Chengdu, declared himself King of Chengdu and formed the “Cheng Han” regime in Sichuan.)西晋后期,先后爆发了齐万年、李特、张昌等领导的大规模起义,其中李特之子李雄于公元301年占领成都,自封成都王,还在四川建立了“成汉”政权。 /201512/415734

Yuan Dynasty元朝Social Economy and Culture社会经济与文化As in other periods of alien dynastic rule of China, a rich cultural diversity developed during the Yuan dynasty.正如中国其他时期的不同年代一样,丰富的文化多样性在元朝得以发展。The major cultural achievements were the development of drama and the novel and the increased use of the written vernacular.文化上的主要成就在于戏剧和小说的发展以及对于本地文字书写的增多。Given the unified rule of central Asia, trades between East and West flourished.统治了整个中亚之后,东西方的贸易交往得到了振兴。The Mongols’ extensive West Asian and European contacts produced a fair amount of cultural exchange.蒙古国与西亚和欧洲的广泛联系创造了一定的文化交流。Western musical instruments were introduced to enrich the Chinese performing arts.西方的乐器传入中国,丰富了国内的表演艺术。From this period dates the conversion to Islam, by Muslims of Central Asia, of growing numbers of Chinese in the northwest and southwest.从这个时代开始,由于中亚的穆斯林,越来越多的西北和西南部的中国人转而信奉伊斯兰教。Nestorianism and Roman Catholicism also enjoyed a period of toleration.景教和天主教同样得到了一段时间的默许。Lamaism (Tibetan Buddhism) flourished, although native Taoism endured Mongol persecutions.尽管传统道教受到了蒙古人的迫害,喇嘛教(藏传佛教)却繁荣发展。Confucian governmental practices and examinations based on the Classics, which had fallen into disuse in north China during the period of disunity, were reinstated by the Mongols in the hope of maintaining order over Han society.为了保持对于汉人的统治,在分裂时期被北方弃用的儒家政策和以儒家经典为基础的科举制在元朝时期得到了恢复。Advances were realized in the fields of travel literature, cartography, and geography, and scientific education.旅游文学、制图学、地理学和科学教育领域取得了进步。Certain key Chinese innovations, such as printing techniques, porcelain production, playing cards, and medical literature, were introduced in Europe, while the production of thin glass and cloisonne became popular in China.当薄玻璃制造和法蓝瓷工艺在中国兴起时,一些核心的中国发明例如印刷术、瓷器制造、纸牌以及医药文学传至欧洲。The first records of travel by Westerners date from this time.西方人的第一部游记追溯到这个时期。The most famous traveler of the period was the Venetian Marco Polo, whose account of his trip to “Cambaluc” the Great Khan’s capital (now Beijing),and of life there astounded the people of Europe.这个时代最著名的旅者是人马可波罗,他对于自己到元朝都城“堪巴禄克”(今北京)的旅行以及那里人们的生活震惊了欧洲人。The Mongols undertook extensive public works. Road and water communications were reorganized and improved.蒙古人还广泛进行公共工程的建设。To provide against possible famines, granaries were ordered built throughout the empire.道路和水陆交通得到了整顿和改进。The city of Beijing was rebuilt with new palace grounds that included artificial lakes, hills and mountains, and parks.为了对抗可能发生的饥荒,国家的每个地方都建立了粮仓。During the Yuan period, Beijing became the terminus of the Grand Canal, which was completely renovated.北京城被重建,新建了包括人工湖、假山和花园在内的皇家建筑。These commercially oriented improvements encouraged overland as well as maritime commerce throughout Asia and facilitated the first direct Chinese contacts with Europe.元朝时期,经历了全面翻修,北京成为了大运河的终点。Chinese and Mongol travelers to the West were able to provide assistance in such areas as hydraulic engineering, while bringing back to the Middle Kingdom new scientific discoveries and architectural innovations.这些贸易导向型的发展不仅鼓励了陆路贸易还激励了贯穿亚洲的海上贸易,并促进了中国与欧洲的首次直接联系。Contacts with the West also brought the introduction to China of a major new food crop—sorghum—along with other foreign food products and methods of preparation.中原和蒙古前往西方的旅者可以再水利工程方面提供帮助,同时为朝廷带回新的科技发现与建筑创造。与西方的联系还为中国带来了一种新的主要粮食作物——高粱以及其他一些国外的食物和制作工艺。 /201512/412227

Now caffeine addicts are up in arms over Starbucks allegedly under filling its lattes.最近,一群咖啡爱好者们准备联合控告星巴克,原因是拿铁咖啡的分量明显不足。A class-action lawsuit filed last Wednesday in the U.S. district court of Northern California, claims that the coffee chain knowingly and systematically serves customers lattes that are 25 percent smaller than the claims.上周三,美国加利福尼亚州的地方法院受理了一起集体诉讼,原告声称星巴克咖啡连锁店蓄意、且多次出售分量比菜单标识上写的少了25%的拿铁咖啡。The plaintiffs allege that Starbucks not only uses too little liquid in its standard latte recipe but that its cups are not adequately large enough to contain the amount of beverage stated on their size . So if you ordered a grande (16 ounce), it#39;s really more like drinking a tall (12 ounce).原告还声称,星巴克不仅在配置标准拿铁咖啡时加入的咖啡量不够,而且该店盛咖啡的杯子体积太小,和菜单上面标注的饮品容量完全不能匹配。就好比你本来点的是大杯装(16盎司),但是实际呈上来也就只有中杯的分量(12盎司)。The ;fill to; lines etched on the pitchers used by baristas to heat milk result in drinks don#39;t measure up to the tall (12 ounce), grande (16 ounce), and venti (20 ounce) sizes listed on the . ;By underfilling its lattes, thereby shortchanging its customers, Starbucks has saved countless millions of dollars in the cost of goods sold and was unjustly enriched by taking payment for more product than it delivers.;所谓“量满”的刻度线一般被刻在咖啡调配师平时加热牛奶的瓦罐上,但是这一标准和现如今星巴克菜单中所推出的中杯(12盎司),大杯(16盎司)以及超大杯(20盎司)等标准并不相同。咖啡量不足,这从一定程度上已经欺骗了消费者。这样看来,星巴克在降低商品成本这一方面就节省了数百万美元,与此同时,星巴克向消费者提供的商品分量不足,但销售价格未减,属于不正当收益行为。If the lawsuit#39;s class action status is approved, it would be “open to all U.S. Class Members who purchased a Starbucks Latte;—potentially of millions of customers.据悉,如果这起集体诉讼案件得到法院的持,那么这次的原告集体将无比庞大,美国所有曾经买过星巴克不足量拿铁咖啡的消费者大概有百万人之多,都将会成为其中一员。A Starbucks company spokesperson told Eater that ;We are aware of the plaintiffs#39; claims, which we fully believe to be without merit. We are proud to serve our customers high-quality, handcrafted and customized beverages, and we inform customers of the likelihood of variations.;星巴克公司发言人在Eater网站上表示,“我们已经意识到了顾客对我们的控告和不满,但我们认为这些投诉缺乏法律依据。我们一直以向顾客提供优质美味、手工调制以及独家定制的饮品为荣,希望广大消费者能够考虑到出售过程中可能出现的变数和误差。” /201603/433467

The theme for this year’s annual Danish Cabinetmakers’ autumn exhibition — held at the Oregaard Museum in Copenhagen in September and due to travel to Paris’s Maison du Danemark in January — was “petite”, the designs being a maximum size of 60cm by 60cm. But looking at the furniture by the 30 exhibitors, the brief could have been something else entirely.今年九月在首都哥本哈根的奥雷加德物馆(Oregaard Museum)举行的丹麦家具匠师作品展(Danish Cabinetmakers’ autumn exhibition),主题确定为“小”,它规定最大的参展品尺寸不能超过60厘米ⅹ60厘米。但走马观花30位展商推出的家具后,着实让人叹为观止。From TAF’s metal champagne tray table to Norm Architects’ three-legged folding chair, the designs resemble a line drawing turned into furniture. “We decided to make this year’s theme ‘petite’ purely because our exhibition space was very small,” says Mia Lagerman, chairwoman of the cabinetmakers’ exhibition association. “The designers don’t discuss the work before it’s shown, so there must have been something in the air that caused many of the pieces to have such fragile lines.”从TAF的金属材质香槟酒桌到Norm Architects的三条腿折叠椅,这些设计如同线条画摇身一变而成了家具。“我们之所以确定今年的展会主题为‘小’,就是因为展区面积实在太小。”家具匠师作品展览协会主席米亚拉格曼(Mia Lagerman)说。“设计师们在参展前,都对自己的展品只字不提,因此很多参展作品不约而同具有如此纤巧美丽的线条,冥冥之中有时尚之风在起作用。”It is not only Danish designers whose work resembles precise pen strokes. French-Polish designer Marta Bakowski launched her collection of Rays lights at Paris’s Maison amp; Objet fair this autumn. Each is made of a circular acrylic panel with a mirror LED bulb at the centre surrounded by hand-woven, two-tone ths that represent rays of light.不仅丹麦设计师的作品酷似精细的钢笔线条,在今年金秋的巴黎家居装饰览会(Maison amp; Objet)上,波裔法籍设计师马尔塔巴科夫斯基(Marta Bakowski)也推出了类似风格的Rays系列灯具。每盏灯的材质均为圆形丙烯塑料板,正中央是LED镜像灯泡(mirror bulb),周围则代表灯光束、手工缠绕的双色线。“I started by experimenting with weaving techniques and basket-making, then gradually developed the idea into a disc shape,” she says. “I was asking, ‘how can I make a lamp that talks about light even when it’s not lit up?’ Previously I have woven with reflective materials, but here I wanted to use pointillism [the style using tiny dots of colour developed in the 19th century by Georges Seurat]. I approached it as a painter would, looking at how colours interact and weaving different shades together.”“我一开始先是试验编织手法及竹篮编织,而后脑海中慢慢形成了圆盘形设计概念。”她说。“我当初就自问,‘如何能设计出一盏断电时依然有灯光效果的灯具?’在这之前,我尝试过用反射型材料编织,但我想用点法(就是使用19世纪画家乔治修拉(Georges Seurat)独创的色小细点画法)。我尝试用画家的方式进行设计,观察各种颜色如何相互作用,并把不同色调组合在一起。”Also displayed at Maison amp; Objet was Cuban designer René Barba’s tennis racket-shaped paper lamp for Ligne Roset. It comprises a double-sided fabric envelope with a pattern of black lines, which is slipped over an LED bulb and supported by a black lacquered steel base. “This graphic effect is very fashionable and echoes the trend for textured motifs on flat surfaces,” says Barba.在巴黎家居装饰览会上展出的还有古巴设计师雷内巴尔巴(René Barba)为Ligne Roset设计的网球拍外形的纸灯。它用双面布打造而成,上面画有黑色条纹,布罩就随意套在LED灯泡上,整个灯由黑色喷漆钢质基座撑。“这种图形效果非常时尚,它与平面的纹路图案时尚风格有异曲同工之妙。”巴尔巴说。Interior designer Annick Petersen, whose cage-like lights are made from thin copper wire strips, believes line-based designs are part of a trend for furniture made from industrial materials. “This raw look is a very popular design statement at the moment,” she says.室内设计师安妮克簠靟森(Annick Petersen)设计了由细铜丝制作的鸟笼形灯具,她认为线条形设计是工业材料打造家具流行时尚的组成部分。“这种粗犷外形是当前非常流行的设计风格。”她说。This view is borne out by the growing number of designers using powder-coated aluminium and steel in tables and chairs. One example is Made in Ratio’s Supernova trestle table, launched two years ago. It is topped with toughened glass and features two sets of star-shaped legs made from sand-cast recycled aluminium, which can be rotated to make a lower-height coffee table. “The six points touching the floor and glass create a structure no matter which way they are oriented. I wanted to meld those points in the form of a supernova, so it looks like a stellar explosion,” says Made in Ratio founder Brodie Neill. “Transparency of form and being very pared back is something I pursue in my work and the Supernova has both those qualities. The weight of the glass complements the geometrical, sculptural legs.”这种理念被越来越多使用铝合金设计桌椅的设计师(品牌)所明。其中之一就是英国品牌Made in Ratio两年前推出的Supernova搁板桌。它桌面为钢化玻璃,两组星形桌腿用沙铸再生铝材做成,再度旋转后还可搭成低矮的咖啡桌。“各自与地面及玻璃接触的六个撑点不管什么朝向,都是固定的结构。我希望把这些接触点组合成超新星的模样,酷似恒星爆炸。” Made in Ratio品牌创建者布罗迪尼尔(Brodie Neill)。“透明外形以及极简主义风格是我孜孜以求的设计风格,Supernova架搁板桌就是两者兼而有之。玻璃重量与几何形雕塑状桌腿实现了很好的互补。”Mirka Grohn and Jo Wilton, the co-founders of furniture brand amp;New, also achieve elegant lines and minimal forms using powder-coated steel. Their colourful Robot Too sideboard and Robot side table both have angular, zigzag legs. “We used steel because we wanted to create something delicate-looking,” says Grohn. “With steel, the furniture is very strong, but you can achieve really fine lines. Also, the legs are playful, just a bit of fun.”家具品牌amp;New联合创始人米尔卡格罗恩(Mirka Grohn)与乔威尔顿(Jo Wilton)也用烤漆钢板实现了优美线条与极简主义风格完美结合。他们推出的Robot Too餐具柜与Robot茶几采用了带角度的锯齿形桌腿。“我们使用钢质材料的原因是希望营造出纤巧的外观。”格罗恩说,“用钢质打造的家具非常结实耐用,而且能打造出优美的线条。此外,桌腿趣味十足,带点戏谑味。”John Liston uses powder-coated steel for his Ribbon chairs. They look at first glance like a messy scribble in red crayon. “It wasn’t intentional, but it works well for this design,” says Liston, who was inspired by the way shadows from buildings take whatever form they fall on. “A shadow can transform the shape of a park bench with the graphic lines of the balusters and handrails and the angle of the light.” For him, the beauty of the material lies in its unexpectedness. “I love the idea of a chair looking like it might not be able to sustain weight, yet at the same time the steel gives it a huge structural integrity. Making furniture with a very thin structure creates negative space, so the piece looks lighter than it is.”约翰利斯顿(John Liston)用烤漆钢板设计出了Ribbon椅子,乍一看酷似红色蜡笔的杂乱无章涂鸦画。“这并非有意为之,但设计效果非常好。”利斯顿说。他的灵感来自于建筑物变幻无穷的投影图案。“栏杆与扶手的线条以及斜照光线能彻底改变公园椅子的形状。”他认为材料的美感就在于其不可预测性。“我特别喜欢把椅子设计成无法承重的模样,但与此同时,钢架结构又赋予其整体结构。结构纤巧的家具能更加突出周围空间,使家具本身更显轻盈。”Of course, these delicate structural forms aren’t new. In the 1950s, both Harry Bertoia and Charles and Ray Eames launched wire furniture. More recently, in 2013, the South Korean designer Jinil Park launched his Drawing Series of chairs, lamps and a table, each with intersecting lines that exactly replicate his preliminary sketches.当然,纤巧形家具早已有之。早在上世纪50年代,哈里伯托埃(Harry Bertoia)与夫妻档设计师查尔斯及蕾伊默斯(Charles and Ray Eames)就已推出线条形家具。2013年,韩国设计师Jinil Park创作了Drawing Series椅子、灯具以及桌子,每一款都采用了交错型钢丝,它们完全是他草图的“复制品”。German graphic designer Verena Hennig’s powder-coated aluminium Roll seating is an extension of her two-dimensional art. “My graphics are minimalist and reduced, so I wanted to create furniture that also only uses minimal lines,” she says.德国平面设计师维丽娜眠腭(Verena Hennig)创作的Roll铝合金座椅是其二维空间艺术观的延伸。“我的图形注重极简主义与简约型风格,因此我希望也能设计出使用最少线条的家具。”她说。Arihiro Miyake is another designer whose work displays this angular aesthetic. He designed the ballerina-inspired Coppélia suspended lamp for Moooi, with a crossed wire structure that acts as a base for dozens of LED lights.三宅有洋(Arihiro Miyake)是另一位展示角度设计风格的设计师。他为荷兰家具品牌Moooi设计的Coppélia吊灯的灵感来自于芭蕾舞女,吊灯使用了交叉线条结构,几十个线条的交叉点就是LED灯泡的安放位置。Other examples of the trend include Swedish interior stylist Annaleena Leino’s minimalist geometric clothes rails that hang from the ceiling, and Portuguese brand Galula’s Pendura coat stand, a simple triangle designed to be propped against a wall.紧随上述潮流的还包括瑞典室内设计师Annaleena Leino与葡萄牙家具品牌Galula。前者创作了极简主义风格、从天花板悬垂的几何图案挂衣杆;后者则推出了简洁三角形状、倚墙而靠的Pendura衣帽架。“Triangles create almost a frame against the wall. We wanted something with lines that looked just as beautiful without coats hanging from it,” says co-designer Filipa Mendes.“三角形衣帽架靠墙而放后,酷似一个框架。我们希望用线条打造出的东西外观与没挂衣帽时一样美不胜收。”联合设计师菲利帕门德斯(Filipa Mendes)说。 /201512/419109

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