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2019年10月22日 04:41:19 | 作者:求医分类 | 来源:新华社
The southwestern Chinese city of Pengzhou is known as a home for longevity, with 49 centenarians among its population of 780,000 who seem to share some simple common traits for living longer -- be content and eat coarse grains often.位于中国西南部的彭州市以长寿之乡而闻名。彭州市共有78万人口,百岁以上老人就有49位,而他们竟然拥有相同的长寿秘诀——知足常乐,多吃粗粮。Located 36 kilometers northwest of Sichuan Province#39;s capital of Chengdu, Pengzhou has a warm, humid climate, abundant water and a beautiful natural environment. Most of those above 100 years old live in its rural areas and have worked at farming for a long time, a hardy existence that built up their health, especially their cardiovascular system.彭州市位于四川省省会成都市的西北36公里外,气候温暖湿润,水资源丰富,自然环境优美。大多数百岁老人居住在乡下,长期以来一直从事农业生产,吃苦耐劳的生活方式增强了他们的体质,尤其有益于他们的心血管系统。In Tianpeng town, the seat of the Pengzhou government, seven residents out of a total population of 166,000 have now lived more than 100 years. A brief study of their living habits reveals secrets to a longer life, reported local news portal scol.com.cn.彭州市政府所在地天彭镇共有16.6万人,其中有百岁老人7位。据当地新闻门户《四川在线》报道,对百岁老人生活习惯的简要研究揭示了他们长寿的秘诀。The aged usually live in peace of mind, enjoy what they have, stay away from being competitive and are y to help others. Their diets are mainly comprised of coarse grains, vegetables and have lighter flavors. Besides keeping regular diets and avoiding overeating or too much meat, the centenarians also have the habit of sleeping and rising early.百岁老人大多心态平和,知足常乐,不争强好胜,乐于助人。他们的饮食主要包括粗粮和蔬菜,口味清淡。除了饮食规律和避免暴饮暴食之外,他们还有早睡早起的习惯。Lin Yongqing, 103 years old, is known as outspoken and likes keeping nothing in his heart. He loves listening to traditional opera and his favorite foods are eggs and meatballs. Surprisingly, Lin eats six times a day, as his wife, also in her 90s, is always around to cook.103岁的林永清心直口快,什么事儿都不放在心上。他喜欢听传统戏曲,最喜欢的食物是鸡蛋和肉丸子。令人惊讶的是,他每天竟然吃六顿饭,90多岁的妻子总是在做饭。Lin worked all his professional life for a bank as a cashier, forming a strong affinity for counting bank notes. He still misses his career, so when lying in bed, his children bring a bundle of money for him to count. Lin sometimes counts the money dozens of times a day.林永清曾是一名出纳员,非常喜欢数钱。现在的他很怀念上班的生活,所以他躺在床上的时候,孩子们总是给他一捆钱让他来数。有时候,林永清一天能把钱来回数几十次。 /201608/460094Over there is our tea plants, and these are our coffee plants...那是我们的茶树,这些都是我们的咖啡树…… /201609/463085Shifting between cultures在不同文化间穿梭Shifting between different nationalities and attitudes can get tricky but it isn’t a foreign concept for Fiala.要适应不同的国家和文化是一件颇为棘手的事情,但菲亚拉对此并不陌生。“I grew up in a diplomatic family and I learned from an early age to adapt,” she said. Rather than focus on differences between clients from different countries, she tries to be “perceptive” about their preferred way to communicate.“我在一个外交官家庭长大,我从小就学会了适应这种生活。”她说。她并不关注不同国家的客户之间的差异,而是尽量了解他们喜欢的沟通方式。“I try to be sensitive to the environment and the specific manner in how she or he bonds or creates a relationship,” she said. For example, some clients prefer a more informal relationship and like to brainstorm prior to deciding on a strategy, while others want her to present to them a structured approach.“我尽量让自己对环境更加敏感,努力了解对方在保持和建立关系时采用的特定方式。”她说。例如,有的客户更喜欢非正式的基础,而且更喜欢头脑风暴,而不是制定战略,但其他客户则希望能够正式一些。In general, London and Berlin business dealings tend to be more structured than interactions in Warsaw, Budapest and Tel Aviv, she said. For outsiders, Warsaw can be especially difficult for business, said Fiala, who recommends first-timers to the city get a local partner to help adapt to the language and business practices. In both Warsaw and Budapest the non-polished fa#231;ade of the cities can hide some of the charms, while Tel Aviv tends to be more creative and informal.她表示,通常而言,与华沙、布达佩斯和特拉维夫相比,跟伦敦和柏林的企业打交道,需要采取更加正式的方式。菲亚拉表示,对外人来说,在华沙做生意尤其困难。她建议第一次来华沙的人找当地合作伙伴帮助其适应那里的语言和商业习惯。华沙和布达佩斯的建筑外立面都没有抛光,可能掩盖这两座城市的些许魅力,而特拉维夫通常更有创造力,也比较不讲究正式。“Certain cities have a certain kind of energy,” Fiala said.“不同的城市蕴含着不同的活力。”菲亚拉说。Staying grounded稳定情绪Fiala keeps up with associates across the world through Instagram and Twitter, where her handle on both is fittingly @take_it_to_go.菲亚拉通过 Instagram 和 Twitter 与世界各地的同事保持联系,她在这两个平台上都使用了@take_it_to_go 这个十分贴切的用户名。“Zagreb for breakfast, Vienna for lunch, Baku for dinner. Only going beautiful places,” she wrote last fall. But she’s quick to document the downsides: “Yet another 5am with bad coffee. To drink or not to drink. #loungelife #notsoglam”“在萨格勒布吃早餐,在维也纳吃午餐,在巴库吃晚餐。我只去美丽的地方。”她去年秋天写道。但她也很快表达了一些忧虑:“可是又要在早晨5点喝劣质咖啡。喝还是不喝呢。#loungelife #notsoglam ”The worst part of traveling, she said, is leaving her apartment in the Hell’s Kitchen neighbourhood of Manhattan after her month at home. 她表示,旅行最令人难过的是在家里住了一个月后,又要离开她位于曼哈顿 Hell’s Kitchen 社区的公寓。“I get into this weird mood the day before, regardless of how many times I travel,” she said.“无论旅行过多少次,我都会在出发前一天陷入这种古怪的情绪。”她说。Long term, as her business evolves, Fiala hopes to spend more time in New York. As she branches into more corporate branding, Fiala plans to cut down her travel to 50% of the time by delegating tasks to local team members. She hopes that will help her feel more rooted in one place, she said.从长期来看,随着她的企业不断发展,菲亚拉渴望有更多时间待在纽约。由于开办了更多的分公司,菲亚拉希望将更多任务委托给当地的团队成员来完成,从而将旅行所占的时间比例减少到50%。她希望这能帮助她在一个地方找到更多的归属感。“As much as you try to make different places feel familiar along the way, it’s always nice to come home,” she said.“尽管我努力在不同的地方营造熟悉的感觉,但回家的感觉总是那么温馨。”她说。 /201607/451553

When photographer Christopher Cline moved from Virginia to Minnesota, he was feeling homesick and “sliding into a sad place in life.” But then his girlfriend brought him Juji. Though the photographer wasn’t keen on getting a dog at first, the adorable Goldendoodle not only became his best friend, he brought his inspiration back.  克里斯多夫·克莱恩是名摄影师,从弗吉尼亚搬到明尼苏达后,他非常想家,”陷入了悲伤的人生境地“。但后来, 女友把朱吉带到他身边。尽管这位摄影师一开始并不怎么喜欢养,但可爱的金毛贵宾犬不但成了他的好伙伴,还把灵感带回他身边。  Now Cline creates amusing Photoshop manipulations featuring the giant Juji and Cline himself taking all sorts of adventures together. He wants his photos to have a “kids’ book feel.” “I immediately fell in love with him,” said Cline. “He has turned my life completely around and we are now absolutelyinseparable. I have found a new outlook on life and in my artwork and I owe it all to him.”  现在克莱恩用Photoshop手法创作好玩的照片,大朱吉和他自己作主角,拍了各色各样一起历险的相片。他希望自己的照片有“儿童读物的感觉”。“我立马就喜欢上朱吉了,”克莱恩说,“它完全改变了我的生活,我们现在完完全全密不可分。我对生活和我的艺术创作有了全新的看法,这都是它的功劳。” /201604/434642

5.Dating Has Become Too Casual5.约会变得太随意Just as the accelerated intensity of a relationship that can be spurred by infatuation, languidly trudging though the dating pool with only casual intentions can also have adverse effects. Moreover, the lines between ;hanging out;, ;dating;, and ;exclusivity; have become so blurred, they#39;re more like globs of confusion than lines at all. Yes, that metaphor may have made little-to-no sense, but I stand by it. Denise Hewitt, a Manhattan-based television producer knows what I#39;m talking about.就像过度的痴迷会拉开两人亲密的关系,同样,态度散漫、吊儿郎当地去赴约也会有不好的影响。再者,;出去玩;;普通约会;和;专属约会;这几个概念间的界限已经变得模糊起来,相比于分明的界限这更像是一团迷惑。对,这个暗喻可能没什么道理,但我认同。曼哈顿的实时记者丹妮丝·休伊特知道我在说些什么。;The new date is #39;hanging out#39;; Hewitt told The New York Times. She recalled a guy friend validating her sentiment by saying: ;I don#39;t like to take girls out. I like to have them join in on what I#39;m doing — going to an event, a concert.; Indeed ;hanging out; has now become synonymous with actual dating. With all pre-dating conversation going exclusively to the nonchalance of text, apps, and dating websites, it#39;s hard to decipher whether a relationship is even romantic or not. Whereas several decades ago finding someone to marry sought after with urgency (a staple of a different time that wasn#39;t necessarily a positive one), we have now gone to the completely opposite end of the spectrum, where too many options may keep us from finding someone to share our lives with.;新的约会已经意味着是#39;出去玩#39;,;休伊特告诉《纽约时报》。她的一位男性朋友的话可以明她的观点:;我不喜欢带女生出去。我喜欢让她们跟我一起做点什么,像去社交场合,音乐会什么的。;事实上,现在;出去玩;已经成为了约会的同义词。当所有约会前的交流都是通过没有感情的短信、软件和交友网站,很难判断到底这个关系是不是爱情。几十年前要找个人结婚是件急急忙忙的事(虽然最终结果因情况而异),而现在,我们有的选择太多了,很难找到一个共享生活的人。4.Potential Companions Know Too Much About Your Past Before Meeting You In The Present4.在见面前,你潜在的朋友就会充分了解你的过去A staple of healthy relationships is taking time to get to know each other and establishing a foundation of trust before revealing your past secrets and vulnerabilities. In the age of social media and ever-evolving technology, a potential date or suitor can glean a roster of information on you before you#39;ve even met face to face. Where people used to be able to discard polaroids of less-than-flattering situations, and regretful anecdotes about past relationships were only exposed during ventilations between friends as opposed to status updates, every thought, embarrassing moment, and personal anecdote can now be garnered faster than one can say ;Google;. As Complex puts it, ;Because one of your supposed friends tagged an incriminating picture of you on Facebook and now you have to explain to your precious princess girlfriend why her seemingly straight-laced knight in shining armor was acting out a scene from a Girls Gone Wild DVD. Good luck with that, and, in the future, make sure you set your Facebook tags so you can approve them first.;一段健康正常关系的重点就在于花时间去了解对方,并以此建立信任基础,然后再慢慢透露自己过去的秘密和弱点。然而在社交媒体和技术不断发展的今天,那些潜在的约会或求婚对象在你们约会前就可以全面地收集到你所有信息。在过去,人们想删掉的不好看的旧照,一些追悔莫及的往事都只能向好友倾诉,而非在网上分享。可现在,要想知道你的每一份想法,每一次尴尬,每一件轶事比;谷歌;一下还快。就像Complex网站说的,你所谓的网友搜到你脸书上的私人照片,然后你就不得不去向你的宝贝女友解释为什么她穿着闪亮亮的盔甲看上去像是从 Girls Gone Wild 视频里走出来的一板一眼的骑士。祝你好运,请记住,将来在设置你的脸书标签时,一定要确保有一天被追问时能解释得了。Furthermore, any mystery that used to exist at the start of a new relationship has now been dismantled by social media and technology. According to Elite Daily, ;You are literally stripping the discovery process out of dating. One of the best parts of a relationship is getting to know the other person. These different social media platforms take all of that novelty away.;此外,现如今,在一段新关系开始前,任何曾经的秘密在社交媒介和技术面前都无所遁形。《据精英日报》记载:;是你自己剥夺了约会过程中不断探索发掘的过程。因为一段关系中最迷人的阶段就是花精力去了解另一个人,可这些各式各样的社交媒介平台把所有的新鲜感都剥夺了。;3.Sentimentalities Like Candid Photos And Handwritten Messages Are No More3.偷拍和手写信件的情趣已不再;There#39;s a shoebox in my closet where I keep every love letter, scribbled note, or snapshot from dudes of yore, and ever since I signed my first cell phone contract, my contributions to my shoebox have dwindled. Coincidence? I think not.; This anecdote came from Thought Catalog#39;s Anna Goldfarb, who went on to note other sentimentalities that have long lost their novelty — and become pretty much nonexistent — in today#39;s tech-driven dating culture. Gone are the days when a ticket stub from the first movie you saw with your S.O. Instead, we ;check in; on Facebook about which theater we are at, which movie we are seeing, and who we are with. This saturation of interconnectedness completely nixes the privacy of a first date — along with any subsequent dates. Candid photos no longer are found in a prized shoebox, but rather on a slew of social media websites and apps where they are put through a variety of filters and mock airbrushing for all the world to see. As for handwritten messages, has anyone picked up a pencil lately for anything? Even grocery lists can be converted to text or a ;notes; function on smartphones. Rather than passing a handwritten note in glass that has been conspicuously folded into what may or may not be an origami heart, teenagers are tweeting their inner monologues for all the world to see.;在我的壁橱里,有一个鞋盒,那里藏着我的情书、随笔和旧友通讯录。自从开通了我第一台智能机,我对鞋盒的贡献就减少了。这是巧合么?我可不信。;这个小发现来源于《思想目录》的安娜·戈德法布,她一直坚持这温情的习惯,记录每天发生的新奇事儿,但这在今天这个技术驱使的文化背景下变得越来越没有存在感。那些第一次和爱人去看电影时会小心翼翼存下电影票根的日子已经一去不复返了。相反,我们现在只需注册脸书用户,就能找到我们想要去的影院,想要看的电影,想要相伴的人。然而,由于互联网,在第一次和接下来的所有约会中你的个人隐私都会完全暴露。快照不再出现在鞋盒里,而由社交平台或软件取而代之,在那里,人们能加很多的滤镜和模板,以让所有人都看到。至于手写信件,好好想想,最近还会有人拿起笔来写东西么?连食品杂货店的清单都被改成了电子版,或者就用手机下单。比起把一份折成心形的手写笔记展在玻璃柜台里,现代青少年们更喜欢用推特来分享自己的故事。2.Intimate Moments Have Lost Their Intimacy2.亲密时刻不再亲密;If it#39;s not Facebook official, it doesn#39;t count,; has become a popular mantra of the 21st century#39;s dating generation. The only two people that truly know the depth and intimacy involved in a romantic relationship are…well…the two people involved. Social media has dismantled a fourth wall that used to exist in dating. Sure, facets of your relationship would be revealed during outings with friends and family, but there are other private moments that are arguably better left out of the public eye. Back before the advent social media and internet becoming a household commodity, people that you knew from middle school wouldn#39;t have an all-access pass to your relationship status and intimate date nights. Today, failing to list your exclusivity — or lack thereof — on your Facebook profile is met with slackened jaws and knitted brows of concern. ;Is he your boyfriend?; ;Why aren#39;t you two Facebook official yet?; ;What do you mean he#39;s #39;not into social media#39;? Clearly, he must be cheating on you.;;再不注册Facebook你就out了!;成为了21世纪约会时代的流行口号。在一段暧昧关系中,只有当事人才知道真正的亲密程度,再次强调,这是只属于两个人之间的小秘密。可是现在社交媒体已经成功拆除了约会中的那道防护墙。当然,当你和朋友、家人外出时,你的人际关系难免会泄露,但其他私人时间无疑是可以避开公众的。在社交媒体的出现初期和互联网普及之前,你中学同学不会毫无顾忌地公开你现在的恋爱状态和深夜密会的八卦。现如今,你要是没把你的所有公之于众或者缺乏这些意识,你脸书上就会出现各种闲言碎语:;他是你的男朋友吗?;;为什么你还没有两个脸书账号?;;#39;他不上网#39;?这是什么意思?很显然,他一定是在骗你。;People are basically encouraged to disclose every date night, every relationship update, and a litany of other things on social media. Not only does this lift the curtain on what was historically supposed to be a private relationship, it diminishes the significance by turning romance into a public broadcast. As Complex puts it, ;You can engage in sappy, disgusting public demonstrations of affection on your Facebook page…You can tweet at work, Skype on your lunch break, and Vine yourself doing laundry. This totally diminishes the importance of the relationship. Unless being emotionally and psychologically detached from the physical importance of being around other human beings is your thing…;基本上,大家都希望别人能在社交媒体同步自己每一次深夜约会的情况,每一段恋情的进展和其他等等诸如此类的。这不仅扯掉了恋情原本私密的面纱,还让恋爱因公开透明而丧失了它独有的韵味。正如Complex网站所说:;你可以在Facebook上晒出你又愚蠢又恶心的爱情……你可以在工作时玩推特,在午休时用Skype,在洗衣时上Vine。除非你能将自己的心理情感和其他人纯粹的八卦天性完全一分为二,否则,公布这些状态绝对会削弱恋爱的意义。;1.Expecting The Unexpected Is Archaic1.旧人类才期待邂逅Because of social media and technology, the beauty of happenstance has become archaic. Hearing stories about how two people met serendipitously has kind of become like a shooting star — you#39;re lucky if you see it once, if at all. I remember the mantra about love ;happening when you least expect it; growing up, but those words have seemingly long been forgotten by today#39;s dating culture. Being that so many people meet online, through apps, or are at least holding several dating site accounts means that everyone is looking for that person (or several people). This now commonplace behavior upends the pleasant surprise people used to experience when happening upon a compatible mate in the most random of circumstances. Moreover, there are still plenty of opportunities throughout everyday life that could lead to a moment of romantic happenstance, but the prevalence of dating apps and websites could actually prevent us from becoming privy to these real-life encounters.拜社交媒体和现代科技所赐,因邂逅擦出的美丽火花已成过往。听说前世三百次回眸才能换得今生一次擦肩而过,每一次邂逅都灿若流星,如果这是真的,哪怕只看见一次,你也是幸运无比。我还记得;爱情总是来得始料不及;这一系列爱的咒语,但那些话似乎早已被如今的约会文化遗忘。太多人借助App面基,还有的人拥有好几个交友网站的账号,他们都在努力寻找适合自己的那个人(或那几个人)。这些行为现在看起来司空见惯,却完全颠覆了那些喜欢意外惊喜之人的传统观念,要知道他们可曾只因一个偶然就遇见了可以携手一生的伴侣。此外,在日常生活中有很多机会来一场浪漫邂逅,但交友软件和网站的盛行却生生切断了这样一种可能。Matchmaker and founder of the Paul C. Brunson Agency, Paul Brunson, expounded upon this when speaking with A about an ;elitist; dating app called The League, where users are curated by things like social economic status, physical appeal, and more. He criticized this and other apps by telling A, ;We#39;ll be so focused on our phones and our online matches, that we won#39;t ever look up and see someone who may be potentially perfect for us.; Indeed, modern dating culture has become so unremittingly connected to technological advances but completely disconnected when it comes to real-life connections.保罗·C·布朗森公司的创始人保罗布朗森就是一位月老。他同A谈起一款针对上流人士的交友App;联盟;时说到,该软件可提供社会经济地位、外貌吸引力等指标为用户筛选出他们心仪的对象。在A的访谈中,保罗强烈指责了这类似的软件:;要是我们的目光只聚集在手机软件和交友网站,这辈子都别指望找到你那位还没有出现的真爱。;的确,现代约会文明与科技进步息息相关,在现实生活中两者却没有必然联系。审校:彼得潘 编辑:listen 来源:前十网 /201606/447599

An eye is for seeing, a nose is for smelling. Many aspects of the human body have obvious purposes.眼睛是用来看东西的,鼻子是用来闻气味的。人体的很多方面都有明显的用途。But some defy easy explanation. For biologists, few phenomena are as mysterious as the female orgasm.但有些地方令人费解。对生物学家来说,几乎没有什么现象能像女性性高潮那么神秘。While orgasms have an important role in a woman’s intimate relationships, the evolutionary roots of the experience — a combination of muscle contractions, hormone release, and intense pleasure — have been difficult to uncover.尽管性高潮在女性的亲密关系中发挥着重要作用,但这种经历——同时出现肌肉收缩、荷尔蒙分泌和强烈的快感——的进化根源却难觅踪迹。For decades, researchers have put forward theories, but none are widely accepted. Now two evolutionary biologists have joined the fray, offering a new way of thinking about the female orgasm based on a reconstruction of its ancient history.几十年来,研究人员提出了各种理论,但没有一种理论得到广泛的认可。现在,又有两名进化生物学家加入争论,提出了一种新的思考女性性高潮的方式,它的基础是再现其古老的历史。On Monday, in The Journal of Experimental Zoology, the authors conclude that the response originated in mammals more than 150 million years ago as a way to release eggs to be fertilized after sex.周一,两名作者在《实验动物学杂志》(The Journal of Experimental Zoology)上推断,女性性高潮这种反应起源于逾1.5亿年前的哺乳动物,当时是为了排出卵子,让其在性行为结束后受精。Until now, few scientists have investigated the biology of distantly related animals for clues to the mystery.此前,几乎没有科学家通过研究属于人类远亲的那些动物的生物学,来寻找解开这个谜团的线索。“For orgasms, we kept it reserved for humans and primates,” said Mihaela Pavlicev, an evolutionary biologist at University of Cincinnati College of Medicine and an author of the new paper. “We didn’t look to other species to dig deeper and look for the origin.”“对于性高潮,我们过去认为它仅限于人类和灵长目动物,”辛辛那提大学医学院(University of Cincinnati College of Medicine)进化生物学家、新发表的那篇论文的作者之一米哈埃拉#8226;帕夫利塞夫(Mihaela Pavlicev)说。“我们没有为了更深入地挖掘和寻找起源而研究其他物种。”The male orgasm has never caused much of a stir among evolutionary biologists. The pleasure is precisely linked to ejaculation, the most important step in passing on a male’s genes to the next generation. That pleasure encourages men to deliver more sperm, which is evolutionarily advantageous.男性的性高潮从未在进化生物学家中引起这么大的波澜。这种快感被精确地和射精联系在了一起。射精是将男性的基因传递给下一代的过程中最重要的一步。这种快感鼓励男性分泌更多,从进化的角度来说这是有好处的。For women, the evolutionary path is harder to figure out. The muscle contractions that occur during an orgasm are not essential for a woman to become pregnant. And while most men can experience an orgasm during sex, it’s less reliable for women.对女性来说,相关进化过程更难厘清。性高潮过程中发生的肌肉收缩,并不是女性怀必不可少的。并且尽管大部分男性都能在性交期间体验一次性高潮,性高潮对女性来说却没那么可靠。In a 2010 survey, 35.6 percent of women said that they hadn’t had an orgasm the most recent time they had sex. Part of the reason for this is anatomy: the clitoris is physically separated from the vagina.在2010年的一项调查中,35.6%的女性称在上一次性生活中未达到性高潮。造成这种现象的部分原因在于人体结构:阴蒂和阴道在位置上是分开的。Still, a number of scientists suspect that the female orgasm serves some biological function favored by natural selection. They just need to figure out what it is.但仍有大量科学家怀疑,女性性高潮具有某种生物学功能,该功能得到了自然选择的青睐。他们只需要找出是什么功能。“My gut instinct is that something that matters so much at an emotional level — the intense pleasure of orgasm — would seem to have reproductive consequences,” said David A. Puts, an evolutionary anthropologist at Pennsylvania State University.“我的直觉是,在情感层面上——高潮的强烈快感——这么重要的一件事,似乎应该产生繁衍的后果,”宾夕法尼亚州立大学(Pennsylvania State University)的进化人类学家戴维#8226;A#8226;普茨(David A. Puts)说。Many hypotheses have been put forward. Dr. Puts and his colleagues have carried out studies to test the possibility that orgasms increase the odds that a woman’s eggs are fertilized by a genetically attractive male.已有许多假说涌现出来。普茨士及其同事进行了研究,目的是检验一种可能性:高潮会增加基因出色的男性让女性卵子受精的几率。Elisabeth A. Lloyd, a philosopher at Indiana University, isn’t buying it. In 2005, she published a book called “The Case of the Female Orgasm,” in which she reviewed 18 published theories about its function.这并没有说印第安纳大学(Indiana University)的哲学教授伊丽莎白#8226;A#8226;劳埃德(Elisabeth A. Lloyd)。在2005年,她出版了一本书,名为《女性性高潮的问题》(The Case of the Female Orgasm),其中对已发表的有关性高潮功能的18种理论进行了综述。None had strong evidence in its favor, she concluded, and many were undermined by other findings about human sexuality. Years of further research have only strengthened her skepticism.她得出的结论是,没有一种理论提供了有力的据,其中不少还遭到了有关人类性行为的其他一些研究成果的削弱。多年的进一步研究让她的疑虑有增无减。Dr. Lloyd thinks the best explanation for the female orgasm is that it hasn’t served any evolutionary purpose at all. It’s nothing more than the byproduct of the development of the male orgasm. The orgasm is to women, she believes, as nipples are to men.劳埃德士认为,对女性性高潮的最佳解释是,它并没有任何进化上的意义,不过是男性性高潮的发展的副产品。她相信,性高潮之于女性就好比乳头之于男性。But now Dr. Pavlicev and her colleague, Gu#776;nter P. Wagner of Yale University, are making the case that the human female orgasm has a deep evolutionary history that reaches back to early mammals.不过,帕夫利塞夫士与耶鲁大学的京特#8226;P#8226;瓦格纳(Gu#776;nter P. Wagner)现在提出,人类女性的性高潮拥有可以追溯到原始哺乳动物的悠久进化史。They began by getting better acquainted with the sex lives of other animals, poring through obscure old journals to gather information on species ranging from aardvarks to koalas.他们首先更好地了解了其他动物的性行为,从不知名的旧期刊里梳理各物种的信息,范围覆盖了从非洲食蚁兽到考拉等各种动物。They noted that many female mammals release oxytocin and prolactin during sex — the hormones released by women during orgasms. What’s more, in many of those species, females use a radically different kind of reproduction.他们注意到,许多雌性哺乳动物会在性交过程中释放催产素和催乳素,也就是人类女性高潮过程中释放的荷尔蒙。此外,在这类物种里,有不少物种的雌性采用与人类截然不同的繁衍方式。While women release an egg each month, other female mammals, such as rabbits and camels, release an egg only after mating with a male.人类女性每个月排一次卵,其他一些雌性哺乳动物则是与男性交配后才会排卵,比如兔子和骆驼。Ovulatory cycles evolved in only a few lineages of mammals, including our own, Dr. Pavlicev and Dr. Wagner found. Before then, our ancient mammal ancestors originally relied on ovulation triggered by sex with a male.帕夫利塞夫士与瓦格纳士发现,只有少数哺乳动物种群进化出了排卵周期,包括我们人类。在那之前,我们古老的哺乳动物祖先起初是依赖与雄性交配来激发排卵的。Those early mammals developed a clitoris inside the vagina. Only in mammals that evolved ovulatory cycles did the clitoris move away. Based on these findings, Dr. Pavlicev and Dr. Wagner argue that the female orgasm first evolved as a reflex to help females become pregnant.这些原始哺乳动物身上出现了位于阴道内的阴蒂。只有进化出了排卵周期的哺乳动物,阴蒂才移去了别处。在这些发现的基础上,帕夫利塞夫与瓦格纳提出,人类女性性高潮起初进化出来,是作为帮助女性怀的一种条件反射。When early mammals mated, the clitoris could send signals to the brain, triggering hormones that released an egg. Once the egg became fertilized, the hormones may have helped ensure it became implanted in the uterus.原始哺乳动物交配时,阴蒂可以向大脑发送信号,释放出激发排卵的荷尔蒙。一旦卵子受精,这些荷尔蒙或许有助于保它在子宫里着床。This arrangement has worked well for mammals that rarely encounter males. It helps females make the most of each mating.这种安排对于很少遇见雄性的哺乳动物来说是不错的。它帮助雌性最大限度地利用每次交配的机会。But eventually some mammals, including primates like us, started spending their lives in social groups. Females had access to regular sex with males, and orgasm as an ovulatory mechanism was no longer so useful. Our female forebears instead evolved a new system: releasing eggs in a regular cycle.不过,后来有一部分哺乳动物,包括我们这样的灵长目,开始以社群的形式生活。雌性有了与雄性频繁性交的机会,高潮作为排卵机制的作用就不那么重要了。我们的雌性祖先于是进化出了一种新机制:按照周期规律地排卵。As the original purpose of the orgasm was lost, the clitoris moved away from its original position. Dr. Wagner speculated that this shift was part of evolution’s dismantling of a sensor system: “You don’t want to have the old signal sending noise at the wrong time,” he said.随着性高潮的初始意义丧失,阴蒂就离开了原来的位置。瓦格纳猜测,这种移位相当于进化在废除一个感官系统:“你不想要古老的信号系统在错误的时间发出噪音,”他说。“Basically, we don’t know why this happened,” he added. But across mammalian species, “it’s just a very strong evolutionary pattern.”“基本上,我们并不知道其中的原因,”他还说。不过在哺乳动物种群中,“这的确是一种非常明显的进化模式。”Dr. Lloyd and Dr. Puts welcomed the new study as a provocative addition to the debate over the female orgasms.劳埃德与普茨对这项新研究表示欢迎,认为它加入了有关女性性高潮的辩论,能够激发探讨。“I’m pretty excited that it’s being published,” Dr. Lloyd said, “because people are going to start talking about female orgasms and getting a fresh look at how much we don’t know about female orgasms, and thinking hard about what we need to know.”“它的发表让我很兴奋,”劳埃德说,“因为大家会开始谈论女性的性高潮,重新审视我们在这方面有多么大的认知空白,努力思考我们需要了解些什么。”The new theory may shed light on how the human female orgasm first evolved, but Dr. Pavlicev and Dr. Wagner said that it doesn’t settle the debate about its current role in women. “All directions are open,” Dr. Wagner said.这项新理论或许有助于揭示人类女性性高潮起初如何进化而来,不过帕夫利塞夫与瓦格纳表示,这并不能平息有关它对女性今时今日起到的作用的讨论。“所有方向都有可能,”瓦格纳说。Dr. Wagner said that deciphering the history of the female orgasm might improve reproductive medicine.瓦格纳认为,解开女性性高潮历史的谜团,也许能推进生殖医学的发展。“I think you’re looking at the whole woman’s reproductive system a little differently when you have a model for how it might have evolved,” he said.“我想,当你有了女性生殖系统可能怎样进化而来的模型,就会对这整套系统有不太一样的认识,”他说。 /201608/458413

In today#39;s world, we are often taught that being kind and respectful is the right way to get what we want. After all, the Golden Rule does state to treat others how you#39;d like to be treated yourself. However, being too nice could have a downside or two. Sometimes you need to make the tough decisions, blow off some steam on an innocent person, or act like a cocky know-it-all. In other words, sometimes you just need to act like a jerk. Believe it or not, acting like a jerk can sometimes pay off.当今世界,我们总是被教导做一个待人友善、懂礼貌的人,这样才能达成自己的目标。毕竟,;己所不欲,勿施于人;可是黄金法则,但做老好人也会有消极的一面。有时候你需要做艰难的抉择,可能会伤及无辜,或者表现得像一个狂妄的万事通。换句话说,就是有时候你得变成;奇葩;。信不信由你,有时候;奇葩;反倒能有所收获。10.Refusing To Apologize Makes You Feel Better10.拒绝道歉会让自己好受When we apologize, we acknowledge that we have done wrong and that we want to move forward on a better path. While this is a generally good rule to follow, it turns out that not apologizing might make you feel even better.我们道歉,就是承认自己的错误,并且想要往更好的方向发展。一般说来,这是个不错的方法,但是我们发现,拒绝道歉甚至可能让你感觉更好。A study published in the European Journal of Social Psychology had researcher Tyler Okimoto ask 228 participants to recall a time they had committed a wrongdoing. He then asked whether or not they apologized. The offenses ranged from cutting someone off in traffic to serious crimes like theft. The participants were divided into random groups and asked to compose an email explaining either why they were sorry or why they were not sorry. He found that those who didn#39;t apologize ended up feeling better about themselves. One explanation is that an apology is an admission of guilt that gives the other party the upper hand. It gives the other person power over the apologizer as they can decide whether they want to accept or reject the apology. It also allows them to feel like they are morally justified in casting judgment upon the apologizer.《欧洲社会心理学杂志》上发表过一篇论文,研究者泰勒·冲本让228位参与者回想他们曾犯下的一个错误,然后问他们是否为自己犯下的过错道歉。罪行从常见的在开车时挡在别人面前到盗窃这样的重罪都有。参与者被随机分为两组,并要求他们写一封邮件来解释他们感到抱歉与否的原因。他发现,那些拒绝道歉的人写到最后自我感觉更良好。有一种说法是,一旦道歉就等于承认自己的错误,这样就会让对方占上风。那么就给了对方控制道歉者的权利,他们可以选择接受或者拒绝道歉,同时他们也会认为他们随意评判道歉者是符合道义的行为。9.Snooty Salespeople Sell More9.傲慢的售货员销售更多The customer is always right—unless you#39;re selling a high-end luxury item. In that case, the customer probably has terrible taste in fashion and is likely an awful person who isn#39;t even good enough to polish your shoes.顾客永远是上帝——除非你卖的是高档奢侈品。在这种情况下,顾客的时尚品味可能非常糟糕,还可能是个给你擦鞋都不够格的人。You might think that acting like a pretentious snob would be enough to drive any customer away from your business forever, but you would be wrong. A study from the University of British Columbia found that snobby salespeople who sell luxury brands are more likely to sell more. The researchers found that participants who interacted with rude salespeople were more likely to express a desire to own the brand that was being sold because they wanted to feel like they were part of an exclusive ;in-group.; In other words, being rejected made them want to conform and fit in. It is important to note that this only works for high-end brands like Gucci and Neiman Marcus, not for mass-market brands. The salesperson also had to embody the brand that they were selling; the effect wouldn#39;t work if the salespeople were sloppy or unkempt. Rudeness is also a tactic that only seems to work in the short run. It may convince someone to buy something on impulse, but the effect will diminish over time.你也许觉得表现出一副傲慢势利的样子,就可以让顾客不再光顾你的生意,那么你就大错特错了。不列颠哥伦比亚大学的一项研究发现,在奢侈品销售领域,傲慢的售货员卖出的东西可能更多。研究人员发现,与傲慢售货员交涉过的顾客似乎更愿意表现出自己对断货商品的购买欲望,因为他们想成为;圈子;独特的一员。换句话说,被冷落使得顾客更想得到认可,融入进奢侈品圈子里。需要注意的是,这里说的仅限于高端奢侈品圈子,比如古驰、美国尼曼,而非大众品牌。售货员本身也要能够体现出高端品牌的品质,如果售货员表现得无精打采或是蓬头垢面,那就没有顾客会来光顾生意。当然,表现得傲慢无礼也只是个短期策略。这种方法可能会使顾客一时冲动买下商品,但随着时间的推移,此方法的效果就会大大下降。8.Swearing Increases Pain Tolerance8.爆粗口让人更能忍受疼痛A lot of us have sworn after hitting our head, accidentally walking into a glass door, or screwing up big time even though we know that curse words are often looked down upon by society at large. Four-letter words often carry negative connotations that nobody ever wants to hear, so these words are supposed to be reserved for great moments of frustration and anger. They might make others uncomfortable, but there is scientific evidence that curse words might make the user more comfortable when faced with pain or discomfort.即使我们知道脏话会让社会上很多人嗤之以鼻,但很多人还是会在被砸到脑袋、不小心撞到玻璃门,或者浪费大把时间之后咒骂两句。脏话通常带有负面意义,没人想要听,所以这些话不到挫败和愤怒之时就不要冲口而出。虽然脏话可能会让其他人不舒,但有科学据显示,脏话会让说的人在经受痛苦或不适时好受些。Richard Stephens and his colleagues at the Keele University School of Psychology conducted a study to demonstrate how swearing might help affect someone#39;s pain tolerance. The researchers gathered 67 participants and asked them to make two lists of five words. The first list contained words one might say after accidentally smashing his or her thumb with a hammer. The second list was composed of words that could be used to describe a table. The participants were then instructed to hold their hand in a bucket of room temperature water for three minutes in order to allow their hand adjust to the temperature before then submerging it into icy cold water. Half of the participants were asked to repeat the set of words that they might say if they hit their thumbs with a hammer, and the other half were asked to repeat the set of words that describe a table. The participants who repeated the curse words were not only able to keep their hand underwater for longer periods of time, but they also reported experiencing less pain. Swearing also apparently increased the participants#39; heart rates. The researchers believe that swearing helps increase pain tolerance because it, much like pain, helps invoke negative emotions, which sends the body into a fight-or-flight response that increases heart rate and decreases pain.基尔大学心理学学院的理查德·史蒂芬和他的同事们进行了一项研究,探究爆粗口是怎样影响人的疼痛耐受度。研究人员征集了67名参与者并要求他们列出两张各包含5个词的清单,第一张清单中要写出人们意外被锤子砸中拇指时可能说的词,第二张清单则要包括五个用来描述桌子的词。随后,他们请参与者把手放进室温下的水桶里浸泡三分钟以使他们的手适应这个温度,接着再将手浸入冰水中。一半的参与者被要求重复被锤子砸到拇指时会说的话,另一半则要重复描述桌子的词。那些参与者不断爆粗口的不仅可以将手浸在水中更长时间,也显示出他们承受的痛感更轻微。另外,爆粗口会显著增加参与者的心率。研究人员认为,爆粗口让人更能忍受疼痛是因为,像疼痛一样,脏话引发了负面情绪,使身体进入应激反应状态,从而提高心率减少痛感。7.Complaining Is Good For You7.抱怨对你有好处People usually don#39;t enjoy listening to somebody else needlessly complain. The situation quickly becomes miserable. However, there is a silver lining. There are actually quite a few benefits to complaining, including the fact that doing so can actually make you happier.通常人们都不喜欢听别人没有必要的抱怨,因为听完整个人就不好了。然而,抱怨还是有几分可取之处的。实际上抱怨着实有不少好处,其中就包括能让人更开心。Professor Robin Kowalski from Clemson University studied over 400 men and women who listed their complaints about a current or former partner before being asked to fill out a questionnaire regarding their happiness, mindfulness, and relationship satisfaction. Kowalski found that those who complained were indeed happier, but only if they complained with the intent of achieving a certain goal rather than just mindlessly complaining. In other words, Kowalski found that the most productive complaints are ones that serve a purpose. Complaining, when done the right way, can actually help us accomplish great things. You can use complaints to your advantage in order to analyze all the problems in your life and sort out which are truly worth worrying about and which can be fixed. Try organizing all of your complaints and decide which you have no control over (and therefore can#39;t fix) and which you actually can fix so that you can then proceed to develop a solution. Just don#39;t make your solution too difficult to accomplish, or you might wind up complaining even more.克莱姆森大学的罗宾·科沃斯基教授研究了超过400名男女,让他们列出对现任或前任伴侣的抱怨不满,然后填写一份关于幸福感、意识和关系满意度的调查问卷。科沃斯基发现那些抱怨的人确实会更幸福,但是只有在他们为实现某种确定目标而抱怨才有效果,而不只是盲目抱怨。换句话说,科沃斯基发现最有效的抱怨是以目的为前提的。当抱怨用入正途,它们着实可以帮我们完成很多重要的事。你可以巧用抱怨来分析生活中遇到的所有问题,找出哪些是真正值得担心,哪些又是可以解决的。我们要试着管理自己的抱怨,决定出哪些是不可控的(因此不能解决的),哪些实际上是可以解决的,进而可以制定解决方案。不过,你可不要让解决方法太难而无法实现,不然抱怨会更多。6.Mean People Get Paid More6.刻薄的人工资更高Have you ever heard that ;nice guys finish last; or that ;it pays to be a jerk;? It turns out that both those phrases might be somewhat true—jerks literally get paid more money at work. Researchers from Cornell University, University of Western Ontario, and University of Notre Dame looked at the salaries of various men and women and found that those who were more ;agreeable; also had a significantly lower salary.你听说过;好人最后总是输给蠢人;或者;做个混蛋!;吗?这些俗语有时候是对的,因为刻薄的人确实工资更高!来自康奈尔大学、西安大略大学和圣母大学的研究者调查了各种人群的收入,发现那些所谓;讨人喜欢;的员工的工资很明显要少一些。Younger and agreeable men suffer the pay disparity as they earn almost ,000 less than their meaner counterparts. In a follow-up study that included older men, the gap widened to over ,000. That#39;s not to say that women don#39;t suffer as well. The first study found that agreeable women make ,100 less than disagreeable women. The follow-up study found that agreeable women make about ,000 less than their disagreeable counterparts. There could be several reasons for this. Less agreeable people are probably a lot better at negotiating salaries and able to make more tough decisions. The gap could be widest for men because men who are more passive are often seen as less masculine and less competent for leadership roles.那些年轻、讨人喜欢的男性员工比吝啬的同事们年收入少了近7000美元。在接下来的调查统计中,年长男性员工的收入,与其差距高达10,000美元!女性员工的情况也不容乐观。第一次调查发现,讨人喜欢的女性员工比刻薄的女性员工年收入少了1,100美元。到第二次调查时,差距扩大到了3,000美元。有很多原因可以解释这个现象。吝啬的人会对工资斤斤计较,并且能够做出一些艰难的决定。男性的收入差距更大,是因为那些做事被动的人常常优柔寡断,缺乏领导层岗位的竞争能力。审校:庄粉玲 来源:前十网 /201607/454891

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