原标题: 朝阳区妇幼保健院治疗妇科怎么样爱问典范
Science and technology.科技。Bionics.仿生学。I think Id like some coffee.我想来点咖啡。A paralysed woman gets herself a drink.四肢瘫痪的女人也能自己喝咖啡。HELPING yourself to a cup of coffee may seem like a small, everyday thing. But not if you are quadriplegic. Unlike paraplegics, for whom the robotic legs described in the previous article are being developed, quadriplegics have lost the use of all four limbs. Yet thanks to a project organised by John Donoghue of Brown University, in Rhode Island, and his colleagues, they too have hope. One of the participants in his experiments, a 58-year-old woman who is unable to use any of her limbs, can now pick up a bottle containing coffee and bring it close enough to her mouth to drink from it using a straw. She does so using a thought-controlled robotic arm fixed to a nearby stand. It is the first time she has managed something like that since she suffered a stroke, nearly 15 years ago.给自己倒杯咖啡对普通人来说是一件再平常不过的小事,但对于一个四肢瘫痪的人来说就不是这样了,不像下身麻痹患者,前文中提到的机械腿已经发展得很成熟,但全身瘫痪的人四肢都不能使用,现在多亏了罗德岛州布朗大学的John Donoghue和他同事发起的一项计划,四肢瘫痪者也有了希望。在他的实验中有一位58岁的女患者,她四肢瘫痪,但她现在能够拿起一瓶咖啡并送到嘴边,再用吸管喝下,她完成这个动作是靠思想控制固定在旁边的机械臂,这也是她15年前中风以来,第一次像这样掌控一些东西。Arms are more complicated pieces of machinery than legs, so controlling them via electrodes attached to the skin of someones scalp is not yet possible. Instead, brain activity has to be recorded directly. And that is what Dr Donoghue is doing. Both his female participant and a second individual, a man of 66 also paralysed by a stroke, have worked with him before, as a result of which they have had small, multichannel electrodes implanted in the parts of the motor cortexes of their brains associated with hand movements. The womans implant was put there in 2005; the mans five months before the latest trial, described in a paper just published in Nature.由于手臂上的机械零件比腿更复杂,所以通过依附在头皮上的电极来控制它们不大现实,而大脑活动是可以被检测到的——这就是Donoghue士所做的事情。不仅那个女患者,还有一个66岁的男中风患者也参与了他的实验,Donoghue士先找到参与者大脑中控制手活动的区域,再把一些小型多波段电极植入该运动皮质。根据刚刚发表在《自然》杂志上的论文,女患者在2005年就植入了,而男患者的最新植入才5个月。Dr Donoghue and his team decoded signals from their participants brains as they were asked to imagine controlling a robotic arm making preset movements. The volunteers were then encouraged to operate one of two robot arms by thinking about the movements they wanted to happen. When the software controlling the arms detected the relevant signals, the arms moved appropriately.Donoghue士和他的团队先设定一个动作,让参与者想象通过机械臂去完成它,这个过程中大脑的信号就会被记录和破译出来。然后Donoghue士再鼓励他们去控制其中一只机械臂去完成自己想要的动作,机械臂上的控制软件在检测到相关信号之后,机械臂就会进行相应的移动。The arm that the woman used to help herself to a drink is a lightweight device developed by DLR, Germanys Aerospace Centre, as part of its robotics programme. The other, known as a DEKA arm, is being developed in America specifically as a prosthetic for those who have lost an arm. Normally, it is operated by the wearer moving his chest or moving his toes over buttons in a shoe. The participants used it to reach and grasp a ball made of foam rubber.能让女患者自己喝水的这个轻量级机械臂来自于DLR(德国航空航天中心),这也是机器人计划的一部分,其他的还有DEKA的机械臂,该厂专为残疾人士提供假肢,并且在美国已经相当成熟。一般情况下,穿戴者会通过移动他们的胸部或者用脚趾按鞋子上的按钮来操作,这样他们还可以抓起泡沫橡胶球。Dr Donoghue and his colleagues have thus shown that a mechanical arm can be controlled remotely by the brain of a person with paralysis. Controlling a true prosthetic-an arm that is attached to the individuals body-will be trickier, but in time even that may be possible. In the meantime, a robotic arm attached to (say) a wheelchair will be a real boon. For people who have little or no ability to move their arms Dr Donoghues work promises liberation in the form of idian action that the able-bodied take for granted.Donoghue士和他的同事明了瘫痪者可以通过大脑来控制较远的机械臂。要直接控制安装在身体上的假肢还是比较麻烦,即使理论上是可行的,但是现在把机械臂安装在轮椅上(打个比方)是一个更加实用的好事。对于那些没有能力或者只有有限能力配他们手臂的患者来说,Donoghue士的成果解放了他们,让他们也能够完成那些我们认为理所当然的琐事。 /201209/198648

Obituary;Michael Foot;讣告;迈克尔·富特;Michael Foot, politician and man of letters, died on March 3rd, aged 96.政治家、作家迈克尔·富特于本月3日仙逝,享年96岁。He died a much-loved Englishman, renowed for his untidy shock of white hair, his shambling wanderings on Hampstead Heath with his dog Dizzy, his devotion to literature, and the modesty that allowed him, when leader of the Labour Party, to stand in his anorak waiting at the bus stop. Deep into old age, half-blind, he never failed to keep up with the latest works on his great loves, Shelley and Byron, and to hold forth over breakfast—several eggs running all over his plate—about the latest troubles of his beloved party, and its prospects for the future.他,名叫迈克尔·富特(Michael Foot),一位备受爱戴的英吉利人——带着他引人注目的一头蓬乱的白发、带着他在普斯泰德西斯公园牵着小迪齐蹒跚闲行的身影、带着他对文学的挚爱、还带着他任工党党魁时,身着风帽夹克在站台候车所赢得的谦逊美名——离开了人间。进入高龄后,他几近失明,雪莱和拜伦的作品,乃其至爱,一俟新评问世,他必关注;而且,在早餐(那早餐是几枚在餐盘中来回滚动的鸡蛋)时侃侃而谈,谈论他所爱戴的工党的困境和未来。He was not always so popular. As a left-wing journalist working for the right-wing proprietor Max Beaverbrook before, during and after the war, the vituperative scorn of his prose injured those who did not realise that it masked a complete lack of personal malice. But age and familiarity smoothed the sharp edges. “Sweet man, Michael,” remarked Anthony Crosland, a revisionist socialist who, in the 1970s, had spent most of his time fighting him.迈克尔·富特并不总是备受爱戴。在二战前、中、后的一段时间,他作为一名左翼记者在右翼领袖东马克斯·弗布鲁克旗下工作,他那充满责骂鄙视的文章伤害了一些人的自尊——这些人实际上没有意识到他的文章完全不带有对个人的蓄意伤害。但时间和世故人情消融了他的锐气。“好人,迈克尔”,安东尼·克罗斯兰如是说——20世纪70年代,修正社会主义者安东尼·克罗斯兰在与迈克尔·富特的论战中度过了大部分时光。The leadership of the Labour Party was not a job which—for most of his life—he sought. When Jim Callaghan stood down as leader in 1980, the two men most likely to succeed him were Denis Healey on the right and Peter Shore on the left. But Mr Foot, by then 67, had developed a certain fond vanity which was worked on by a Machiavellian trade-union leader, Clive Jenkins, to persuade him to stand. The result was the worst disaster that could have befallen Mr Foot. He won.出任工党党魁不是富特一生中大部分时间里所寻求的事业。1981年,吉姆·卡拉汉作为(工党)党魁下台时,最有可能接替他的两个人是(党内)右翼派系的丹尼斯·希利和左翼派系的彼得·肖尔。 那时的富特已经67岁,心里开始滋生出几分骄傲自满,一位狡猾的工会领袖正是利用这一点,劝说他挺身参选,而最终的结果则是他最不愿意看到的——他赢了。The Labour Party then was a veritable Bermuda triangle, containing both ardent followers of the left-wing policies advocated by Tony Benn, and a right-wing group, led by Roy Jenkins, which was threatening to start a new centre party. Mr Foots appeal was that, being of the left but not of the far left, he could hold this combustible mixture together.是时,工党是一个名副其实的百慕大三角架构,其中既有托尼·本主张的左翼政策的追随者,也有罗伊·詹金斯领导的右翼团体,后者威胁要创建一个新政党。富特的左,但又左得不太远的主张,可以将这两种易燃物揉合在一起。To a degree, he did. The breakaway was contained. Mr Foot accepted most of the policies of the left, including unilateral nuclear disarmament which he had always agreed with, and many others that he hadnt. This was just enough to preserve his party broadly intact. Unfortunately, it also made it unelectable. In the 1983 general election, fought on a manifesto described by one shadow minister as “the longest suicide note in history”, the party started badly and finished worse.在一定程度上,富特做到了这一点。党内分裂得到控制。富特接受了左派的大部分政策,包括他一直主张的单方面核裁军以及他过去不曾赞同的其他一些政策。他的这些举措仅可大体上保持党内团结。遗憾的是,这些举措未能确保他成功连任。1983年大选期间,由于富特发表了被一位影子大臣形容为“历史上篇幅最长的遗书”的竞选政纲,致使工党开局不顺,结果更糟。Even before the election, Mr Foot was not an effective leader. He dithered terribly. At one point, he insisted in the Commons that Peter Tatchell, a left-winger, would never be a Labour candidate while he was leader. A little later, he decided that he could be. Most voters could not conceive of him as a plausible prime minister. He seemed to come from another age, perhaps the 19th century, a West Country radical in his familys best tradition. He could not get the hang of television, and horrified the country by appearing at the Cenotaph one Remembrance Day in a short, scruffy coat. By the time he stepped down gratefully after his defeat, he seemed a tragi-comic figure.即使在选举前,富特先生也算不上是一个卓有成效的领导人。他相当地优柔寡断。有一次,当时他还是工党领导人时,他在下院坚持说左翼成员彼得·塔契尔永远不能成为工党的候选人。过了一会儿,他又断定他会是候选人。多数选民无法想象他真的成为首相。他似乎来自另一个时代——或许就是来自19世纪吧,他是一位那个世纪英国西南部的、带着所在团队优良传统的激进分子。他不懂如何在电视机上秀形象,而令举国震惊的是,他于荣军纪念日在和平纪念碑出席纪念活动时,身着短裤、衣冠不整。他在竞选落败后,却带着感激引退的行为,令人感觉他是一位悲喜剧式的人物。His political judgment was dodgy from the beginning. In 1974-75, when he first went into government as employment secretary, he was responsible for relations with the trade unions. In the words of one cabinet member of the time, “The relationship was one of give-and-take. The government gave and they took.” Industrial subsidies, housing subsidies, even food subsidies flowed out in an effort to buy low pay settlements. All were enthusiastically supported by Mr Foot. None made a jot of difference to escalating wage agreements.富特的政治辨别力自始就不怎么样。 1974至75年期间,他第一次进入政府内阁,出任劳工部大臣,在处理与工会的关系上,他是应受指责的。用当时一位政府内阁成员的话说:“这种相互妥协的关系变成一边倒。政府给,他们取”。工业补贴、住房补贴、甚至食物补贴大量花掉,以求与工会达成低工资协议。所有这一切都得到了富特先生满腔热忱的持。但在免于形成高工资协议上毫无效果。Mr Foot was slow to realise this. But once he had, he entered perhaps the most effective period of his political life. In an extraordinary speech to his partys conference in 1976, he ed Joseph Conrad: “Always facing it, Captain MacWhir. Thats the way to get through. Always facing it—thats the way weve got to solve this problem.” By 1978 the economy was back on an even keel and Labour was neck-and-neck in the polls.富特意识到这一点是缓慢的。但是,一旦他意识到了,就进入了也许是他政治生涯中最卓有成效的时期。在1976年工党年会上的一次特别演讲中,他引用约瑟夫·康拉德的话:“麦克惠尔船长,总得面对现实,这才是到达目的地的办法。总得面对现实——这才是我们不得不解决此麻烦的办法”。到1978年时,经济又回复平稳,且工党在民调中的持率也与经济的转好同步上升。But Mr Foot, by then the leader of the House of Commons, convinced himself that his party would lose an election that October. More important, he convinced the prime minister. The election was postponed to the spring of 1979. The “winter of discontent”, with widesp strikes, intervened.This was the first of two elections which Mr Foot delivered to Margaret Thatcher on a plate.不过,时任下议院领袖的富特自我确认,他所在的工党将会在10月的大选中落马。尤其是,他也使首相(即当时由工党出任的首相詹姆斯·卡拉汉)认识到这一点。因伴之以大罢工的“不满的冬天”事件的影响,10月份的选举被推迟到1979年的春天。这次选举是富特两次轻易将胜选权让渡给撒切尔夫人中的第一次。He could seem unworldly. As a minister, he once boarded a plane to a Socialist International conference in Europe without a penny in foreign currency, carrying only a leather-bound volume of Hazlitt. Yet in one sense, he was entirely worldly. He had an instinctive understanding of people. He wrote beautifully and, after overcoming a stammer, was a wonderful orator: humorous, self-deprecating, empathetic. He could be a hater—anyone who failed to perceive the genius of his hero Aneurin Bevan, whose biography he wrote, had best look out—but he was incapable of sustained malevolence.富特似乎天生不谙世故。作为一位大臣,他曾经在没有一分外币的情况下,仅携带一本黑兹利特的皮面装订书籍,就登上一架飞机,去欧洲出席一个“国际社会主义者”会议。但在某种意义上说,他又老于世故。他对民众悲喜如天才般洞若观火。他文笔优美,而且在克口吃后成了优秀的演说家,他幽默诙谐、自嘲自谦、善解人意。他也会恨人的—— 如果还有谁看不到富特所撰写的传记中的主人公安奈林·贝文的天才的话, 那可就要小心点——不过他虽然会恨人, 恨意却从不长久。Over the last few years of his life, Mr Foot contemplated writing a serious work of socialist philosophy. Instead, he embarked on a biography of an eccentric literary genius, H.G. Wells. In the end, that seemed to suit him better.在富特生命的最后几年,他打算写一部关于社会主义思想体系的严肃著作。相反,他却写起了一部关于一位超乎寻常的文学天才HG威尔斯的传记来。也许,后者于他更适合。 /201212/217841

This is the minute books of the Turnham Green Congregational Church for 1876.这是1876年特纳姆格林公理教会的记录薄。Look whos in them, named as a new church worker and assistant preacher, Mr.Van Gogh.看看谁在其中,一位新的教会工人兼助理牧师,他就是梵高。Look at the spelling, its wrong.看一下这位伟人的拼写,还拼写错误了。Thats why he began calling himself Vincent, he was fed up with the English getting his name wrong.这就是为什么他开始称自己为文森特的原因,他已经受够了英语将他的名字弄错。As Mr. Richardson proposed, Mr. Stembridge seconded that Mr. Vincent Van Gof, spelt GOF be accepted as a co-worker.理查森先生提议,斯特姆布里奇再次附议,文森特梵高夫,高夫已经成为一位我们的其中一员。The Reverend Slade Jones pestered mightily one of imagines by Mr. Van Gogh and boy could Mr. Van Gogh pester was finally persuaded to allow Vincent to step across that crucial religious divide that separate the sheep from the shepherds.斯莱德琼斯牧师为梵高和梵高纠缠说的男孩而烦恼,而文森特终于被允许跨过那至关重要的宗教分歧从牧养人的羊群中脱离出来。On the 29th of October, 1876, on a sunny autumn Sunday Vincent rose before the faithful at the Richmond Methodist Chapel in suburban west London and delivered his first sermon.在1876年10月29日,在一个阳光明媚的秋天的周日,文森特站在了西伦敦郊区虔诚的里奇蒙德卫理公会教堂前进行他的第一次布道。 201208/196161

Einstein had to be really afraid that Hilbert would actually take over the whole game and publish the final equations of General Relativity before him.爱因斯坦真的担心希尔伯特实际上会接管整个大局并在他自己面前发表最终的广义相对论方程式。All of a sudden, he discovered that several pointers all seemed to point to the same direction.突然,他发现所有矛头似乎都指向同一个方向。Einstein remembered that he had given up a very radical solution that he had stumbled upon aly in 1912 and that he had then discarded because it looks just physically too unfamiliar, too unacceptable.爱因斯坦想起他已经放弃的一个非常激进的解决方案,这个方案他偶然在1912发现,之后又是他自己废弃,因为它看起来很不熟悉,有些不可接受。But now, after he tried out all these other alternatives,但现在,在他尝试了所有这些其他选择后,he was y to return exactly to that equation,他准备重新返回那个等式,back to an equation that he had early considered and then discarded three years before.回到一个他在3年前就曾早考虑过,然后放弃的方程式。You realized that youve been wrong in a real flash of inspiration because you realized what you should be doing.你意识到你在一个真正的灵感瞬间已经错了,因为你意识到自己应该做什么。You know he had it all in his drawer.你知道他在自己的抽屉里有这一切。And thats of course an glorious moment.当然,这是一个辉煌时刻。There it was, the equation that he had discarded.它就在那边, 他已经抛弃了的方程式。And now it was, look much more promising, much more useful than it had in the winter of 1912.而现在,看起来更有前途, 比在1912年的冬天更有用。It isnt always a dark time when you realize that you are wrong,当你意识到你是错误的也并不总是一个黑暗的时代,sometimes its a wonderful time.有时这是一段美好的时光。The excitement for Einstein comes with the realization that the answer for his new theory can be found in an old astronomical riddle.爱因斯坦的兴奋来自他意识到这个新理论的,这在一个古老的天文谜语中被发现。Einstein began to look at a mystery that had puzzled astronomers for generations.爱因斯坦开始寻找一个困扰了天文学家世代的谜。According to Sir Isaac Newton,根据艾萨克·牛顿爵士,the planet Mercury should be going around the sun like this.水星这样绕太阳运行。But it was known for quite a while that the orbit of Mercury deviates from Newtons laws of motion.但是它已经被众人知晓,水星的轨道偏离了牛顿的运动定律。It tilts a little bit.它稍微倾斜。So the orbit instead of going like this begins to tilt and it begins to make a pattern like the petals of a flower.所以轨道而是不继续像这样开始倾斜,它就花瓣一样开始进入一个模式。注:听力文本来源于普特 201205/181683

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