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重庆市妇保医院贵吗好互动

2019年10月16日 22:33:52 | 作者:58口碑 | 来源:新华社
And last week we sang with the children one of their favorite songs,上周我们与孩子们一起唱了一首他们最喜爱的歌曲:The Wise Man Built His House Upon the Rock.聪明人建房岩石上。Perhaps some of you know it. Some of the words go like this:也许你们当中有些人知道这首歌。其中有些歌词是这样的:The foolish man built his house upon the sand.And the floods came up And the house on the sand went crash.笨人建房沙滩上,风吹水涌起波浪,房倒屋塌遭祸殃。Then in the same week, at a funeral,we sang the familiar hymn We Plow the Fields and Scatter,a very English hymn. 就在同一个星期的一个葬礼上,我们唱起熟悉的赞美诗 我们犁田与播种,一首非常有英国风格的赞美诗。In the second verse comes the line, The wind and waves obey Him.在第二节有这样一行,风和浪也顺从他。Do they? I dont feel we can sing that song again in church,after whats happened. 果真如此吗?在海啸发生后,我感觉我们不能再在教堂唱这首歌了。So the first big question is about control.因此,第一个大问题是关于掌控。Does God have a plan for each of us? Is God in control?上帝是否对我们每个人都有一个计划?上帝是否在掌控中?Does God order each moment? Does the wind and the waves obey Him?上帝是否时时刻刻在安排这个世界?风和浪是否顺从他?From time to time,one hears Christians telling the story of how God organized things for them,so that everything worked out all right,some difficulty overcome, some illness cured, some trouble averted,a parking space found at a crucial time. 人们时常听到基督徒讲述上帝如何如何为他们安排各种各样的事情,因此一切都最终顺利解决了。比如:困难克了,疾病治愈了,麻烦避免了,在关键时刻找到了一个停车位,诸如此类。I can remember someone saying this to me,with her eyes shining with enthusiasm at this wonderful confirmation of her faith and the goodness of God.我还记得有个人在对我讲述这种故事时,她的眼中闪烁着热情的光芒,认为这是她的信仰和上帝的美德的伟大见。But if God can or will do these things,intervene to change the flow of events then surely he could have stopped the tsunami.但是,如果上帝能够或者愿意做这之类的事情,干预改变事件的发生次序,那么毫无疑问他也应该能制止海啸的发生。Do we have a local God who can do little things like parking spaces,but not big things like 500 mile-per-hour waves? 难道我们有的只是一个小区域的上帝,可以管停车位这样的小事情,却不去管时速500英里的海浪这样的大事情?Thats just not acceptable to intelligent Christians,and we must acknowledge it.只要是有头脑的基督徒都不能接受这个观点,我们必须承认这一点:Either God is responsible for the tsunami,or God is not in control.要么上帝为海啸负责,要么上帝失去了控制。After the tragedy, survival stories began to emerge.悲剧发生后,开始出现劫后余生的故事。You probably heard some of them:你们也许听说过其中的一些。比如:the man who surfed the wave,the teenage girl who recognized the danger because she had just been learning about tsunamis at school. 一名男子因为会冲浪而生还;一个十几岁的女孩识别出了危险,因为她刚刚在学校学习了有关海啸的知识;Then there was the congregation who had left their usual church building on the shore to hold a service in the hills.一个教堂的会众没有使用他们平时用的在海岸边的教堂,而改在山上做礼拜,The preacher delivered an extra long sermon,so that they were still out of harms way when the wave struck.牧师恰巧做了一个超长的讲道,因此当巨浪袭来时他们还在山上而幸免于难。Afterwards someone said that God must have been looking after them.后来有人说,一定是上帝在保佑他们。So the next question is about partiality.因此,接下来的问题是关于偏袒。Can we earn Gods favor by worshipping Him or believing in Him?我们可以通过崇拜或信仰来赢得上帝的青睐吗?Does God demand loyalty, like any medieval tyrant?上帝是否要求忠诚,象中世纪的暴君一样?A God who looks after His own, so that Christians are OK,while everyone else perishes?上帝是否只照顾信他的人,所以基督徒没问题,而其他人要灭亡?A cosmic us and them, and a God who is guilty of the worst kind of favoritism?这个宇宙中有我们,他们,和一个犯有严重偏袒罪的上帝?That would be appalling,and that would be the point at which I would hand in my membership. 这是非常可怕的,正是基于这一点,我辞去了我的教会职务。Such a God would be morally inferior to the highest ideals of humanity.这样的上帝在道义上甚至还不如最理想的人类道德。So who is God, if not the great puppet-master or the tribal protector?那么上帝是谁,如果他不是那个伟大的傀儡操纵者或部落保护者的话?Perhaps God allows or permits terrible things to happen,so that heroism and compassion can be shown. 也许上帝同意或允许可怕的事情发生,以便让人们有机会表现英雄主义和同情心。Perhaps God is testing us: testing our charity, or our faith.也许上帝是在考验我们:考验我们的善心、我们的信仰。Perhaps there is a great, cosmic plan that allows for horrible suffering so that everything will work out OK in the end.也许有一个伟大的宇宙计划,允许可怕的痛苦,但一切都将最终顺利解决。Perhaps, but these ideas are all just variations on God controlling everything.也许吧,但这些说法都只是上帝控制一切的变种。201505/375467At least let some of them into your lives. Giving lifts the heart in a way that getting never can. Maybe it really was Oscar Wilde who said: ;No one ever died, saying if only I had one more day at the office.;至少要让其中的一部分理想融入你们的生活。给予可以提升心灵,而索取在某种程度上永远不可能做到。或许真的像奥斯卡·王尔德所说的那样:“渴望再多工作一天的人就不会死去。”One small but shocking sentence: each year three million children die in Africa from preventable disease or conflict.有一句虽简短却很震撼的话:非洲每天有300万儿童死于可预防性疾病和暴力冲突。The key word? Preventable.关键词是什么呢?是“可预防的”。When all is said and done, there is usually more said than done.当谈及言出必行时,人们通常都是说得多做得少。Be a doer not a commentator. Seek responsibility rather than shirk it. People often ask me about leadership, I say: leadership is about wanting the responsibility to be on your shoulders, not ignoring its weight but knowing someone has to carry it and, reaching out for that person to be you. Leaders are heat-seekers not heat-deflectors.要做一个实干家而不是家。要勇于承担责任,不要逃避退缩。人们经常问我关于领导力的事情,我说,领导力就是想要肩负责任,而不是忽视责任之重;领导力就是知道必须有人站出来承担责任,而且要努力成为那个人。领导者是勇于承担责任而非逃避责任的人。And luck?那运气呢?You have all the luck you need. You are here, at Yale, and what - apart from the hats - could be better?你们具备成功所需的一切运气。你们在耶鲁学习生活——还有什么比拥有耶鲁大学的桂冠更幸运的呢?You have something else: your parents.你们还拥有其他的,比如你们的父母。When you are your age, you can never imagine being our age. But believe me, when youre our age we remember clearly being your age. Thats why I am so careful about young men and my daughter, ;Dont tell me what youre thinking. I know what youre thinking.;你们在这个年龄的时候很难想象我们这个年龄的人的状况。但请相信我,当你们像我这么大时,我还能清楚记得我们在你们这个年龄所经历的事情。这就是我如此关心年轻人和我的女儿的原因,“不要告诉我你们在想什么,我知道你们在想什么。” /201212/217707If you told me that Id have to be depressed for the next month,如果你告诉我,我会在接下来的一个月里一直抑郁I would say, ;As long I know itll be over in November, I can do it.;我会说,“只要一个月之后不抑郁了我就可以接受。”But if you said to me, ;You have to have acute anxiety for the next month,;但如果你告诉我,“你会在接下来的一个月里严重焦虑。”I would rather slit my wrist than go through it.那么我宁可割腕也不愿意忍受It was the feeling all the time这是一种持续的感觉like that feeling you have if youre walking and you slip or trip就好像你走在路上滑倒了或者绊倒了and the ground is rushing up at you,地面猛冲向你的感觉but instead of lasting half a second, the way that does, it lasted for six months.但这种感觉不是半秒钟,而是持续6个月Its a sensation of being afraid all the time but not even knowing what it is that youre afraid of.这是一种时时刻刻感到惧怕,却不知道自己在惧怕什么的感觉And it was at that point that I began to think that it was just too painful to be alive,就在那时我开始想活着太痛苦了and that the only reason not to kill oneself was so as not to hurt other people.人不自杀的唯一原因是因为不想伤害身边的人And finally one day, I woke up and I thought perhaps Id had a stroke,终于有一天,我醒来的时候,我觉得我可能中风了because I lay in bed completely frozen, looking at the telephone, thinking,因为我躺在床上整个人是完全僵硬的,我看着电话,心想;Something is wrong and I should call for help,;“不好了,我该打电话求助。”and I couldnt reach out my arm and pick up the phone and dial.但我没办法伸出手去,没有办法拿到电话来拨号And finally, after four full hours of my lying and staring at it, the phone rang,终于,在我躺在那盯着电话整整四小时之后,电话铃响了and somehow I managed to pick it up, and it was my father,我不记得自己怎么拿到的电话,是我父亲打来的and I said, ;Im in serious trouble. We need to do something.;我说,“我现在遇到大麻烦了,我们必须做点什么。”The next day I started with the medications and the therapy.第二天我开始吃药,开始接受治疗And I also started reckoning with this terrible question:与此同时我开始思考一个可怕的问题If Im not the tough person如果我不是那种坚强到who could have made it through a concentration camp, then who am I?即使被送去集中营也可以存活下来的人,那么我是谁呢?And if I have to take medication,如果我需要吃药的话is that medication making me more fully myself, or is it making me someone else?那么药物是让我变得更像自己,还是让我更不像自己?And how do I feel about it if its making me someone else?如果会让我变得像别人,那么我又如何感觉到这点呢?I had two advantages as I went in to the fight.在这个抗争的过程中我有两个优势The first is that I knew that, objectively speaking,首先是我很清楚,客观地说I had a nice life, and that if I could only get well,我有一个不错的生活条件,如果我能好起来there was something at the other end that was worth living for.那么最终是会有一些东西值得我去为之而活的And the other was that I had access to good treatment.另外一点就是我能接受好的治疗But I nonetheless emerged and relapsed,但我却不知为何,好转了又复发and emerged and relapsed, and emerged and relapsed,又好转,又复发,再好转,再复发and finally understood I would have to be on medication and in therapy forever.最后我才意识到,我必须一辈子依赖药物以及治疗And I thought, ;But is it a chemical problem or a psychological problem?于是我想,“但这到底是一个化学问题还是一个心理问题?And does it need a chemical cure or a philosophical cure?;这到底需要化学疗法还是心理疗法呢?”And I couldnt figure out which it was.我无法找到问题的And then I understood that actually,然后我明白了we arent advanced enough in either area for it to explain things fully.事实上我们对这两个领域的了解都还不够,都还不足以完全弄清真相201602/425459And in poorer countries, smaller countries, fragile countries,conflict-afflicted countries, remittances are a lifeline,as in Somalia or in Haiti. 在更穷,更小,或者正发生冲突的国家,移民汇款就如同救命稻草,比如说在索马里或海蒂。No wonder these flows have huge impacts on economies and on poor people.难怪这些资金流会对经济和贫困人口带来巨大的影响。Remittances, unlike private investment money,不同于私人资助基金,they dont flow back at the first sign of trouble in the country.移民汇款不会在国家一出现问题的时候就回流。They actually act like an insurance.它们更像保险金。When the family is in trouble,当家人遇到麻烦,facing hardship, facing hard times,碰到问题,遇到困难的时候,remittances increase, they act like an insurance.它会增加,就像保险金一样,Migrants send more money then.移民们会寄更多的钱回去。Unlike development aid money,它们也不像发展资助基金,that must go through official agencies,through governments, remittances directly reach the poor,reach the family,and often with business advice. 那些必须经过正式的机构,通过政府。而移民汇款直接到达穷人手中,到达家人手中,通常还附带着商业建议。So in Nepal, the share of poor people was 42 percent in 1995,the share of poor people in the population.在尼泊尔,1995年时穷人占人口总数的42%。By 2005, a decade later, at a time of political crisis, economic crisis,the share of poor people went down to 31 percent. 十年之后,2005年时,当时尼泊尔正遇上政治危机,经济危机,可是穷人的比例却降到了31%。That decline in poverty, most of it,about half of it, is believed to be because of remittances from India,another poor country. 贫困人口的减少,大部分,大约一半,是依靠从印度,另一个穷国,寄来的移民汇款。In El Salvador, the school dropout rate among children is lower in families that receive remittances.在萨尔瓦多,儿童辍学率在接受移民汇款的家庭中就比较低。In Mexico and Sri Lanka,the birth weight of children is higher among families that receive remittances.在墨西哥和斯里兰卡儿童的出生体重在接受移民汇款的家庭中较高。Remittances are dollars wrapped with care.移民汇款是被爱包裹的钱财。Migrants send money home for food,for buying necessities, for building houses,for funding education, for funding healthcare for the elderly, for business investments for friends and family. 移民们寄钱回去买食物,买必需品,建房子,用于教育,老年人的医疗,还有家人和朋友的商业投资。Migrants send even more money home for special occasions like a surgery or a wedding. And migrants also send money, perhaps far too many times,for unexpected funerals that they cannot attend.遇到特殊情况, 移民们还会寄更多的钱,比如手术或婚礼。也许更多的时候,遇上突如其来的葬礼,他们因为无法参加而寄钱回去。Much as these flows do all that good,there are barriers to these flows of remittances, these 400 billion dollars of remittances.虽然这些资金流动有这么多好处,它们的流动却受到很多阻碍,阻碍这四千亿美元的流动。Foremost among them is the exorbitant cost of sending money home.最大的障碍是寄钱回家的高额费用。Money transfer companies structure their fees to milk the poor.现金传递公司收费的方式就是在压榨穷人。They will say, ;Up to 500 dollars if you want to send, we will charge you 30 dollars fixed.;他们会说,五百美元以下,我们固定收取30元的手续费。If you are poor and if you have only 200 dollars to send,you have to pay that fee. 如果你很穷,只能寄两百块钱,你也得交30元的手续费。The global average cost of sending money is eight percent.寄钱的全球平均花费是8%。That means you send 100 dollars,the family on the other side receives only 92 dollars. 也就是说你寄100块钱,到了另一边你的家人只能收到92块。To send money to Africa,the cost is even higher:12 percent.寄钱到非洲的花费就更高:12%。To send money within Africa,the cost is even higher:over 20 percent. 在非洲内部寄钱,费用还要更高:超过20%,For example, sending money from Benin to Nigeria.比如从贝宁寄钱到尼日利亚。And then there is the case of Venezuela, where,because of exchange controls,you send 100 dollars and you are lucky if the family on the other side receives even 10 dollars.而在委内瑞拉,因为货币兑换受到控制,如果你寄了100块钱,你的家人在另一边如果能拿到10块钱就不错了。Of course, nobody sends money to Venezuela through the official channel.当然了,没人通过正式渠道往委内瑞拉寄钱。It all goes in suitcases.都是装在行李箱里带。Whereever costs are high,money goes underground.收费高的地方,钱都从地下走了。And what is worse,many developing countries actually have a blanket ban on sending money out of the country.更糟的是,很多发展中国家实际上还全面禁止往国外寄钱。Many rich nations also have a blanket ban on sending money to specific countries.很多富裕国也全面禁止向某些国家寄钱。So, is it that there are no options,no better options, cheaper options, to send money? 那是不是没有办法,更好,更便宜的办法寄钱了呢?There are.还是有的。M-Pesa in Kenya enables people to send money and receive money at a fixed cost of only 60 cents per transaction.通过肯尼亚的M-Pesa寄钱,手续费是固定的每笔60美分。201505/377315

Christmas is a special time. For most of us, it is a time to be together with our loved ones, our families; a time to pause and reflect; a time to recognise and give thanks for the good people, and happy events in our lives. If Christmas is a time to celebrate, it is also a time to share. We share each others company, each others achievements, together with each others pains, hopes and dreams. For we must not forget that Christmas is also a time of hope. At this time, in the deepest darkness of winter, we celebrate the triumph of light over dark, of dreams over the setbacks of the past. We renew our sense of possibilities not yet realised. As we take stock over this holiday period, we are given an opportunity to reflect on our lives and the world we live in. As we do so, we are reminded of the hardship experienced by countless people in Ireland and the suffering of millions of our fellow travellers on this vulnerable planet we call Earth. As we reflect on the story of Christmas and the birth of Jesus, on the plight of the homeless Joseph and Mary anticipating the birth of their child, and how they were aided by complete strangers, we can perhaps draw inspiration from what they experienced for our own lives and times. More than anything, the Christmas story gives us guidance on how to shape our own shared humanity with a regard for future generations. This year in particular, we welcome the acceptance of new obligations by nation states in relation to global poverty and climate change. During 2015, we learnt that 1 in every 122 people on the planet is now a refugee, a ;displaced person; or otherwise forced to leave their homes. Wars, conflict and persecution have forced more people to flee than at any other time since records began. As people of a migrant nation, we are perhaps uniquely placed to understand the great agony experienced by the 60 million displaced people. In this context, it is heartening to see how countless people in Ireland have chosen to respond with warmth and real hospitality. Our NGOs, our medical services, and our uniformed services – both at home and overseas – are peopled by those who have chosen to take action, and to be the stranger that offers a helping hand, a shelter, a meal to those in need. How we treat the weakest among us is the finest test of us as a nation. During the past year, both Sabina and I have experienced and valued the warmth and friendship of people both at home and abroad – and it is something we deeply appreciate. In villages and towns around the country and on working visits abroad we have had the privilege of witnessing the contribution to community and the public world made by Irish people in so many different ways. Together, we can strengthen that web of solidarity that binds us as a people and as a global community next year. As we prepare to commemorate the momentous events of a century ago that shaped the birth of our Republic, we are encouraged not only to recall those events, but also to re-imagine and take inspiration from the Republican ideals proclaimed almost a century ago. It is my sincere hope that those ideals can inspire each and every one of us on our shared journey where each step made by each citizen, in every generation, matters; a journey that we all make together, never alone. Mar Uachtarán na hEireann, guím gach dea-ghuí oraibh go lEir agus go raibh Nollaig agus Bliain Nua shona agus shíochánta agaibh. As President of Ireland, may I offer people everywhere the warmest wishes for a peaceful as well as a happy Christmas and New Year.201512/418028

Empathy is at the heart of the actors art. And in high school, another form of acting took hold of me. I wanted to learn how to be appealing. So I studied the character I imagined I wanted to be that of the generically pretty high school girl and I researched her deeply, that is to say shallowly, in Vogue, in Seventeen, and in Mademoiselle Magazines. I tried to imitate her hair, her lipstick, her lashes, the clothes of the lithesome, beautiful and generically appealing high school girls that I saw in those pages. I ate an apple a day, period. I peroxided my hair, ironed it straight. I demanded brand name clothes, my mother shut me down on that one. But I did. I worked harder on this characterization really than anyone I think Ive ever done since. I worked on my giggle. I lightened it. Because I like it when it went, kind of ;ehuh; and the end ;eheeh;, ;ehaeaahaha;. Because I thought it sounded child-like, and cute. This was all about appealing to boys and at the same time being accepted by the girls, a very tricky negotiation. Often success in one area precludes succeeding in the other.移情是表演艺术的核心。高中的时候,我对另外一种表演很着迷:我想学习如何让自己有吸引力。所以,我想象出一个受欢迎的校园美女,深入地研究她,简单地说,就是模仿《时尚》、《十七岁》或者《女王杂志》中那样的女孩。我模仿杂志页上那些温柔的漂亮、而有魅力的校园美女。模仿她们的发型、唇膏、睫毛、装。我有段时间一天只吃一个苹果,我染了头发,拉直了它。我要买名牌装,但是我妈妈不同意,事实上我还是买了。我付出比以前任何时候都多的努力来实践这个角色。我还在笑声上下功夫,轻声地咯咯笑,我喜欢这样是因为笑声快消逝的时候,有“嗯哼”或者“嗯哼哼”这样的声音,显得很孩子气,而且很可爱。这一切都是为了吸引男生,同时被其他女生接纳,事实上,这是棘手的事情。通常在一个领域取得成功就会失去在其他领域取得成功的机会。201403/278965

And because I had been on the squad in high school, earnest full-throated cheerleading was my specialty so thats what I did. But now, I feel like I know about 1/16 of what that young woman knew. Things dont seem as certain today. Now Im 60. I have four adult children who are all facing the same challenges that you are. How it makes things tough for your family and whether being famous matters one bit, in the end, in the whole flux of time. I know I was invited here because of that. How famous I am. And how many awards Ive won and while I am overweeningly proud of the work that, believe me, I did not do on my own. I can assure you that awards have very little bearing on my own personal happiness.我上高中时,曾经是啦啦队的一员,擅长全情地投入、扯着嗓子为球队呐喊助威,那就是我当时所做的一切。但是现在,我感觉,比起当时年轻的时候,我懂得的只有当时的1/16。在今天来看,事情似乎都不是必然的。现在我60岁了,有四个孩子,他们都已经成年了,跟你们面临着同样的挑战。到最后,从整个时间的长河来看,名气会让你的家庭多受很多苦,而出名了又能有多么了不起呢。我知道邀请我来这里做演讲就是为了这个,为了我的名气。我已经赢得很多奖项,我为我的工作感到无比骄傲,请相信我,这些工作不只是我一个人在做。我敢肯定地说这些奖项只给我带来了很少的个人幸福感。My own sense of well-being and purpose in the world, that comes from studying the world feelingly, with empathy in my work. It comes from staying alert and alive and involved in the lives of the people that I love and the people in the wider world who need my help.生活在这个世界上,我的幸福感和目标来自于富有感情地研究这个世界,来自于对工作的热情与投入,来自于保持敏锐与活泼,与所爱的人保持联系,以及接触更广阔世界里需要我帮助的人。No matter what you see me or hear me saying when Im on your TV holding a statuette spewing, thats acting. Being a celebrity has taught me to hide, but being an actor has opened my soul. Being here today has forced me to look around inside there for someting useful that I can share with you and Im really grateful that you gave me the chance. You know you dont have to be famous. You just have to make your mother and father proud of you and you aly have.当你在电视上看到我手拿奖杯侃侃而谈时,不要看我穿了什么,或者说了什么,那都只是表演。作为一个名人,我学着隐藏,但是作一个演员,我打开了我的灵魂。今天,承蒙邀请,我来到这里做演讲,我不得不在内心里寻找一些可以与你们分享的有用的东西,同时我非常感谢你们给我这个机会。你们不一定要出名,你们只需要让你的父母为你而感到骄傲和自豪,而你们已经做到了。Bravo to you.为你们欢呼。Congratulations.祝贺你们!201403/280593

We saw this a couple of decades ago我们在在几世纪之前目睹了这一切的发生。when Teddy Kollek, the great mayor of Jerusalem当耶路撒冷的市长,特迪·科勒克 (Teddy Kollek)in the 80s and the 90s,在八十和九十年代,was besieged one day in his office被来自于不同背景的宗教领袖by religious leaders from all of the backgrounds,包围在办公室里,Christian prelates, rabbis, imams.基督教主教、犹太教和伊斯兰教领袖They were arguing with one another对圣地麦加的朝圣问题about access to the holy sites.争论不休。And the squabble went on and on,市长科勒克聆听着这些领袖们的争论,and Kollek listened and listened,最后说,and he finally said, ;Gentlemen,“先生们,spare me your sermons,把你们的步道放一放,and I will fix your sewers.;我去给你们修下水道。”Thats what mayors do.这就是市长们的工作。They fix sewers, they get the trains running.他们修理下水道,他们使火车运行。There isnt a left or a right way of doing.这不是一个左翼,也不是一个右翼的处理方式。Boris Johnson in London calls himself an anarcho-Tory.伦敦市长鲍里斯·约翰逊 (Boris Johnson)称他自己为无政府主义者 - 托利(党)Strange term, but in some ways, he is.一个非常奇怪的名字,但他却是这样。Hes a libertarian. Hes an anarchist.他是一个自由主义者。他是一个无政府主义者。He rides to work on a bike,他每天骑自行车上班,but at the same time, hes in some ways a conservative.但与此同时,他又在某方面又有一些保守。Bloomberg in New York was a Democrat,纽约市市长迈克尔·布隆伯格 (Michael Bloomberg) 起先是一个民主党成员,then he was a Republican,后来他又是一个共和党成员,and finally he was an Independent, and said但最后他退出两个党派然后说,the party label just gets in the way.“党派的标签妨碍我做事。”Luzhkov, 20 years mayor in Moscow,卢日科夫(Yori Luzhkov)在莫斯科担任了二十年的市长,though he helped found a party, ed Party with Putin,尽管他帮助普金共同建立了联合党in fact refused to be defined by the party但他实际上拒绝被定义为政党人士and finally, in fact, lost his job not under Brezhnev,最后,他不是在勃列日涅夫手下not under Gorbachev, but under Putin,也不是在戈尔巴乔夫手下,who wanted a more faithful party follower.而是渴望更忠诚的政党追随者的普金手下丢掉了工作。So mayors are pragmatists and problem-solvers.所以,我再次强调,市长是实用主义者,他们能够解决问题。They get things done.他们能够使事物运转。But the second thing about mayors另外一件我想说的关于市长的事是,is they are also what I like to call homeboys,我喜欢把他们叫做“哥们儿”or to include the women mayors, homies.不过如果要把女市长们也列入其中的话,就叫他们“死党”吧。Theyre from the neighborhood.他们从我们的街坊邻里中被选举出来,Theyre part of the neighborhood. Theyre known.是社区的一部分,而且他们也知道这一点。Ed Koch used to wander around New York City纽约市长埃德·科克(Ed Koch)层漫步于纽约街头,saying, ;How am I doing?;采访路人问,“我任职期间做的怎么样?”Imagine David Cameron想想戴维·卡梅伦(David Cameron),wandering around the ed Kingdom如果他漫步于大不列颠王国的街头,随口就问,“我做的如何?”asking, ;How am I doing?; He wouldnt like the answer.他应该不会喜欢那个。Or Putin. Or any national leader.或者普金,或者任何国家领导人。He could ask that because he knew New Yorkers埃德·科克之所以能够这么问是因为他了解纽约人,and they knew him.纽约人也了解他。Mayors are usually from the places they govern.市长通常从他所管辖的区域中选举出来,Its pretty hard to be a carpetbagger and be a mayor.非本地的参政者通常没有办法被选举为市长。You can run for the Senate out of a different state,你可以在不同的州为议员拉选票,but its hard to do that as a mayor.但却无法作为市长这么做。And as a result, mayors and city councillors所以,市长、市议员and local authorities和地方当局have a much higher trust level,在民众中有更高的信任度。and this is the third feature about mayors,而这也是关于市长的第三个特点,than national governing officials.那就是比国家领导人更具有民心。In the ed States, we know the pathetic figures:在美国,我们知道一个可悲的数据:18 percent of Americans approve of Congress只有18%的美国民众and what they do.赞成国会和国会的所作所为。And even with a relatively popular president like Obama,而甚至是稍微更受青睐的总统奥巴马,the figures for the Presidency run about 40, 45,也不过在总统大选中获得的持率得到40%或45%,sometimes 50 percent at best.最多50%。The Supreme Court has fallen way down from what it used to be.最高法院的持率也比以往大大下滑。But when you ask, ;Do you trust your city councillor,但如果你问民众,“你是否信任你们市议员,do you trust your mayor?;你是否相信你们市长?”the rates shoot up to 70, 75, even 80 percent,持率飙升至70%,75%,甚至是80%。because theyre from the neighborhood,因为他们从街坊邻里中被选举出来,because the people they work with are their neighbors,因为他们的同僚们也是他们的邻居,because, like Mayor Booker in Newark,因为,就像纽瓦克的市长布克(Cory Booker)a mayor is likely to get out of his car on the way to work是一个不坐豪华车去上班的市长,and go in and pull people out of a burning building --是一个冲进火场并把人火场里救出来的市长that happened to Mayor Booker --这是真实发生在市长布克身上的事情or intervene in a mugging in the street as he goes to work或者在他上班的途中看见行凶抢劫毫不犹豫的上前见义勇为because he sees it.就只因为他看见了,他就不会坐视不管。No head of state would be permitted没有任何一个国家领导人by their security details to do it,会被安全条例所允许去做这件事,nor be in a position to do it.也不会去做这件事。Thats the difference, and the difference这就是他们之间存在的区别。has to do with the character of cities themselves,而这种区别与城市的特性本身相关,because cities are profoundly multicultural,因为城市是融合多种文化的,open, participatory, democratic,开放的、供人分享的、民主的、able to work with one another.合作无间的。When states face each other,而国家间的交流,China and the U.S., they face each other like this.如中美两国,他们的交流模式是一种模式 ,When cities interact, they interact like this.而城市间的交流是另外一种模式。China and the U.S., despite the recent中美两国,且不论最近在加州召开的高层会议,meta-meeting in California,两国之间被各种are locked in all kinds of anger, resentment, and rivalry愤怒、不满以及竞争所禁锢。for number one.两个国家都想要争第一。We heard more about who will be number one.我们对于谁可能坐上第一的宝座的争论听得很多了。Cities dont worry about number one.但城市之间从来不用担心谁会第一的问题。They have to work together, and they do work together.城市之间必须彼此合作,而它们真的在这么做,They work together in climate change, for example.她们合作对抗气候变化问题,Organizations like the C40, like ICLEI, which I mentioned,如C40,ICLEI这些我刚才提到的组织,have been working together都在互相合作,many, many years before Copenhagen.而这些是很早就在哥本哈根气候大会之前发生的事。In Copenhagen, four or five years ago,四五年前,184 nations came together to explain to one another184个国家聚集在哥本哈根why their sovereignty didnt permit them为自己辩解为什么他们的国家不允许他们to deal with the grave, grave crisis of climate change,处理这一场日渐严峻的气候变化危机。but the mayor of Copenhagen had invited但是哥本哈根市长却邀请到了200 mayors to attend.200位来自世界各地的市长参与会议。They came, they stayed, and they found ways他们参加会议,共同商讨并最终找到and are still finding ways to work together,并仍在寻找方法使城市间、city-to-city, and through inter-city organizations.通过城际组织共同合作的道路。201503/367009

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