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Britain's lawyers and judges are to break with centuries-old tradition and cease wearing white horse-hair wigs in non-criminal cases, the head of the country's judiciary announced on Thursday.The Lord Chief Justice, Lord Phillips of Worth Matravers, said new dress rules would mean the wigs, which British legal professionals have worn since the 17th century, would not be needed in civil or family court cases.Wing collars and bands -- white cotton strips worn round the neck -- can also be dispensed with in such cases according to the reforms, while judges will need just one gown in future instead of a variety of colorful outfits currently required.The wigs will still be worn in criminal courts."At present High Court judges have no less than five different sets of working dress, depending on the jurisdiction in which they are sitting and the season of the year," Phillips said in a statement."After widesp consultation it has been decided to simplify this."A review carried out in 2003 found that more than two thirds of respondents wanted to eliminate the wigs in civil cases, although most said criminal court judges should still wear them.Opponents of wigs thought they were anachronistic, as well as uncomfortable and expensive.A shoulder-length wig costs more than 1,500 pounds (,000) while the shorter ones worn by lawyers cost about 400 pounds each.However, the idea of abolishing them has met with disapproval from some lawyers who feel the wigs give them an air of authority."While there will never be unanimity of view about court dress, the desirability of these changes has a broad measure of agreement," Phillips said. 英国司法界领袖上周四宣布,英国的律师和法官们将告别一个沿袭了几个世纪的传统,在出庭审理非刑事案件时不用再戴白色的马鬃假发。高等法院首席法官、沃斯麦特勒佛的菲利普斯勋爵说,这一新的着装规定意味着从17世纪起司法界专业人士开始戴的假发在今后的民事或家庭纠纷案件中不需要再佩戴了。根据新规定,翼形领和围在脖子上的白色棉质饰带在此类案件中也不需要戴了;此外,今后法官在审理案件时不用再穿现在那一套五颜六色的法官了,而只需穿一件法官袍。但在出庭审理刑事案件时,还需要佩戴假发。菲利普斯在一份声明中说:“现在,英国高等法院的法官至少有五套不同的工作,他们根据不同的司法场合和季节着装。”“经过广泛征询意见后,我们决定对此进行简化。”2003年开展的一项调查发现,三分之二的受访者希望废除民事案件中佩戴假发的规定,同时大多数人称法官在审理刑事案件时还是应该佩戴假发的。反对佩戴假发者认为假发已过时、戴着不舒适而且价格昂贵。一个齐肩的假发需要1500多英镑,律师们佩戴的短假发则需大约400英镑。然而,废除假发的规定遭到一些律师们的反对,他们觉得假发能让他们看起来有一种权威感。菲利普斯说:“对于法庭着装,从来不会有一致的意见。目前的这些改革得到了广泛持。” /200803/28881初中生早现象严重Thousands of teenage girls in Beijing have abortions each year, according to teenage sex clinics.Sources with Beijing Tian'an Hospital of Traditional Chinese medicine , the first in the capital to open a hotline for pregnant teenagers, said more than 100 teenage girls received abortions during the first three months of the year.Of nearly 5,000 phone calls from teenagers, seven to eight percent are from unmarried girls asking about abortion. The proportion was only about five percent last year, said Deng Jun, a doctor with the teenager counseling service of Beijing No.2 Hospital.The total number of teenage abortions in the capital is not known."Girls who have abortions are considerably younger. Most of them are junior middle school students aged 14 to 15," said Deng, adding the youngest patient to come for an abortion was a 13-year-old and some girls had abortions many times."Two years ago, teenage pregnancy mainly happened to college and senior high school students," he said.The number of abortions peaks during the Spring Festival, May Day or National Day holidays and in the final term of the academic year, Deng said, adding that sex education at school and in the family is wholly inadequate with young people nowadays having their first sexual experiences at a much earlier age.Sex education has always been a low priority in schools, and parents are often reluctant to talk about the still-taboo issue.A survey conducted by Professor Huo Jinzhi from the medical school of Suzhou University showed 4.6 percent of junior middle school students had had sex compared with 4.2 percent in senior high schools.In September 2004, the country for the first time included sex and reproduction knowledge in the formal school curriculum. 据青少年性生理门诊介绍,北京每年有数千名少女堕胎。据首家开通早青少年热线的北京天安中医院的有关人士介绍,今年第一个季度有100多名未成年少女来医院堕胎。在近5000个青少年打来的热线电话中,7%至8%是未婚女孩咨询堕胎事宜的。北京市第二医院青少年咨询中心的医生邓俊说,去年的这一比例仅为5%。但目前北京市青少年堕胎的总数还未统计出来。邓医生说:“如今堕胎的女孩年纪比以往要小得多。其中大多数还是十四五岁的中学生。”他说最小的只有13岁,还有一些女孩已经多次堕胎。“两年前,早主要集中在大学生和高中生这两大人群。”邓医生说,每年的春节,五一、国庆长假和每学年的下半学期是堕胎的高峰期。他说,学校和家庭的性教育严重不足,现在的年轻人发生第一次性行为的年龄提前了很多。性教育一直是学校的一个薄弱环节,家长们也常常羞于与孩子们讨论这个仍被视为禁忌的话题。苏州大学医学院的霍金之教授开展的一项调查显示,4.6%的初中生有过性行为,而高中生的这一比例为4.2%。2004年9月,我国首次将性常识和生殖知识纳入学校课程范围。 /200803/32580

The Spring Festival春节Far and away the most important holiday in China is the Spring Festival,also known as the Chinese New Year.很久以来,中国最盛大的节日就是春节,也就是中国年。To the Chinese people it is as important as Christmas to people in the West.这一节日对中国人来说就像圣诞节对西方人一样重要。The dates for this annual celebration are determined by the lunar calendar rather than the Gregorian calendar,so the timing of the holiday varies from late January to early February.节日以中国农历而不是公历确定的,因此春节可能是1月底或2月初。To the ordinary Chinese,the festival actually begins on the eve of the lunar New Year’s Day and ends on the fifth day of the first month of the lunar calendar.一般说来春节真正开始于新年除夕而于正月十五结束。But the 15th of the first month,which normally is called the Lantern Festival,means the official end of the Spring Festival in many parts of the country.正月十五,也叫元宵节,也是我国大部分地区正式结束春节的那一天。Preparations for the New Year begin in the last few days of the last moon,when houses are thoroughly cleaned,debts repaid, hair cut and new clothes purchased.新年准备始于旧年最后一月的几天,此时通常是房子也打扫过,欠的债也清了,理发并买了新衣。Houses are festooned with paper scrolls bearing auspicious antithetical couplet and in many homes,people burn incense at home and in the temples to pay respects to ancestors and ask the gods for good health in the coming months.房子也装饰上了祝福吉祥做春联,于是人们在家或庙宇焚上香叩拜先人或祈求诸神保佑家人来年身体健康。“Guo Nian,”which means“passing the year,”is the common term among the Chinese people for celebrating the Spring Festival.It actually means greeting the new year.“过年”,又叫“过年关”,是中国人庆贺春节时互相道贺的语言。At midnight at the turn of the old and new year, people used to let off fire-crackers which serve to drive away the evil spirits and to greet the arrival of the new year.在新旧年交替的半夜吋分,人们便燃放鞭炮以驱除邪恶,迎接新年的到来。In an instant the whole city would be engulfed in the deafening noise of the firecrackers.瞬间,整座城市便被震耳欲聋的鞭炮声包围。On New Year’s Eve,all the members of families come together to feast.除夕之夜,家里所有人聚在一起吃大餐。Jiao-zi,a steamed dumpling,is popular in the north, while southerners favor a sticky sweet glutinous rice pudding called nian gao.通常北方人吃饺子,而南方人则吃美味可口的年糕。 /201509/395301

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