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来源:百姓乐园    发布时间:2019年06月17日 20:48:08    编辑:admin         

One of the world’s most evasive digital arms dealers is believed to have been taking advantage of three security vulnerabilities in popular Apple products in its efforts to spy on dissidents and journalists.据信,一家属于全球渗透性最强之列的数字武器交易商,一直在利用热销的苹果(Apple)产品中的三个安全漏洞,来监视异见人士和新闻工作者。Investigators discovered that a company called the NSO Group, an Israeli outfit that sells software that invisibly tracks a target’s mobile phone, was responsible for the intrusions.调查人员发现,这个名为NSO集团(NSO Group)的以色列公司对多起入侵事件负有责任。The NSO Group’s software can text messages and emails and track calls and contacts. It can even record sounds, collect passwords and trace the whereabouts of the phone user.该公司销售的软件能够在无形中追踪目标的移动电话、读取短信和电子邮件、追踪通话和联系人信息,甚至还能记录声音、收集密码并追踪手机用户的下落。In response, Apple on Thursday released a patched version of its mobile software, iOS 9.3.5. Users can get the patch through a normal software update.作为回应,苹果周四发布了经过修复的移动软件版本iOS 9.3.5。用户可通过正常的软件升级获取补丁。Apple fixed the holes 10 days after a tip from two researchers, Bill Marczak and John Scott Railton, at Citizen Lab at the University of Toronto’s Munk School of Global Affairs, and Lookout, a San Francisco mobile security company.在收到来自多伦多大学(University of Toronto)蒙克全球事务学院(Munk School of Global Affairs)“公民实验室”(Citizen Lab)的研究人员比尔#8226;马尔切克(Bill Marczak)和约翰#8226;斯科特#8226;雷尔顿(John Scott Railton),以及旧金山移动安全公司Lookout的提醒十天后,苹果修复了相关漏洞。“We advise all of our customers to always download the latest version of iOS to protect themselves against potential security exploits,” said Fred Sainz, a company spokesman.“我们建议全体顾客坚持下载最新版本的iOS,以保护自己远离潜在的安全漏洞,”苹果公司的发言人弗雷德#8226;赛恩斯(Fred Sainz)说。In interviews and manuals, the NSO Group’s executives have long boasted that their spyware worked like a “ghost,” tracking the moves and keystrokes of its targets, without leaving a trace. But until this month, it was not clear how exactly the group was monitoring its targets, or who exactly it was monitoring.在采访和产品使用手册中,NSO集团的高管长期夸耀道,他们的间谍软件工作时就像“幽灵”一样,在追踪目标的动作和按键时,不会留下一丝痕迹。但在本月之前,外界并不知道该集团究竟是如何监视目标的,也不知道它到底在监视谁。A clearer picture began to emerge on Aug. 10, when Ahmed Mansoor, a prominent human rights activist in the ed Arab Emirates, who has been tracked by surveillance software several times, began receiving suspicious text messages. The messages purported to contain information about the torture of U.A.E. citizens.8月10日,当多次被监视软件跟踪的阿拉伯联合酋长国著名人权活动人士艾哈迈德#8226;曼苏尔(Ahmed Mansoor)开始收到可疑短信时,更清晰的画面开始浮现。那些短信宣称包含有关阿联酋公民被刑讯逼供的信息。Mr. Mansoor passed the messages to researchers at the Citizen Lab, who confirmed they were an attempt to track him through his iPhone.曼苏尔把短信转给了“公民实验室”的研究人员。后者实,有人企图通过他的手机跟踪他。This latest effort was far more sophisticated than what was found aimed at his devices before. The researchers found it was connecting to 200 servers, several of them registered to the NSO Group. Strewn throughout the spyware code were references to Pegasus, the name of an NSO Group spyware product.最新这次行动,远比以前发现的针对曼苏尔的设备所采取的行动更复杂。研究人员发现,它和200台务器相连,其中几台登记在NSO集团的名下。间谍软件代码中多次提到Pegasus,这是NSO集团一款监视软件产品的名字。Citizen Lab brought in Lookout to help examine the code. Together, they discovered that the spyware relied on three previously unknown iOS vulnerabilities — called “zero days” because Apple didn’t know about them and had zero days to patch them.“公民实验室”请Lookout来协助研究这些代码。他们在合作中发现,这款间谍软件依赖之前不为人知的三个iOS安全漏洞。它们被叫做“零日”(zero days),因为苹果不知道它们,没花哪怕一天时间去修复它们。 /201608/463511。

US authorities are investigating the first death potentially caused by self-driving technology.美国当局正在调查可能由无人驾驶技术引起的首例死亡案件。The driver of a Tesla car died in Florida in May after colliding with a lorry. Under scrutiny is Tesla#39;s Autopilot feature, which automatically changes lanes and reacts to traffic.这辆特斯拉汽车的司机于今年五月在与一辆货车相撞后死亡。受到审查的是特斯拉的autopilot功能,它可以自动改变车道并对交通状况作出反应。In a statement, Tesla said it appeared the Model S car was unable to recognise ;the white side of the tractor trailer against a brightly lit sky; that had driven across the car#39;s path. The company said the crash was a ;tragic loss;.在一份声明中,特斯拉公司表示,这辆Model S型号的汽车没有能够识别出从其车道上开过的“明亮天光下拖拉机挂车的白边”。该公司称,该事故是一个“悲痛的损失”。The collision led to the death of Tesla driver Joshua Brown, 40. The driver of the truck, which was pulling a trailer, was unhurt.此次相撞导致了现年40岁的特斯拉司机约书亚·布朗的死亡。而卡车的司机当时牵引着挂车,没有受伤。A on YouTube, which appears to have been posted by Mr Brown, shows a dashboard camera recording of a previous incident, with the car steering to avoid a lorry in the next lane.根据布朗先生此前发布到Youtube上的一个视频显示,车载摄像机记录了之前的一次事件,该车正在躲避旁边车道行驶的货车。He wrote: ;Tesla Model S autopilot saved the car autonomously from a side collision from a boom lift truck. Hands down the best car I have ever owned and use it to its full extent. It has done many, many amazing things, but this was one of the more interesting things caught on the dashcam.;他写道:“特斯拉Model S型号汽车的autopilot可以自动让该车避免与一辆动臂升降车相撞。毫无疑问这是我拥有的最好的车,我在充分地使用它。它做了很多很多不可思议的事情,不过这是车载摄像机拍到的更有趣的事情之一。” /201607/453931。

赞扬比加薪更重要It is often said that politeness costs nothing. In fact, it seems that a little more courtesy could save businesses pound;5billion every year.Frequently hearing the phrase "thank you" or "well done" means the same to staff as a modest pay rise, researchers say.Praise and encouragement also makes employees more likely to work hard and stay in their jobs, saving on the cost of finding replacements.A third of 1,000 workers surveyed by consulting firm White Water Strategies said they did not get thanked at all when they did well - and a further third said they were not thanked enough.In both cases, staff said they felt undervalued, meaning they were less likely to exert themselves and were more likely to look for employment elsewhere.The net result is around pound;5.2billion in lost productivity from employees who would raise their game if they felt more appreciated, White Water claimed.According to the company, praising staff has the same motivational kick as a 1 per cent pay rise - and works out much cheaper for bosses.Three out of four employees said that regular acknowledgement by their bosses was important to them, but only a quarter said they were actually given as much praise as they felt they needed.The survey found that those in blue-collar and manual jobs were less likely to be given any recognition for doing well.In regional terms, Scottish staff felt most undervalued. Four out of ten workers said they were never thanked and eight out of ten said they would like more praise.However, workers in the North-East are less impressed by being buttered up by the boss, as only 69 per cent said they felt the need to be told "well done" regularly.Older employees and women need the most reassurance, according to psychologist Averil Leimon, a director of White Water Strategies.She said that words of praise did more than create a pleasant place to work - they could even boost profits. 俗话说“礼多无所失(却得到一切)”。事实表明,对员工以礼相待每年能为公司节省50亿英镑的出。研究人员称,对于员工而言,经常听到“谢谢”或“做得好”等礼貌之辞与适度加薪具有同样意义。此外,赞扬和鼓励也能提高员工的工作积极性、并有利于稳定军心,从而能节省招聘成本。怀特#8226;沃特战略咨询公司对一千名员工开展了一项调查。调查结果显示,三分之一的受访员工称,即使他们工作表现出色,也没得到过老板的一句“感谢”;另有三分之一的人认为自己没有得到足够的感谢。这两类员工都觉得自己没得到足够的重视,这意味着他们的工作积极性很可能会降低,而且换工作的可能性增大。怀特#8226;沃特公司称,员工工作效率低下造成了约52亿英镑的损失。但如果员工感到倍受赏识,他们的工作积极性就会提高。怀特#8226;沃特公司称,赞扬员工与1%的加薪具有同样的激励作用,而且这对于老板来说也更加划算。调查显示,四分之三的员工称,经常得到老板的认可对于他们来说很重要;而仅有四分之一的人认为自己得到了应有的认可。调查发现,“蓝领”及手工劳动者的出色工作表现很少得到老板的认可。从地区来看,苏格兰员工最缺乏认可感。40%的员工称,他们从未得到过感谢,80%的人希望自己能得到更多表扬。然而,英国东北部地区的员工则没那么需要老板的赞扬,仅有69%的人希望老板经常表扬他们“干得好”。怀特#8226;沃特战略咨询公司总监、心理学家艾弗尔#8226;勒蒙说,年龄较大的员工和女性最需要这样的安慰。她说,老板赞扬员工不仅能让工作氛围更加愉快,甚至能提高公司的经济效益。 /200803/30496。

Apple said on Tuesday that it had rebuffed a Chinese government request to hand over the proprietary source code for its operating system. 苹果(Apple)周二表示,中国政府曾要求该公司交出其操作系统的私有源代码,但该公司没有答应。 “We have been asked by the Chinese government and we refused,” Bruce Sewell, Apple’s general counsel, told members of the House energy and commerce committee, adding that the request came within the past two years. 苹果总法律顾问布鲁斯#8226;休厄尔(Bruce Sewell)对美国众议院能源和商业委员会表示:“中国政府向我们提出过这一要求,但我们拒绝了。”他还表示,这一要求是在过去两年里提出的。 The government recently abandoned its legal effort to compel Apple to help the FBI circumvent the passcode on an iPhone used by one of the terrorists in last year’s San Bernardino shootings. 美国政府最近放弃了法律上的努力,不再强迫苹果帮助联邦调查局(FBI)解锁去年圣贝纳迪诺击案中一名恐怖分子使用过的iPhone。 Last month, Apple clarified its policies after the DoJ accused the company of making special accommodations for China, which the company denies. 上月,美国司法部(DoJ)指责苹果对中国作出特别的迁就,苹果对此予以否认,并澄清了自己的政策。 Revenues from Apple’s Greater China division, which includes Hong Kong and Taiwan, reached bn last quarter. Tim Cook, Apple’s chief executive, says that China is likely to overtake the US to become its largest market. 苹果大中华区(含香港和台湾)上一季度的营收达到180亿美元。苹果首席执行官蒂姆#8226;库克(Tim Cook)表示,中国很可能会超过美国成为苹果的最大市场。 Apple last week said that it had received 1,005 requests related to 2,413 devices for customer information from the Chinese authorities in the second half of 2015. Apple provided data in two-thirds of those cases. 苹果上周表示,2015年下半年,中国当局向苹果提出了1005项提供设备用户信息的请求,涉及2413部设备。苹果答应了其中三分之二的请求。 That compares with 4,000 requests for information from American investigators regarding 16,112 devices. Apple provided data in 80 per cent of those cases. 美国调查人员则提出了4000项类似的请求,涉及16112部设备。苹果答应了其中80%的请求。 /201604/438559。

Can computer scientists — the people who think about the foundations of computing and programming — help us to solve human problems such as having too many things to do, and not enough time in which to do them?计算机科学家们——那些研究计算机和编程的原理的人,能否帮助我们解决人类的问题,例如,要做的事太多,可用的时间却不够?That’s the premise of Algorithms to Live By, a book by Brian Christian and Tom Griffiths.这是布赖恩#8226;克里斯蒂安(Brian Christian)和汤姆#8226;格里菲思(Tom Griffiths)合著的新书《赖以生存的算法》(Algorithms to Live By)中提出的主张。It’s an appealing idea to any economist.这是对任何经济学家都有吸引力的想法。We tend to think of everyday decisions as a branch of applied mathematics, which is what computer science is.我们倾向于认为日常决策是应用数学的一个分,而计算机科学亦是如此。To be clear, using computer science is not the same as using computers.准确来说,利用计算机科学和使用计算机不是一回事。Computer scientists have devoted decades to problems such as sorting information, setting priorities and networking.计算科学家倾注了数十年时间来解决各种问题,如整理信息、排定优先顺序和联网。Many of the algorithms they have developed for computers can also work for human beings.他们为计算机开发的许多算法也适用于人类。An algorithm, after all, is not a computer program. It’s a structured procedure, a kind of recipe.毕竟,算法并非计算机程序,而是一种结构化的步骤方法,类似于菜谱。(Algorithms are named after a 9th-century Persian mathematician, Al-Khwārizmī, but they predate his work by thousands of years.)(算法一词因9世纪波斯数学家花拉子密(Al-Khwārizmī)而得名,但在其研究工作的数千年前就已存在。)So, what is the optimal recipe for working through the to-do list? Perhaps it is simpler than you think: do all the jobs on the list in any order, as it will take the same amount of time in the end.那么,什么是完成待办事项列表的最佳配方呢?也许比你以为的更简单:以任意顺序来做列表上的事,因为最后耗费的总时长一样。There is a touch of brilliance in this advice but it also seems to show that computer science will never shed light on the stress and wheel-spinning that we feel when we have too much to do.这是个带有一点儿天才的建议,但似乎表明,当我们有太多事情要做而感到压力和手忙脚乱时,计算机科学永远不能给我们带来启示。Or so I thought.或者说我以前是这么认为的。Then I a 1970 paper by the computer scientist Peter Denning, which describes a problem that computers can have when multitasking.接着我读到计算机科学家彼得#8226;丹宁(Peter Denning)在1970年发表的一篇论文,文中描述了计算机在多线程工作时可能遇到的一个问题。Most computers do not literally multitask; instead, like humans, they switch rapidly between one thing and another.大多数计算机实际上无法真的多线程工作;而是像人类一样,会迅速从一件事切换到另一件事。A computer will flit between updating your screen with a Pokémon, downloading more s from the internet, and checking to see if you have clicked the keyboard or moved the mouse, among many other processes.计算机会在以下任务中快速切换:在你的屏幕上更新口袋妖怪(Pokémon)游戏、从网络下载更多视频、检查你是否敲击了键盘或挪动了鼠标,以及其它许多进程。But even a computer cannot do an unlimited number of tasks and, at a certain point, disaster can strike.但即使是计算机,也不能同时做无限量的工作,一旦达到某一限度,灾难就会发生。The problem stems from the use of ily accessible caches to store data.这一问题源于使用易存取的高速缓存(caches)来储存数据。To understand caches, imagine a pianist playing from two or three sheets of music in front of her.可以这么理解高速缓存:想象有一名钢琴家在演奏她面前的两三页乐谱。Those sheets are in the fastest cache.这些乐谱都是储存在最高速的缓存中。There are other sheets behind them, accessible in a few moments.乐谱背后还有其他乐谱,一会儿就能读取。Then there are larger but slower caches: music in the piano stool; more up in the attic, and yet more in a music shop.此外还有容量更大但速度更慢些的缓存:放在琴凳里的乐谱;阁楼上还有更多乐谱,再有更多是存放在音乐商店里。There is a trade-off between the volume of information and the speed with which it can be accessed.在信息储存量和读取速度之间存在一种取舍。This set-up is no problem if the pianist only plays one complete piece at a time.如果钢琴家一次只演奏一首完整的乐曲,那么这样的设置是没有问题的。But if she is asked to switch every minute or so, then some of her time will be taken retrieving a piece of music from the piano stool.但是,如果要求她每隔1分钟左右换一首曲子,那么她就要花一些时间来取出琴凳里乐谱。If she must change every few seconds, then she will be unable to play a note; all her time will be taken switching sheet music between the stand and the piano stool.如果她必须每隔几秒就换一首曲子,那她就没法演奏了;她所有的时间都会被用来调换谱架上和琴凳里的乐谱。It is the same with a computer cache: there will be a hierarchy — from super-fast memory in the microprocessor itself all the way down to a hard drive (slow) and offsite back-up (very slow).这跟计算机的高速缓存一样:存在一个等级制度——从微处理器自身的超高速内存,向下一直到硬盘(慢速)和异地备份(非常慢)。To speed things up, the computer will copy the data it needs for the current task into a fast cache.要想提高速度,计算机必须把当前任务所需的数据复制到快速缓存。If the tasks need to be switched too often, the machine will spend all its time copying data for one task into the cache, only to switch tasks, wipe the cache and fill it with something new.如果任务切换太频繁,机器会把所有时间用来将一个任务的数据复制到缓存,然后切换任务、清除缓存并存入新的内容。At the limit, nothing will ever be achieved.在极限状态下,什么事都完成不了。Denning described this regrettable state of affairs as thrashing.丹宁将这种令人遗憾的状态形容为系统崩溃(thrashing)。We’ve all had days filled with nothing but thrashing, constantly switching focus from one task to another but never actually doing anything.我们都有过除了崩溃以外一事无成的日子,不断从一项任务切换到另一项,实际上却什么都做不了。Can we borrow a solution from the computers? The most straightforward solution is to get a bigger cache; that is easier for a computer than for a human, alas.我们能否从计算机借鉴解决方案?最直截了当的方法是换个更大的缓存;可惜,这对计算机来说比人类更容易。The obvious alternative is to switch tasks less often.显而易见的替代方法是减少任务切换。Computers practice interrupt coalescing, or lumping little tasks together.计算机采用中断合并(interrupt coalescing)技术,即把多个小任务合并到一起处理。A shopping list helps prevent unnecessary return trips to the shop.一份购物清单有助于避免多次往返商店的不必要旅程。You can put your bills in a pile and deal with them once a month.你还可以把账单放在一块儿,每月一并处理。But we often find it difficult not to flit from one task to another.但我们往往发现很难不从一个任务切换到另一个。Computer science says there’s a reason for the pain: there is a trade-off between being swiftly responsive and marking out chunks of time to be productive.计算机科学认为这种痛苦有一个原因:即在迅速响应和划出大块时间以提高生产率之间存在取舍。If you want to respond to your boss’s emails within five minutes, you must check email at least once every five minutes.如果你想在5分钟之内回复你老板的邮件,你必须至少每5分钟查一次邮件。If you want to go off-grid for a week to work on your novel, your response time must slow to a week.如果你想戒网一周来写小说,那么你的响应时间就必须放慢至一周。Any solution should acknowledge that trade-off.任何解决方案都应该承认这种取舍。Decide on an acceptable response time and interrupt yourself accordingly.确定一个可接受的响应时间,然后据此打断自己的工作。If you think it’s perfectly fine to answer emails within four hours — fine by most standards — then you only need to check your email once every four hours, not once every four minutes.如果你认为在4小时之内回复邮件完全没有问题(按多数标准都没问题),那么你只需要每4个小时查一次邮件,而不是每4分钟查一次。As Christian and Griffiths advise, decide how responsive you want to be.正如克里斯蒂安和格里菲思建议的那样,决定自己想要如何响应。If you want to get things done, be no more responsive than that.如果你想好好做点事情,就别超过那个响应标准。 /201609/463853。

日前有传闻称好莱坞当红玉女杰西卡·阿芭与男友卡什·沃伦感情不稳。近日,杰西卡又吐露心声,称自己的“王室情结”使两人的感情受到了影响,并坦白自己爱上了威廉王子。Hollywood siren Jessica Alba reveals that she has a crush on Prince William.Hollywood siren Jessica Alba has fuelled speculation that her relationship with boyfriend Cash Warren is in 'royal' trouble by revealing that she has a crush on Prince William.The 26-year-old actress, who shot to fame after her film "Sin City" became a runaway hit, said she was still searching for a perfect father for her future children, contactmusic.com website reported.Alba, who has been dating Warren from January 2005, said: "I always felt I had been born into the wrong family. I felt I should have been a royal."Jessica Alba also expressed her confusion that she could't understand why actresses choose to haveplastic surgery.Alba has vowed that she will never go under the knife because she wants to age gracefully and retain the expressive nature of her face for acting roles."As an actress, you express emotion with your face. And if you have plastic surgery, you lose that spark," Alba explained. "People usually look better without surgery - my grandmother aged very gracefully."Vocabulary:plastic surgery:整形手术 /200805/39974。