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2019年08月18日 18:55:17

Two words have vexed Erica Jong for the last 42 years. The first is “zipless,” and the word that follows is not printable in this newspaper.过去42年里,有两个词一直困扰着埃丽卡·容(Erica Jong)。第一个是“zipless”,第二个词则不适宜刊在这张报纸上(即“zipless fxxk”——译注)。The two-word phrase, immortalized in her 1973 best-selling novel, “Fear of Flying,” which has sold more than 27 million copies, entered the cultural lexicon as a shorthand for casual, consequence-free sex. It turned Ms. Jong into a feminist heroine of sorts and avatar of female sexual liberation, and helped propel and define her career.这两个词组成的短语因她1973年的畅销小说,售出2700万多册的《怕飞》(Fear of Flying)而不朽,成为随意、不顾后果的性爱的代名词,被载入文学史册。它令容在某种意义上成为女权主义的英雄,乃至女性性解放的化身,在促进她事业发展的同时,也限定了她的事业生涯。It was also meant to be satirical, Ms. Jong said, but was misconstrued as an endorsement of unbridled lust.容说,这个短语也带有讽刺意味,但是却被错误地理解为对不节制的性欲的一种赞许。“People so misinterpreted ‘zipless,’ ” Ms. Jong, 73, said during an interview at her Upper East Side apartment. “I say in ‘Fear of Flying’ that it’s a Platonic ideal and a fantasy, and I have never had one, but people seem to overlook that.”“人们误解了‘zipless’这个词”,73岁的容女士在上东区公寓中接受采访时说。“我在《怕飞》中说过,这是一种柏拉图式的理念和幻想,我自己从来没有过这样的性爱,但是人们似乎忽视了这一点。”Now, decades later, she has exhumed and rebranded the phrase in her new novel, “Fear of Dying,” which is being billed as the “spiritual” sequel to “Fear of Flying” and is being released on Tuesday.如今,几十年过后,她的新小说《怕死》(Fear of Dying)将在周二出版,它被成为《怕飞》的“精神”续集,书中她重新挖掘出这个短语,并且重新塑造它的形象。While “Fear of Flying” shocked ers with its frank depiction of the sexual appetite and independence of its protagonist, Isadora Wing, “Fear of Dying” takes on an another, more persistent taboo by depicting — in blunt, unvarnished detail — sex between older adults. Ms. Jong’s new character, a grandmother in her 60s, is lusty and vivacious and searching for carnal satisfaction at a casual-sex site called zipless.com.《怕飞》中直白地描写性欲,以及主人公伊莎多拉·温(Isadora Wing)独立的性格,令读者大为震惊;而《怕死》则以直率质朴的细节描写老年人的性爱,从而触及另一个更为持久的禁忌。容笔下新的主人公是一位60岁的祖母,充满欲望,性格活泼,在一个名叫zipless.com的约炮网站上寻觅肉体的满足。“I’ve always wanted to write the books for women that didn’t yet exist, so I thought, I have to write about an older woman who is sexual, attractive and wants to reach out for life,” Ms. Jong said. “That’s not celebrated, sadly, and I would hope that a lot of older women who this book realize that sex doesn’t disappear, it just changes forms.”“我一直都想为那种尚不存在的女人写书,所以我想,我应该写一个年长的女人,她性感、迷人,愿意去探索生命,”容说。“悲哀的是,这并不受到赞美,我希望会有很多年长的女人读这本书,让她们意识到性爱并没有消失,只是换了种形式。”The story centers on Vanessa Wonderman, a former actress terrified of aging and death. She seeks escape from her sexless marriage to a much older man with erectile dysfunction by searching for lovers online. The surreal encounters that follow — an email exchange with a man who introduces himself by sending lewd photos, another who wants her to wear a black rubber suit, an unsatisfying hotel tryst with an old married flame — leave Vanessa reeling and worried that her sex life might be over. (This being an Erica Jong novel, it isn’t.)故事的主线是退休女演员凡妮莎·范德曼(Vanessa Wonderman)对衰老与死亡的恐惧。她想逃离与比自己老得多,有勃起障碍的丈夫的无性婚姻,于是在网上寻觅情人。接下来是一串超现实的邂逅――一个男人写来电子邮件,以猥亵的照片作为自我介绍,还有一个男人希望她穿黑色橡胶紧身衣。和一个已婚老年情人在酒店的幽会不能令人满足,凡妮莎心烦意乱,担心自己的性生活就此告终了(不过这毕竟是埃丽卡·容的小说,她的性生活还完不了)。Some of Ms. Jong’s fans and peers are calling the novel a long overdue corrective in a cultural landscape that deifies youth and often ignores older women, or relegates them to the role of spinsters or crones.有些容的书迷和同龄人觉得,当前的文化将青春神圣化,无视年老女人,或者一味把她们贬低为老处女或者丑陋老太婆,容的小说是对这种现象的矫正,早就应该出现了。“There is this giant void in the culture about women in that age group as heroines, as romantic beings, as sexual beings and as creative beings, and there’s not that void for men,” said Naomi Wolf, author of “The Beauty Myth.” “Women don’t stop being all those things as their lives continue into those decades.”“文化中有一个巨大的空白,没有人把年老的女人塑造为女主角,塑造成浪漫的人,性感的人,富于创造性的人,男性就没有这样的空白,”《美丽迷思》(The Beauty Myth)一书的作者娜奥米·伍尔夫(Naomi Wolf)说。“女人就算步入老年,也仍然会成为这样的人。”“Fear of Dying” is landing in the middle of a long-festering debate about the social and cultural obstacles older women face. The comedian Amy Schumer has skewered the frequent sidelining of older actresses in a widely viewed skit built around the farcical — though just barely — premise that an aging actress’s desirability could dissipate in a single day. Sex therapists and gurus have published dozens of manuals and self-help books with titles like “Sex for Seniors” and “Sex Over 50.” There is also the gag book “Sex After 60,” which is blank inside.关于年老女性所面临的社会与文化困境的讨论还在持续加剧,《怕死》的出现恰逢其时。喜剧演员艾米·舒默(Amy Schumer)在一则被广泛收看的小品里讽刺年长女演员经常被边缘化的现象,它建立在一个滑稽的前提之下(其实几乎已经不滑稽了)——一个年老女演员的魅力一夜间就消失了。性爱治疗师和上师们出版了几十本 《老年人性爱》、《50岁后的性爱》之类的指导手册和励志书。还有一本恶作剧的书名叫《60岁后的性爱》(Sex After 60),里面全是空白。But the subject hasn’t been widely explored in popular fiction. “Women were not allowed to have passion at 60,” Ms. Jong writes in “Fear of Dying.” “We were supposed to become grandmothers and retreat into serene sexlessness.”但是通俗小说从未广泛探索过这个题材。“女人一旦年过60,就不再被允许拥有,”容在《怕死》中写道。“人们觉得我们应该成为祖母,回到宁静的无性状态中去。”Ms. Jong started out as a poet, and published two volumes of verse before selling “Fear of Flying” to Aaron Asher, an editor whose roster of writers included Saul Bellow, Philip Roth and Arthur Miller. Mr. Asher told Ms. Jong to expect sales of 3,000 copies, she recalled.容早年曾是诗人,在《怕飞》之前出版过两本诗集,后来她把《怕飞》卖给亚伦·阿舍(Aaron Asher),此人曾为索尔·贝娄(Saul Bellow)、菲利普·罗斯(Philip Roth)和阿瑟·米勒(Arthur Miller)担任编辑。容记得当时阿舍告诉她,这本书大概能卖出3000册。Instead, the novel, about a young poet who travels to Vienna with her husband and attempts to live out her fantasies by having an affair, became a blockbuster and cultural touchstone. John Updike compared it to “The Catcher in the Rye,” and Henry Miller praised it as a groundbreaking literary achievement. The book was translated into 40 languages and was credited by second-wave feminists with paving the way for women’s self-expression.结果这本描写一个年轻女诗人和丈夫一起去维也纳旅行,试图靠外遇实现幻想的小说成了畅销书和文化里程碑。约翰·厄普迪克(John Updike)将它同《麦田守望者》(The Catcher in the Rye)相提并论,亨利·米勒(Henry Miller)说它是开创性的文学成就。这本书被译为40种语言,为女性的自我表达开辟了道路,经常被第二代女权主义者引用。“What was really distinctive about it at the time was the notion that a woman could break out of the conventions of how a woman writer should write, and write with candor and humor about topics that were taboo for women,” said Shelley Fisher Fishkin, an English professor at Stanford University.“在当时,这本书的特别之处就在于它带来一种观念,一个女人可以突破女性作家写作的传统,带着热情与幽默书写那些女性的禁忌题材,”斯坦福大学英语系教授雪莉·费舍·费什金(Shelley Fisher Fishkin)说。Ms. Jong has since published three memoirs, five more volumes of poetry and eight other novels, including historical fiction and a work about Sappho, but nothing has matched the popularity of “Fear of Flying.” At times, she says, she has felt oppressed by being so closely associated with her brash fictional alter ego Isadora.后来容出版过三本回忆录,五本诗集和八部小说,包括关于萨福(Sappho)的历史小说与研究,但它们都无法与《怕飞》的流行程度相比。她说,人们常常把她和小说中她那个大胆的虚构人格伊莎多拉密切联系在一起,这有时让她觉得受到压抑。“Fear of Flying’ follows me everywhere,” she said.“《怕飞》如影随形地跟着我,”她说。She has been struggling to write “Fear of Dying” for a decade. At first she tried to make an older, wiser Isadora the heroine. But bringing back that character felt forced. “There was so much baggage around ‘Fear of Flying,’ ” she said. “The weight of those expectations was very frightening.”她努力想写《怕死》已经有十年了。起先,她想让上了年纪,变得更聪明一点的伊莎多拉做女主角。但是重新带回这个角色让她感觉不自然。“《怕飞》有太多包袱,”她说。“期待的重量非常可怕。”Ms. Jong eventually sidelined Isadora to a cameo role as a worldly friend, and created Vanessa, who shares some obvious traits with the author. She used the book to explore the wrenching process of watching her parents’ slow demise, her fear of losing her looks and vitality, the joys of being a grandmother and her relationship with her daughter, Molly Jong-Fast, who, like Vanessa, struggled with drug addiction.最后,容让伊莎多拉成了客串出场的配角,一个老成世故的朋友,而凡妮莎则与作者本人有着明显的相似之处。她用这本书来探索目睹父母缓慢逝去的痛苦过程、对失去自身美貌和活力的恐惧、当上外祖母的喜悦之情,乃至和自己女儿莫莉·容-法斯特(Molly Jong-Fast)之间的关系――她的女儿和凡妮莎一样,也要和毒瘾作斗争。Ms. Jong’s warm, chatty persona and her tendency to blur the boundaries between her life and fiction often results in juicy ing. She once wrote about a one-night stand she had with Martha Stewart’s then-husband, Andy Stewart, at the Frankfurt Book Fair. But the autobiographical tropes can be trying for friends, family members, ex-husbands and former lovers. (Her fourth marriage, to Ken Burrows, a divorce lawyer, has lasted 26 years.) Her sister, Suzanna Daou, confronted her publicly at a 2008 conference about “Fear of Flying,” and has said that the book embarrassed her and her husband by modeling characters after them.容有着温暖、饶舌的性格,喜欢打乱生活与小说之间的界限,这常常会勾起读者的八卦之心。她写过自己和玛莎·斯图尔特(Martha Stewart)当时的丈夫安迪·斯图尔特(Andy Stewart)在法兰克福书展上搞一夜情。但是自传式的影射也可以用到朋友、家人、前夫和前情人们身上(她的第四次婚姻是与离婚律师肯·巴罗斯[Ken Burrows],持续了26年)。2008年,她的姊苏珊娜·达奥乌(Suzanna Daou)在一次关于《怕飞》的研讨会上公开质问她,说这本书从她和她丈夫身上取材,让他们觉得尴尬。Ms. Jong-Fast, who is also a writer, said she had not “Fear of Dying” and did not plan to, noting that her having her time in treatment rehashed in fiction “would not have been my first choice.” The scenes from a mother-daughter trip to a rehabilitation clinic appear to be barely fictionalized, and several paragraphs match an account of the episode in Ms. Jong’s most recent memoir nearly verbatim, with identical dialogue and descriptions.她的女儿容-法斯特也是作家,说自己还没读过《怕死》,也不想读,她说,书里重现了她当时接受戒毒治疗的过程,“这并不是我的首选”。书中母女一起参加康复野餐的情形几乎不像是虚构,还有几段,和容最新回忆录中描写她发病经历的内容几乎一字不差,有同样的对话和描写。“I don’t her books,” Ms. Jong-Fast said. “For my mental health, it’s probably better not to.”“我不看她的书,”容-法斯特说。“为了我的精神健康,我最好别看。”A few literary critics have taken aim at Ms. Jong’s self-referential style and habit of recycling material. A caustic review of her 2006 memoir in The Atlantic posited that Ms. Jong was doomed to “eternal self-imitation” after the success of “Fear of Flying,” and skewered her “stunning self-absorption.”几位文学家已经批评容这种指向自我的风格和习惯是炒冷饭。2006年,《大西洋月刊》(The Atlantic)对她当年出版的回忆录发表了尖刻的,认为容在《怕飞》大获成功之后,注定要陷入“永远的自我模仿”,还批评她那种“惊人的自我陶醉”。In an advance review of “Fear of Dying,” a critic for Kirkus Reviews said that “spending almost 300 pages with Vanessa is like enduring a trans-Atlantic flight with a seat mate who never stops talking but doesn’t have a whole lot to say.”《科克斯》(Kirkus Reviews)发表了对《怕死》的预先,写道,“连看300页凡妮莎的故事就像在飞越大西洋的航班上,身边坐着一个不停说话的人,其实他根本没多少值得一说的东西。”Ms. Jong said she had a thicker skin than she did earlier in her career and is more philosophical about negative reviews. “We can’t really control our image in the world,” she said. “But it still hurts if you spend a decade on a book and people don’t like it.”容说,和事业生涯早期,她的脸皮厚了一些,对待差评也有了更加哲学的态度。“我们不能控制自己在这个世界上的形象,”她说。“但是如果你花了十年时间写一本书,人们却不爱看,这仍然会让你觉得伤心。”She has many vocal supporters, among them Susan Cheever; the historical novelist Ken Follett, who said the new novel represented “Erica at her best”; and the novelist Jennifer Weiner, who counts “Fear of Flying” as one of her literary influences.她也拥有不少声援者,其中包括苏珊·契弗(Susan Cheever);历史小说家肯·福莱特(Ken Follett)说,《怕死》展现了“埃丽卡最好的一面”;小说家詹妮弗·韦纳(Jennifer Weiner)曾说《怕飞》影响了她的文学创作。“ ‘Fear of Flying’ opened a lot of doors and eyes and made people look differently at that nice woman sitting next to them on the train, and I think ‘Fear of Dying’ is going to have the same effect,” Ms. Weiner said.“《怕飞》为很多人打开了大门,让他们大开眼界,让人们以不同的视角去看待火车上坐在他们身边的体面女人,我觉得《怕死》也会有同样效果,”韦纳说。Ms. Jong also found a fan in one of her comic heroes, Woody Allen, who loved “Fear of Dying” and unexpectedly gave it a blurb.容热爱的喜剧明星里也有她的拥趸,伍迪·艾伦(Woody Allen)喜欢《怕死》,并且出人意料地为它做了腰封推荐。“I was thinking of his famous e, I’m not afraid of dying; I just don’t want to be there when it happens, so I thought he should this,” Ms. Jong said. “The first thing he said when we sent it was, ‘I never blurb anything.’ Then he relented.”“我记得他的名言:‘我不怕死;我只是希望到时候自己别在场才好’,所以我觉得他应该看看这本书,”容说。“送书的时候,他的第一句话就是,‘我从不写腰封推荐’。后来他反悔了。” /201509/398799广东省人民医院平洲分院男科预约禅城区男性专科龙江乐从北滘镇看男科好吗

顺德中医院是那里人开的龙江乐从北滘镇男科专家While the Western New Year is more about drinking, the Chinese New Year is an opportunity to honor family and friends, and to enjoy some culinary traditions. We consulted Fuchsia Dunlop, author of Shark#39;s Fin and Sichuan Pepper, and Doris Lum, president of the Association of Chinese Cooking Teachers, as well as Rosemary Gong#39;s book on Chinese culture and celebrations, Good Luck Life, to find out what foods we should have on hand to ensure a prosperous and happy year to come.西方人过新年,总免不了开怀畅饮,而中国人过春节,讲究的则是亲朋好友团聚,享用传统美食。究竟如何吃出一个喜庆繁荣的好运年呢?在这里,三位美食达人——《鱼翅与花椒》的作者扶霞·邓洛普、膳艺社主管多丽丝·林与《红运生活》的作者罗斯玛丽·龚——将向你细细道来。1. Tangerines and Oranges 福橘Displaying and eating these fruits is said to bring wealth and luck. According to the Chinese Culture Center of San Francisco, the tradition stems from the way the Chinese words for gold and orange sound alike, while the word for tangerine echoes luck.;It#39;s good if they have leaves,; adds Lum, ;because leaves symbolize longevity.; But don#39;t group them in fours, because, Dunlop says, this number is associated with death.春节摆福橘,吃福橘,能带来财富与好运。旧金山中国文化中心的成员告诉我们,在中文里,“金”与“橘”谐音,而“橘气”又代指“好运气”,于是就有了吃福橘的传统。“福橘最好能带上叶子。”多丽丝·林补充道,“因为叶子象征长命百岁”。而邓洛普提醒,可千万别把福橘成四放置,因为数字4在中文里音近“死”。2. Long Noodles 长寿面If noodles are served, then ;keep them as long as possible for long life,; says Lum.林说,春节里做面条,“尽量做得越长越好,那代表着长寿”。3. The Tray of Togetherness 八宝盒Put out for visiting relatives to snack on, or given as a gift, the eight (;a traditionally symbolic lucky number,; explains Dunlop) compartments of the tray are filled with things such as preserved kumquats for prosperity, coconut for togetherness, longans to bring many sons, and red melon seeds for happiness.春节期间,走亲串户,家家都会准备八宝盒,既可作零嘴,也可当赠礼。八宝盒分为八格(邓洛普解释道:“8是个吉祥数字。”),分别装有象征财富的金桔,象征团聚的椰片,象征多子多孙的龙眼,象征喜庆的红瓜子,等等。4. Nian Gao 年糕;Nian gao means year cake, but gao sounds the same as the word for tall or high,; says Dunlop. Hence the cakes symbolize achieving new heights in the coming year. The steamed sweets are made of glutinous rice flour, brown sugar, and oil. Some versions have white sesame seeds, red dates, or nuts in them (the dates are said to bring ;early prosperity,; writes Gong in Good Luck Life). If you want to try your hand at making nian gao, here#39;s our recipe. Chowhounds also have some tips.“年糕是种面食,不过‘糕#39;与‘高#39;同音,意义非凡,”邓洛普表示。因此,年糕就被赋予了年年高升的寓意。年糕味甜,由糯米、红糖及食用油制作而成。有时,人们也会加入芝麻、红枣或坚果(罗斯玛丽·龚在《红运生活》中写道,据说红枣能让人早生福气)。如果你想动手做年糕,我们的网站(chowhound.com)上有相应食谱及烹饪小贴士。5. Pomelo 禄柚This large citrus fruit is popular, writes Gong, because it is thought to bring ;continuous prosperity and status.; The tradition comes from the way the Cantonese phrase for pomelo sounds similar to the words for prosperity and status, explains Lum.龚在书中还写道,柚子在春节期间很受欢迎,因为中国人认为它象征着“财源广进,扬名四海”。林则解释道,广东人把“柚子”称作“禄柚”,吉祥之意由此而来。6. Jai 斋菜This vegetarian dish is eaten because it#39;s ;part of the Buddhist culture to cleanse yourself with vegetables,; says Lum. It#39;s also packed with good-luck foods, writes Gong, breaking it down by ingredient: sea moss for prosperity; lotus seeds for children/birth of sons; noodles for longevity; lily buds to ;send 100 years of harmonious union;; Chinese black mushrooms to ;fulfill wishes from east to west;; and more. Try our recipe.春节期间,也有食素的传统。“佛教认为,吃斋能净化自己,”林解释道。龚也在书中写道,制作斋菜,选料还需图个喜庆,比如:裙带菜代表着兴旺,莲子代表着多子多孙,面条代表长寿,百合则寓意着“百年好合”,香菇象征了“万事如意”,等等。不妨试试咱们的食谱吧。7. Long Leafy Greens and Long Beans 绿叶时蔬与长豆Gong writes that leafy greens, such as Chinese broccoli, are ;served whole to wish a long life for parents.;龚在《红运生活》中写道,春节期间烹制绿叶时蔬,比如芥蓝,寄托着子女“希望父母长命百岁”的美好心愿。8. Whole Fish 全鱼The Chinese word for fish sounds like the word for abundance, says Lum. It#39;s important that the fish is served with the head and tail intact, writes Gong, ;to ensure a good start and finish and to avoid bad luck throughout the year.;林解释道,中文里,“鱼”和“余”同音。春节吃鱼,得连着鱼头鱼尾吃一整条。《红运生活》中这么写道,“如此一来,才能保一年到头红红火火,霉运全无”。9. Sweets 甜食Serving desserts brings a sweet life in the new year. Gong writes that a childhood favorite was the flaky cookie pockets called gok jai, filled with peanuts, coconut, and sesame.春节期间吃甜食,寓意新年甜甜蜜蜜。龚在书中记录了儿时最爱的甜点——糕仔,口感酥脆,里头有花生、椰片与芝麻。10. Yuanbao (Jiaozi) 元宝(饺子);In North China, everyone eats the jiaozi dumplings,; says Dunlop. ;Families will make a dough and wrap it around pork and cabbage, and boil [the dumplings], then serve them with vinegar and soy sauce. You can wrap them in the shape of an old silver ingot.; Gong writes that during New Year celebrations jiaozi are called yuanbao, a reference to the ancient, ingot-shaped Chinese currency, and that eating them is said to bring prosperity. While making them, families sometimes tuck added good-luck foods like peanuts (to bring long life) into some of them.“中国北方过年,人人都要吃饺子。”邓洛普说,“家家户户都要包白菜猪肉饺子,入锅烹煮,以醋与酱油作蘸料。而且,饺子常常会被包成元宝的形状。”龚则在书中进一步解释道,元宝是中国古代的货币。每逢春节,中国人会把饺子称作元宝。于是,吃饺子便寓意了来年财源广进。另外,不少人家还会在一些饺子中包入其他吉利食品,比如花生,寄寓了长寿之意。 /201602/426443佛山哪假医院割包皮最好Over the past few months, I’ve written a number of times on how nutrition recommendations are seldom supported by science. I’ve argued that what many people are telling you may be inaccurate. In response, many of you have asked me what nutrition recommendations should say.在过去几个月里,我多次在文章中提到,营养建议很少得到科学持。我的看法是,很多人对你们说的事情可能并不准确。对此,很多人问我有什么营养建议。It’s much easier, unfortunately, to tell you what not to do. But here at The Upshot, we don’t avoid the hard questions. So I’m going to put myself on the line. Below are the general rules I live by. They’re the ones I share with patients, with friends and with family. They’re the ones I support as a pediatrician and a health services researcher. But I acknowledge up front that they may apply only to healthy people without metabolic disorders (me, for instance, as far as I know).不幸的是,给出不建议的东西,要比给出建议容易的多。但在“结语”专栏(The Upshot),我们不回避难题。所以我来斗胆回答一下。以下是我的一般守则。我会把这些守则分享给病患、朋友和家人,作为一个儿科医生和卫生务研究人员,它们是我能够认可的。不过,我要预先承认,这些守则只适用于没有代谢障碍的健康人士(比如以我目前所知,我就算是一个)。These suggestions are also not supported by the scientific weight of rigorous randomized controlled trials, because little in nutrition is. I’ve inserted links to back them up with the available evidence. They are not “laws” and should not be treated as such. No specific nutrients will be demonized, and none will be held up as miracles. But these recommendations make sense to me, and they’ve helped me immensely.这些建议同样也没有通过严格的随机对照试验进行科学评估,因为营养学领域很少有这样的试验。我插入了链接,用现有据来持这些建议。这些建议不是“规范”,不应该被当成规范来执行。我不会把具体某个营养物妖魔化,也不会奉某个营养物为人间奇迹。但是我觉得这些建议是有道理的,而且对我帮助极大。Full disclosure: I did not invent most of these. I’ve developed them from ing the work of others, including what may be the most impressive “official” nutritional guidelines, those of Brazil, as well as from earlier suggestions from ers, as in this great NYT interactive graphic. It captures ers’ responses to food rules by Michael Pollan. He is, of course, the promulgator of the well-known advice: “Eat food. Not too much. Mostly plants.”需要声明:这些建议大多都不是我提出的,而是我通过阅读别人的作品得出的,包括一些格外出色的“官方”营养指南,巴西提出的那些,还有较早前读者提出的建议,比如时报的这份精的互动图文里列出的。这些是读者对迈克尔·波伦(Michael Pollan)提出的食物守则的回应。而波伦就无需多说了,他推广了一个著名的建议:“进食。不要太多。植物为主。”1. Get as much of your nutrition as possible from a variety of completely unprocessed foods. These include fruits and vegetables. But they also include meat, fish, poultry and eggs that haven’t been processed. In other words, when buying food at the market, focus on things that have not been been cooked, prepared or altered in any way. Brown rice over white rice. Whole grains over refined grains. You’re far better off eating two apples than drinking the same 27 grams of sugar in an eight-ounce glass of apple juice.1. 尽可能从各类完全未经加工的食物中获取营养。这些食物包括水果和蔬菜,也包括未经处理的肉、鱼、禽和蛋。换句话说,在市场里购买食物时,要注意选择尚未烹调、制备或以任何方式改变过的。糙米代替白米,全谷物代替精加工谷物。同样是摄入27克糖,吃两个苹果要比喝一杯8盎司的苹果汁好太多。1b. Eat lightly processed foods less often. You’re not going to make everything yourself. Pasta, for instance, is going to be bought aly prepared. You’re not going to grind your own flour or extract your own oil. These are meant to be eaten along with unprocessed foods, but try to eat less of them.1b. 少吃轻加工食品。不可能所有食物都自己做。比如意大利面会去买已经做好的。你不会自己磨面粉或提炼食油。这意味着要同时进食轻加工食物与未经加工食物,但要尽量少吃。1c. Eat heavily processed foods even less often. There’s little high-quality evidence that even the most processed foods are dangerous. But keep your consumption of them to a minimum, because they can make it too easy to stuff in calories. Such foods include b, chips, cookies and cereals. In epidemiologic studies, heavily processed meats are often associated with worse health outcomes, but that evidence should be taken with a grain of salt (not literally), as I’ve written about before.1c. 更要少吃重度加工食品。即便是最重度加工的食品,也很少有高质量的据能够实它是危险的。但是你要尽量少吃这些食物,因为它们容易含高热量。这类食物包括面包、薯片、饼干和谷物。流行病学研究发现,重度加工过的肉类往往与健康状况恶化有关,但正如我之前所写,该据不能尽信。2. Eat as much home-cooked food as possible, which should be prepared according to Rule 1. Eating at home allows you to avoid processed ingredients more easily. It allows you full control over what you eat, and allows you to choose the flavors you prefer. You’re much less likely to stuff yourself silly if you eat home-cooked food. I’m not saying this is easy. Behavioral change takes repetition and practice. It also, unfortunately, takes time.2. 尽量在家吃,烹饪料理也应遵循守则1。在家里吃饭能让你更容易避开加工食材,全权控制自己所吃的东西,选择自己喜欢的口味。如果是吃自家制食物,你就不会那么稀里糊涂地填饱肚子。我知道这做起来并不容易。改变行为需要重复和实践。不幸的是还需要很多时间。3. Use salt and fats, including butter and oil, as needed in food preparation. Things like salt and fat aren’t the enemy. They are often necessary in the preparation of tasty, satisfying food. The key here is moderation. Use what you need. Seasoning is often what makes vegetables taste good. Don’t be afraid of them, but don’t go crazy with them either.3. 烹调过程中按需使用盐和油脂(包括黄油和油)。盐和油脂这类调味料并不是敌人。在烹调美味而令人满足的食品过程中,它们往往是必要的。其中的关键是适度。蔬菜往往是通过调味才变得好吃的。不要惧怕它们,但也不要过度使用。4. When you do eat out, try to eat at restaurants that follow the same rules. Ideally, you should eat at restaurants that are creating all of their items from completely unprocessed foods. Lots and lots of restaurants do. Follow Rule 1 even while out to dinner. Some processing is going to be fine, but try to keep it to a minimum.4. 在外面吃饭时,尽量到遵守这些规则的餐厅用餐。在理想的情况下,你应该在只使用未经加工的食材的餐厅吃饭。许多餐厅都符合此条件。即使是出外吃晚餐,亦应该遵从守则1。吃一些加工食材没有什么问题,可还是尽量少吃为妙。5. Drink mostly water, but some alcohol, coffee and other beverages are fine. As I’ve pointed out before, you can find a study to show that everything either prevents or causes cancer — alcohol and coffee included. But my take is that the preponderance of evidence supports the inclusion of a moderate consumption of most beverages.5. 以喝水为主,但偶尔喝一些酒、咖啡或其他饮料亦可。正如我之前所说,任何东西都能找到某个研究明它要么有助预防癌症要么导致癌症——酒和咖啡亦包括在内。但我的观点是,多数据持大部分饮料可适度饮用。6. Treat all beverages with calories in them as you would alcohol. This includes every drink with calories, including milk. They’re fine in moderation, but keep them to a minimum. You can have them because you like them, but you shouldn’t consume them as if you need them.6. 像对待酒精一样对待所有含热量的饮料。这包括了所有含热量的饮料,牛奶也在此列。它们可以适度饮用,但应保持在最低限度。你可以因为喜欢所以饮用,但不应该把它们当作必须摄入的东西。7. Eat with other people, especially people you care about, as often as possible. This has benefits even outside those of nutrition. It will make you more likely to cook. It will most likely make you eat more slowly. It will also make you happy.7. 和其他人一起吃饭,特别是你关心的人,而且次数越频密越好。这甚至有营养以外的益处。这会让你有更多下厨房的机会,很可能令你吃饭吃得更慢。这能让你快乐。I’ve avoided treating any food like the devil. Many nutrition experts do, and it may turn out they’re right, but at this point I think the jury is still out. I’ve therefore tried not to tell you to avoid anything completely. My experience tells me that total abstinence rarely works, although anecdotes exist to support that practice. I think you’ll find that many other diets and recommendations work under these rules. These are much more flexible and, I hope, reasonable than what some might prescribe.我一向避免视任何饮食如魔鬼。很多营养专家这样做,而人们最终可能会发现他们是对的,但目前我觉得还没有盖棺定论。因此,我一直尽量不说你应该完全避开某个东西。尽管现时传闻持相反做法,但经验告诉我,彻底戒绝很少是有效的。我想你会发现,有很多其他饮食和建议都适用于这些规则之下。它们更具灵活性,我希望相比有些人开出的方法,它们会是更加合理的。All of these rules are subtly trying to get you to be more conscious of what you’re eating. It’s far too easy these days to consume more than you think you are, or more than you really need, especially when eating out. I’ve found that it’s impossible to tell any one person how much they should be eating. People have varying requirements, and it’s important for all of them to listen to their bodies to know when they should eat, and when they should stop.所有这些规则都透过微妙的方式,试图让你对自己所吃的东西有更多的意识。现如今,你很容易就会摄取超过自己所想、或是自己所需的分量,出外用餐时情况更尤为严重。我发现,要告诉任何一个人该吃多少食物都是不可能的。人们均有不同的需求,而重要的是所有人都该听从自己的身体,从而了解何时进食,何时停止。One other thing: Don’t judge what others eat. One of my closest friends has been avoiding carbohydrates for months, and has seen remarkable results. Another was a pescatarian — a person whose only meat dishes are fish — for a year and was very happy with that. I, on the other hand, avoid no food groups in particular.还有一件事:不要妄论他人的饮食。我的一个好朋友已经连续数月不沾碳水化合物,效果非常好。还有一个坚持鱼素食——只接受鱼肉这一种肉食——已经有一年,感觉良好。而我呢,不避食任何食物种类。People are very different. Some may have real problems consuming even the smallest amount of carbohydrates. Others may be intolerant of certain foods because of allergies or sensitivities. It will most likely take a bit of experimentation, on an individual level, to find the actual diet within these recommendations that works for you. But the above rules should allow for a wide variety of foods and for remaining healthy. At least, I hope so.每个人都是不同的。有的哪怕只是摄入一丁点碳水化合物都会有麻烦。有的由于过敏或敏感而不能接受某种食物。每个人往往都需要自己去实验,在这些建议中找到适合自己的膳食。不过,以上的守则是包容各种食物的,并且是用于保持健康的。至少我是这样希望的。I’m curious what ers think of these. I welcome your comments to this column, as well as tweets to me in response.我对读者的想法很好奇。欢迎你们这篇专栏,也可以发推给我。 /201601/419984佛山割包皮包茎手术价格

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