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来源:家庭医生常识    发布时间:2019年09月17日 10:25:23    编辑:admin         

Since Michael Jordan signed with Nike at the beginning of his illustrious career, his signature Air Jordan shoes have redefined the world of athletic footwear. Signature sneakers are now a major part of an athlete’s global brand, and they also help change the course of casual fashion. Every release of a new version of the Jordans is a basketball event.自从迈克尔#8226;乔丹在事业辉煌时期和耐克公司签约,署名“飞人乔丹”的鞋就被重新定义为世界上的运动鞋。现在,署名运动鞋是运动员全球品牌的一个主要部分,并且他们还改变了休闲时尚的发展。乔丹的每一个新品发布都是一个篮球界大事件。On Monday afternoon, Nike and Jordan Brand released their latest incarnation, the Jordan XX8 (aka 28, for those of you don’t recognize both Roman and Arabic numerals) in New York City. As you can see in the photo, it’s a bold design that’s aly generating controversy. From the outside, the sneaker looks something like a black rain overshoe, with a zipper that encloses the entire inside. Underneath, however, the dominant color is a distinct neon green.周一下午在纽约市,耐克和乔丹品牌发布了他们最新的研发品牌,乔丹XX8(对那些不认识罗马和阿拉伯数字的人来说,又叫28)。正如图片所示,这是一个引发争议的大胆设计。从外面看,这双运动鞋外表看来像黑色的雨套鞋,拉链把鞋的内部给封住了。但是在里层,主导颜色是一种独特的霓虹绿。The shoes, devised by legendary Nike designer Tinker Hatfield over the course of two years, retail for a cool 0.这双鞋由耐克传奇设计师哈特#8226;菲尔德用了两年的时间设计,零售价是250美元。 /201212/212577。

Chocoholics are rejoicing amid a proliferation of new scientific evidence showing cocoa may be good for the heart. But most chocolate is packed with calories and unhealthy sugar. A wave of new products with high levels of pure cocoa is being marketed as a way to enjoy chocolate#39;s benefits without empty calories.巧克力控们要高兴了,因为一组最新的科学据表明可可可能对心脏有好处。不过,以往市面上大部分的巧克力卡路里和含糖量都偏高。如今,一批批含高纯度可可的巧克力新品陆续上市,让人们在享受到巧克力所带来的美味和健康的同时,完全不用担心空热量的问题。The cocoa bean, actually a seed, grows in pods on trees. It contains compounds called flavanols, which have been shown to lower blood pressure, improve blood flow and reduce overall risk of heart disease. Three scientific analyses published in the past six months pooled results of smaller studies to conclude that cocoa is good for the heart. Scientists believe flavanols work, at least in part, by stimulating production of nitric oxide, which relaxes vessels and improves blood flow.可可豆(实际上就是可可子)生长在可可树的豆荚中。可可豆含有黄烷醇,该物质有助于降血压、促进血液流动并降低罹患心脏病的风险。过去六个月内发表的三项科学研究通过对多项小型研究结果进行综合分析,推断出可可有益心脏的结论。科研人员认为,黄烷醇可以刺激一氧化氮的产生,而一氧化氮可以放松血管、促进血液流动,因此至少从这一点来看,黄烷醇是有功效的。The catch, says David L. Katz, director of Yale University#39;s Prevention Research Center, is that exactly how much chocolate is needed for a health benefit isn#39;t known. #39;Chocolate is a concentrated source of calories, so it#39;s important to keep the dose within therapeutic range,#39; he says.耶鲁大学预防研究中心(Yale University’s Prevention Research Center)主任大卫·卡茨(David L. Katz)表示,问题在于具体该摄入多少巧克力才对人体健康有益还不清楚。他称,“巧克力含热量高,所以将摄入量控制在对健康有益的范围内是很重要的。”Most chocolate isn#39;t labeled with milligrams of flavanols and there#39;s no industry or scientific standard yet for measuring flavanols in chocolate. One objective measure is the cocoa percentage on the label. Milk chocolate can be as little as 10% cocoa paste by weight, with the rest in sugar, milk and other ingredients. Dark-chocolate bars typically contain 50% to 60% cocoa by weight, scientists say.大多数巧克力产品并不标注出黄烷醇的具体含量,到目前为止也还没有可据以测量巧克力中黄烷醇含量的行业或科学标准。比较客观的一个指标是标签上的可可含量。科研人员表示,按重量计算,牛奶巧克力中的可可含量可能只有10%,其余均是糖、牛奶和其他配料。而黑巧克力中的可可含量一般在50%-60%。#39;The higher the percentage of cocoa, the higher the flavanol content, the higher the antioxidant content and thus we believe the greater positive health benefit,#39; says Washington, D.C., nutritionist Joy Dubost, a spokeswoman for the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, a trade group.美国贸易组织营养和饮食学会(Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics)的女发言人、华盛顿特区的营养学家乔伊·杜波斯特(Joy Dubost)表示,“可可含量越高,黄烷醇含量就越高,抗氧化物的含量也就越高,因此我们认为,这对人体健康也更有益处。”A growing number of specialty products are offering higher-test cocoa, as much as 100%, which makers say are minimally processed to retain as many nutrients as possible. Most of the brands don#39;t have lab tests on the amount of flavanols, so there#39;s no way to make a comparison.越来越多的特殊产品开始提供更高纯度的可可,有时纯度甚至达到100%。生产商表示,这类产品只经过最低程度的加工,以尽可能保留原有的营养成分。但大部分的巧克力品牌均不对黄烷醇含量进行检测,因此无法进行比较。Antidote #39;red label#39; chocolate contains nothing but high-quality cocoa beans from Ecuador, says Red R. Thalhammer, owner of Tripple Red Corp., the Long Island City, N.Y., company that sells it. A bar is 440 calories. To drink your flavanols, Choffy is specially milled 100% cocoa and roasted to taste good when brewed like coffee─ideally in a French press, says Jason Sherwood, co-founder of Choffy LLC, Vancouver, Wash. It is for a 12-ounce bag and 20 calories for an eight-ounce cup.纽约州长岛市(Long Island City)Tripple Red Corp.公司的老板里德·塔尔哈默(Red R. Thalhammer)表示,该公司销售的“红色包装”的Antidote巧克力未掺杂任何配料,完全由来自厄瓜多尔的优质可可豆制成,这样一块巧克力含有440大卡热量。想将黄烷醇“喝”进肚子里?华盛顿州温哥华市(Vancouver)Choffy LLC公司的共同创始人詹森·舍伍德(Jason Sherwood)表示,该公司出产的Choffy像烘焙咖啡一样,将100%的纯可可研磨成粉,烘焙出好味道──还是美妙的法式烘焙法。其12盎司一包的成品售价15美元,8盎司一杯的冲泡量中只含20大卡的热量。Or take your chocolate straight and chomp on raw cocoa beans. Navitas Naturals, sold by Navitas LLC, Novato, Calif., offers crunchy whole beans or nibs─beans with the shell removed─at for an eight-ounce bag. To maintain maximum nutrients, the nibs aren#39;t roasted, Navitas says. Unsweetened nibs are 130 calories an ounce; sweetened, 150 calories.或者,直接将生可可豆放进嘴里享受?加利福尼亚州诺瓦托(Novato)Navitas LLC公司销售的Navitas Naturals系列产品就有脆脆的可可豆或去了壳的可可粒,8盎司一包,售价10美元。Navitas称,为了尽可能地保留营养成分,这些可可粒都没有经过烘焙。未加糖的可可粒每盎司含130大卡热量,加糖的含150大卡热量。Navitas Naturals, Choffy and Antidote haven#39;t done clinical trials on their products.Navitas Naturals、Choffy和Antidote的产品均未做临床试验。As for taste, the products overall were mostly intense and delicious, though it sometimes took a few bites to adjust to chocolate without sugar. Choffy was so delicious, I drank it without milk and sugar. Navitas#39;s unsweetened nibs were a bit intense and the sweetened ones were a bit too sweet; a half-and-half mixture of the two was just right.至于口味,这些产品总体上味道浓厚、可口,当然,无糖巧克力的苦味有时候还是需要适应一下的。Choffy产品味道极好,我在饮用时甚至没有加奶和糖。Navitas的无糖可可粒味道有点浓,加糖可可粒又有点太甜了,折中一下倒是不错。Then there#39;s cocoa as a dietary supplement. CocoaWell dietary supplement pills from Reserveage Organics LLC, Gainesville, Fla., are filled with cocoa powder and other plant antioxidants. According to the bottle#39;s label, every two pills contain at least 450 milligrams of pure plant flavanols. CocoaWell costs for a month#39;s supply. There are no clinical trials on CocoaWell yet.此外,可可还被用作一种膳食补充成分。加利福尼亚州盖恩斯维尔(Gainesville)Reserveage Organics LLC公司出品的CocoaWell膳食补充丸便含有可可粉和其他植物抗氧化物。根据瓶上的标签,每两粒CocoaWell膳食补充丸至少含有450毫克的纯植物黄烷醇。CocoaWell按一个月的补充量计算价格30美元。CocoaWell亦尚无临床试验的持。Mars Inc. packs 350 milligrams of cocoa flavanols into its 30-calorie a day CocoVia daily supplements. To keep the flavanol content high, Mars #39;gently#39; processes its cocoa#39; and adds an extract of cocoa flavanols made with a proprietary process, says Catherine Kwik-Uribe, director of research and development at the Mars Botanical unit. Mars also sells Cirku, a 15-calorie packet containing cocoa extract with a fruit flavor that you mix with water. Mars found heart-health benefits with a research blend of gently processed cocoa that is similar to CocoaVia but without the extract added. It doesn#39;t yet have results on CocoaVia and Cirku.玛氏公司(Mars Inc.)含30大卡热量的CocoVia每日营养补充产品含有350毫克的可可黄烷醇。玛氏公司旗下业务部门Mars Botanical 的研发总监凯瑟琳·奎克·乌里韦(Catherine Kwik-Uribe)表示,为了保CocoVia中黄烷醇的含量,玛氏公司“温和”加工可可豆,并额外添加通过专利技术萃取的可可黄烷醇。玛氏公司还销售一种含15大卡热量的可可萃取物产品Cirku,水果香型,可冲泡饮用。在一项研究中,玛氏公司发现温和加工后的一种可可混合物对心脏健康有益,这种可可混合物类似CocoaVia,但没有额外添加萃取物。CocoaVia和Cirku的功效也尚无临床研究佐。Some cardiologists say even the spate of recent research doesn#39;t provide enough evidence for taking chocolate as a dietary supplement. #39;I don#39;t think it#39;s overwhelming evidence,#39; says Carl Lavie, medical director of Cardiac Rehabilitation and Prevention at Ochsner Medical Center in New Orleans. Other nutrients─including Vitamin E─have looked just as promising and later proved disappointments, he adds. It isn#39;t unreasonable to eat chocolate for health reasons if you enjoy the taste, he adds, but make sure to cut a snack of equivalent calories from your diet.一些心脏病专家表示,虽然近期涌现出大批研究项目,但均不足以明巧克力可以作为一种膳食补充。新奥尔良欧奇斯能医疗中心(Ochsner Medical Center)的心脏病预防医学主任卡尔·拉维(Carl Lavie)表示,“我认为这算不上压倒性的据。”他补充道,其他一些营养成分,包括维他命E,起初看起来都像是充满了希望,但随后的结果却是令人失望。当然,如果你喜欢那种口味,以健康之名去吃巧克力也并无不妥,只是别忘了从其他零食中匀出相等大卡的热量来。There is some evidence that suggests as little as a few ounces of chocolate─including types found in many grocery stores─may be beneficial. A 45-person study published in 2010 co-authored by Dr. Katz found blood flow in vessels improved two hours after ingesting a 2.6-ounce serving of Hershey#39;s HSY +0.30% Extra Dark (327 calories). The study was funded by Hershey#39;s and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.有据显示,吃几盎司的巧克力(哪怕是杂货店里很常见的一些品种)也许确实有益健康。2010年发表的一项针对45人的研究发现,摄入2.6盎司的好时公司(Hershey#39;s)特浓黑巧克力(327大卡)两个小时后,人体血管内的血流情况有所改善。此项研究由好时公司和耶鲁大学预防研究中心共同发起,卡茨士是该研究成果的署名作者之一。Four tablespoons a day of Hershey#39;s unsweetened cocoa (about 40 calories) in a variety of research test beverages also has been shown to be heart-healthy, according to the study and at least one other published trial. Hershey#39;s Extra Dark contains 420 milligrams of flavanols in a 1.4-ounce serving and Hershey#39;s cocoa contains 210 milligrams of flavanols per tablespoon, says Debra Miller, director of nutrition at Hershey Co.#39;s Center for Health and Nutrition.根据上述研究以及另外至少一项公开发表的临床试验结果,在不同饮料样本中加入一天四汤匙的好时无糖可可粉(约40大卡)均显示出对心脏有益的功效。好时公司健康与营养中心的营养部主任黛布拉·米勒(Debra Miller)表示,好时特浓巧克力每1.4盎司含有420毫克的黄烷醇,而好时可可粉每汤匙含有210毫克黄烷醇。According to research by Hershey Co., dutch processing, a chemical alkalizing process that makes chocolate less bitter, also destroys many nutrients. Consumers can choose regular cocoa instead of the dutch-processed variety. Also, Hershey#39;s research has shown that baking a chocolate cake with baking soda, which is an alkaline, destroyed flavanols but nutrients were retained when using baking powder.好时公司的研究显示,荷兰式加工法(一种硷化加工法)可以降低巧克力的苦味,但同时也破坏了很多营养成分。相比之下,消费者可以选择常规加工的可可。此外,好时公司的研究还显示,用小苏打(属硷性)烘焙巧克力蛋糕会破坏黄烷醇,但用泡打粉烘焙的话则可以保留其中的营养成分。 /201302/227540。

A study of the nation#39;s best-loved sounds found that Brits love nothing more than the noise of the sea - which topped the list of fifty.一项有关全国人民最爱声音的调查发现,英国人最爱大海的声音,美妙的海浪声排在了50个最爱声音的榜首。The sound of rain against the windows - if you are on the inside - something Brits have had plenty of chance to enjoy over the recent wash-out summer, came second.在屋里听到的雨点敲打窗子的声音排在了第二,这可是英国人在夏天雨季有大把机会能享受到的声音。Fireworks, children laughing and bacon sizzling are also sounds brits found pleasing to the ears, according to the study of 2,000 people.这份2000人参与调查还发现,发现烟火的声音,小孩的笑声,煎培根滋滋作响的声音都是英国人爱的声音。TOP 10 MOST LOVED SOUNDS10大最受欢迎的声音1.Waves against rocks1.拍打岩石的声音2.Rain against the windows2.雨点击打窗子的声音3.Ting on snow3.踏雪的声音4.Baby laughing4.婴儿的笑声5.Birds chirping5.小鸟叽叽的叫声6.Crackling open fire6.明火的爆裂声7.People laughing7.人群的笑声8.Leaves crunching beneath your feet8.脚步踏在枯叶上的声音9.Cat purring9.呜呜的猫叫声10.Church bells in the distance10.远处教堂的钟声内容来自: /201209/197627。

In April 1815, the most powerful volcanic blast in recorded history shook the planet in a catastrophe so vast that 200 years later, investigators are still struggling to grasp its repercussions. It played a role, they now understand, in icy weather, agricultural collapse and global pandemics — and even gave rise to celebrated monsters.1815年4月,有史以来最强烈的火山爆发令这颗星球陷入巨大的灾难,200年后,研究者们仍在努力搞清它的后果。现在他们明白,这场爆发对气候变冷、农业崩溃和全球流行病都有影响,甚至导致了某些著名怪物的出现。Around the lush isles of the Dutch East Indies — modern-day Indonesia — the eruption of Mount Tambora killed tens of thousands of people. They were burned alive or killed by flying rocks, or they died later of starvation because the heavy ash smothered crops.在荷属东印度群岛(也就是如今的印度尼西亚)郁郁葱葱的海岛,坦拉火山(Mount Tambora)的爆发令数万人丧生。他们遭到活埋、被从天而降的石块砸死,浓重的火山灰令庄稼颗粒无收,不少人更是死于其后的饥荒。More surprising, investigators have found that the giant cloud of minuscule particles sp around the globe, blocked sunlight and produced three years of planetary cooling. In June 1816, a blizzard pummeled upstate New York. That July and August, killer frosts in New England ravaged farms. Hailstones pounded London all summer.更让人惊讶的是,研究者们发现,火山微粒形成的巨大云层蔓延全球,遮蔽阳光,造成了为期三年的全球气候变冷。1816年6月,一场暴风雪侵袭了纽约北部。当年的7月和8月,新英格兰的农场受到霜灾的致命破坏。伦敦整个夏天都遭到雹灾。A recent history of the disaster, “Tambora: The Eruption that Changed the World,” by Gillen D’Arcy Wood, shows planetary effects so extreme that many nations and communities sustained waves of famine, disease, civil unrest and economic decline. Crops failed globally.吉伦·达尔西·伍德(Gillen D’Arcy Wood)的新著《坦拉:改变世界的火山爆发》(Tambora: The Eruption that Changed the World)追溯了那段灾难的历史,展现它严重的全球影响,因为这场灾难,全世界很多国家和社区都遭到一波接一波的饥荒、疾病、社会动荡和经济衰退。全球农作物都出现减产。“The year without a summer,” as 1816 came to be known, gave birth not only to paintings of fiery sunsets and tempestuous skies but two genres of gothic fiction. The freakish progeny were Frankenstein and the human vampire, which have loomed large in art and literature ever since.1816年是“没有夏天的一年”,那一年不仅诞生了无数以烈日和暴风雪为题材的油画,也诞生了两大类哥特小说:这两个畸形的产物分别是弗兰肯斯坦的怪物和人形吸血鬼,它们至今仍在艺术与文学世界扮演着重要角色。“The paper trail,” said Dr. Wood, a University of Illinois professor of English, “goes back again and again to Tambora.”伍德士是伊利诺斯大学的英语教授,他说“相关书面记载可以一再追溯到坦拉”。The gargantuan blast — 100 times bigger than Mount St. Helens’s — and its ensuing worldwide pall have been the subject of increasing study over the years as scientists have sought to comprehend not only the planet’s climatological past but the future likelihood of such global disasters.坦拉火山爆发比圣海伦斯山火山爆发剧烈十倍,为整个世界蒙上了一层尸衣,后世对它的研究日益增多,科学家们希望掌握的不仅仅是地球过去的气候学资料,也希望能了解未来是否会有可能发生类似的全球性灾难。Clive Oppenheimer, a volcanologist at the University of Cambridge, who has studied the Tambora catastrophe, put the chance of a similar explosion in the next half-century as relatively low — perhaps 10 percent. But the consequences, he added, could run extraordinarily high.克莱夫·奥芬海默(Clive Oppenheimer)是剑桥大学的火山学家,一直研究坦拉火山灾难,他认为,在接下来的50年里,发生类似爆发的可能性非常低,大约只有10%。但是一旦发生,其后果会相当严重。“The modern world,” Dr. Oppenheimer said, “is far from immune to the potentially catastrophic impacts.”“现代世界远远没有发展到不受灾难影响的地步,” 奥芬海默士说。Before it exploded, Tambora was the tallest peak in a land of cloudy summits. It lay atop the tropic isle of Sumbawa, its spires rising nearly three miles. Long dormant, the mountain was considered a home to gods. Villages dotted its slopes, and nearby farmers grew rice, coffee and pepper.在爆发之前,坦拉是这片云雾缭绕的山地中的最高峰。它位于热带的松巴哇岛上,顶峰将近三英里高(一英里约合1609米——译注)。这座火山蛰伏已久,被认为是神祇的居所。山坡上星星点点地分布着村庄,附近的农民种植稻米、咖啡和胡椒。On the evening of April 5, 1815, according to contemporary accounts, flames shot from its summit and the earth rumbled for hours. The volcano then fell silent.根据当代的说法,1815年4月5日,火焰从顶峰冒出,大地开始颤抖,长达数个小时,之后火山重新陷入寂静。Five days later, the peak exploded in a deafening roar of fire, rock and boiling ash that was heard hundreds of miles away. Flaming rivers of molten rock ran down the slopes, destroying tropic forests and villages. Days later, still raging but by then hollow, the mountain collapsed, its height suddenly diminished by a mile.五天后,山峰爆发出火焰、岩石与热灰,声音震耳欲聋,几百英里外都能听到。熔岩沿着山坡流淌,毁坏了热带雨林和村庄。几天后,火山还在活跃,但内部已经空了,山体开始塌陷,高耸的山峰最后只剩一英里高。Locally, an estimated 100,000 people died. Sumbawa never recovered.当地有大约10万人丧生。松巴哇岛再也未能复原。The repercussions were global, but no one realized that the widesp death and mayhem arose from an eruption halfway around the world. What emerged was regional folklore. New Englanders called 1816 “eighteen hundred and froze to death.” Germans called 1817 the year of the beggar. These and many other local episodes remained unknown or unconnected.灾难带来了全球性后果,但是没有人意识到蔓延全球的死亡与灾难发源于地球中部的一场火山爆发。只有地区性的民间说法流传开来。新英格兰人说1816年是“冻死人年”。德国人说1817年是“乞丐之年”。这些,还有其他很多地方的零星说法一直未能连贯起来。It was scientists who began to stitch together the big picture, especially the peculiar link between fiery volcanism and icy weather. An overarching goal was to separate natural climate fluctuations from those of human origin. One after another, studies came back to New England and its frigid summer of 1816.是科学家们开始慢慢凑出宏大的图景,特别是凶猛的火山活动与寒冷气候之间的关系。一个重要研究目的是区分开自然的气候波动与人为影响的气候变化。一项接一项的研究都可以追溯到到新英格兰,以及1816年那里寒冷的夏天。Dr. Wood expanded the portrait in his book, which is due out in paperback next month. It draws on hundreds of scientific papers as well as Dr. Wood’s knowledge of 19th-century literature to lay bare three years of planetary mayhem as well as the origins of fictional demons.伍德士的书将在下月出版平装版,他在书中展开了这幅画卷。它建立在数百份科学文献基础之上,伍德对19世纪文学的知识也颇有裨益,它生动地揭示出为期三年的全球灾害,乃至虚构怪物的起源。“My interest was to understand a global event,” Dr. Wood said in an interview, “and that meant serious detective work in lots of unfamiliar archives.” Five years of inquiry took him to China, Europe and India.“我的兴趣是理解一件全球事件,”伍德士在接受采访时说,“这意味着利用许多陌生的资料,做严肃的研究工作。”他在中国、欧洲与印度做了为期五年的调查。It also transported him to Tambora, where he braved leeches and razor-sharp leaves to peer across its yawning caldera, four miles from rim to rim.他还去了坦拉,不顾水蛭与刀锋般尖锐的草叶,穿过直径长达四英里的火山口。The exploding mountain, the book notes, heaved some 12 cubic miles of earthen matter to a height of more than 25 miles. While coarse particles soon rained out, finer ones traveled the high winds in a sping cloud. “It passed,” Dr. Wood wrote, “across both south and north poles, leaving a telltale sulfate imprint on the ice for paleoclimatologists to discover more than a century and a half later.”书中写道,火山爆发时喷出了12立方英里的火山灰,喷射高度达到25英里。粗大的微粒开始落向地面之时,细小的微粒已经随着云朵在高空气流中旅行了。伍德士写道,“它们最远一直来到南北极,在冰上留下泄露行踪的硫酸盐痕迹,因此一个半世纪之后,考古气象学家们才能发现它们的存在。”The global veil, high above rain clouds, reflected much sunlight back into space. So the planet cooled. The pall, Dr. Wood said, also spawned tempests far below.它们就这样潜藏在高高的雨云之中,为全世界蒙上了一层面纱,把大量阳光反射回太空之中。于是整个地球就变冷了。伍德士说,这层“尸衣”还为下界带来了暴风骤雨。His book reprints an 1816 oil painting of Weymouth Bay, a sheltered cove on England’s south coast, by John Constable — the sky above churning with dark clouds. “Everywhere,” Dr. Wood said, “the volcanic winds blew hard.” He noted that both history and computer models speak of fierce storms back then.书中收录了一幅1816年约翰·康斯太勃尔(John Constable)的油画,画面上是英国南部海岸的避风港韦茅斯湾,天空中笼罩着一片阴云。伍德士写道,“到处都有火山引起的大风。”他指出,历史记载与电脑模型都表明当时有巨大的风暴。The particles high in the atmosphere also produced spectacular sunsets, as detailed in the famous paintings of J.M.W. Turner, the English landscape pioneer. His vivid red skies, Dr. Wood remarked, “seem like an advertisement for the future of art.”高空大气中的火山微粒还制造出壮观的日落景象,被英国风景画的先驱者J·M·W·透纳(J.M.W. Turner)详细捕捉在笔下。伍德士说,他画中生动的红色天空“就像是艺术之未来的广告。”The story also comes alive in local dramas, none more important for literary history than the birth of Frankenstein’s monster and the human vampire. That happened on Lake Geneva in Switzerland, where some of the most famous names of English poetry had gone on a summer holiday.世界各地都出现不少轶事,对于世界文学史而言,最重要的莫过与弗兰肯斯坦的怪物与人型吸血鬼。这件事发生在瑞士的日内瓦湖畔,当时英国诗坛上最重要的几个人在那里消夏。By 1816, Switzerland, landlocked and famously rugged, was beginning to reel from the bad weather and failed crops. Starving mobs stormed bakeries after b prices soared. The book recounts a priest’s distress: “It is terrifying to see these walking skeletons devour the most repulsive foods with such avidity.”1816年,多山的内陆国家瑞士也被卷入恶劣气候与庄稼减产之中。面包价格上升,挨饿的暴民冲进面包房抢劫。书中引用一位传教士沮丧的话语:“看到那些行尸走肉贪婪地大口吞吃最低劣的食物,实在太可怕了。”That June, the cold and stormy weather sent the English tourists inside a lakeside villa to warm themselves by a fire and exchange ghost stories. Mary Shelley, then 18, was part of a literary coterie that included Percy Shelley, her future husband, as well as Lord Byron. Wine flowed, as did laudanum, a form of opium. Candles flickered.那年六月,寒冷多雨的天气让这几个居住在湖畔公寓的英国旅行者们围在火边取暖,讲鬼故事。18岁的玛丽·雪莱(Mary Shelley)和她未来的丈夫珀西·雪莱(Percy Shelley)以及拜伦勋爵(Lord Byron)同属于一个文学小团体。烛光闪烁,他们在一起喝酒,吃鸦片酊。In this moody atmosphere, Mary Shelley came up with her lurid tale of Frankenstein, which she published two years later. And Lord Byron hit on the outline of the modern vampire tale, published later by a compatriot as “The Vampyre.” The freakish weather also inspired Byron’s apocalyptic poem “Darkness.”就在这样一种氛围之下,玛丽·雪莱构思了关于弗兰肯斯坦的可怕故事,并于两年后出版。拜伦勋爵则想出了一个现代吸血鬼故事的大纲,后来被他的一个同胞(拜伦的秘书兼私人医生John William Polidori——译注)拿去,以《吸血鬼》(The Vampyre)之名出版。诡异的天气还激发拜伦写下了末世氛围的诗篇《黑暗》(Darkness)。Dr. Wood’s book documents many other repercussions of the planetary chill, devoting a chapter to a cholera pandemic of 1817 that began in India and globally killed tens of millions of people. Dr. Wood attributes its rise to a deadly combination of monsoonal changes and pounding rains — a main theory of leading cholera detectives.伍德的书记录了全球严寒带来的许多影响,其中一章是关于1817年于印度兴起,最终波及全世界的霍乱,它导致全球数千万人丧生。伍德士认为,疾病的流行是因为季风变化与倾盆大雨这个致命组合——这也是顶尖霍乱研究者的主要理论。The pandemic sp and eventually reached the Dutch East Indies. On Java alone it killed an estimated 125,000 people — more, Dr. Wood noted, “than died in the volcanic eruption itself.”蔓延的疾病最终来到荷属东印度群岛。仅在爪哇,就有大约12.5万人以上丧生。伍德写道:“这比火山爆发中死去的人还要多。”He also profiles the wintry chill in Yunnan Province in southern China, a land of mountains and jungles roamed by tigers and elephants. Rice crops there quickly failed, and famine gnawed deep for years. In July 1816, Dr. Wood noted, the province had “unprecedented snows.”他还写到中国南部云南省遭遇冬天般的严寒,这里布满山脉和雨林,有老虎和大象出没。稻米种植很快遭到破坏,饥荒延续数年。1816年7月,伍德士写道,这个省份“史无前例地下了雪”。The poet, Li Yuyang, who was 32 as Tambora began its global rampage, wrote of cold downpours and flash flooding in “A Sigh for Autumn Rain.”坦拉所带来的后果肆虐全球之时,诗人李于阳32岁,他把冰冷的倾盆大雨和大洪水写进了自己的诗《秋雨叹》。Dr. Wood closes with a portrait of the eastern ed States in 1816, focusing first on upstate New York. One day that June, four young classmates walked to school, most barefoot. Then a blizzard struck. Dismissed early, the children ran for their lives as the snow rose to their knees. They succeeded in reaching warm cabins and fires.最后,伍德士对1816年的美国东部进行了描述,首当其冲的是纽约北部。6月的一天,四个年轻人赤着脚去上学。然后来了一阵暴风雪。孩子们提早放学,积雪没过了他们的膝盖,只得奔跑求生。最后终于冲进生着火的温暖小屋。For Thomas Jefferson, the pain lasted longer. The retired third president of the ed States, at his estate in Virginia, faced a disastrous summer in 1816 because of the remarkably short growing season. The next year was just as bad.托马斯·杰斐逊(Thomas Jefferson)的痛苦持续得更为长久。这位美国第三任总统退休后住在弗吉尼亚州的宅邸,1816年夏天,作物歉收令他损失惨重。翌年还是同样糟糕。In a letter, Jefferson expressed concern about the possible ruin of his Monticello farm “if the seasons should, against the course of nature hitherto observed, continue constantly hostile to our agriculture.”在一封信里,杰斐逊担心 “如果目前这种违背自然规律的时令延续下去,一直对农业不利,” 他的蒙蒂塞洛农场可能会倒掉。The countless victims and occasional beneficiaries of Tambora’s fury were oblivious to the volcanic roots of their circumstances, Dr. Wood noted, making the challenge of writing about it formidable and “occasionally mind-bending.”伍德士指出,坦拉之怒的无数受害者与个别受益者根本不知道火山爆发对自身环境的影响,这对写作构成了极大挑战,“有时候要绞尽脑汁”。More generally, he said, the revelation of global volcanic ruin — a portrait 200 years in the making — offers a kind of meditation on the difficulty of uncovering the subtle effects of climate change, whether its origins lie in nature’s fury or the invisible byproducts of human civilization.他说,在更多时候,火山爆发在全球造成的破坏——这是一幅纵贯200年的画卷——令他想到,发现气候变化的微妙影响是多么困难,不管这影响是来自大自然的愤怒,抑或人类文明无形的副产品。It is, Dr. Wood remarked, “hard to see and no less difficult to imagine.”伍德士说,这一切“很难看到,同样也很难想像”。 /201509/397248。