时间:2019年09月23日 19:06:37

To watch the confrontation between the US’s most valuable company and its top law enforcement agency is to find oneself in a state of nearly permanent cognitive dissonance. 观察一下美国最有价值的公司与美国最高执法机构之间的对峙,你会陷入一种近乎永久性“认知失调”的状态中。 Apparently, America’s government agencies are both omnipotent and helpless. Omnipotent because, as this week’s batch of surveillance revelations from WikiLeaks suggests, they have no problems intercepting highly secretive communications between their European allies. Helpless because, as the Federal Bureau of Investigation’s bosses keep repeating, they need Apple’s co-operation in order to break into the iPhone of the shooter in the San Bernardino attacks. 显然,美国政府机构既无所不能,又很无助。之所以说无所不能是因为,正如上周维基解密(WikiLeaks)爆料的数起监控案例所表明的那样,它们在拦截欧洲盟友之间高度机密的通信内容方面神通广大。之所以说无助是因为,正如联邦调查局(FBI)的头头们屡次重申的那样,它们需要苹果(Apple)的合作,以解锁圣贝纳迪诺击案凶手的iPhone。 It gets worse. On February 9, James Clapper, the director of national intelligence, boasted in his Senate testimony that “in the future, intelligence services might use the [internet of things] for identification, surveillance, monitoring, location tracking, and targeting for recruitment, or to gain access to networks or user credentials.” Now we learn that such agencies cannot get into our smartphones … let alone our smart fridges. 更糟的还在后面。今年2月9日,美国国家情报总监(DNI)詹姆斯克拉珀(James Clapper)在参议院作时夸耀称,“未来,情报部门可能使用(物联网)来确认、监听、监控、定位以及定向招募,或者进入网络或者用户凭据”。现在我们知道,这些机构无法进入我们的智能手机……更别说我们的智能冰箱了。 Something in the government’s rhetoric does not add up. The FBI either has solid reasons to break into that phone — in which case it is not obvious why the mighty power of the National Security Agency and other government bodies has not yet been mobilised — or it is simply using the San Bernardino case as an excuse to redefine its relationship with Silicon Valley. 美国政府的某些言论并不能自圆其说。FBI要么有解锁那部手机的充足理由——如果是这种情况的话,美国国家安全局(NSA)和其他政府机构的强大能力不知为何没有被动用——要么只是以圣贝纳迪诺击案为借口来重新界定它与硅谷的关系。 Asked by a judge about its willingness to enlist the help of all the federal agencies in a similar case from 2015, the government responded that “federal prosecutors don’t have an obligation to consult the intelligence community in order to investigate crime.” 在2015年的一起类似案件中,当被一名法官问及是否愿意争取所有联邦机构的帮助时,美国政府回应称,“联邦检察机关没有咨询情报部门以调查犯罪行为的义务”。 And since very little is known about the true capabilities of America’s intelligence community, everyone involved in the current debate has to pretend that the world’s most powerful spying agency does not exist. 既然人们对美国情报机关的真实能力知之甚少,所有卷入当前辩论的人不得不假装,这个全球最强大的情报机构并不存在。 While the FBI’s defence has been that their request is extremely narrow — once Apple has facilitated access to that single phone, it is free to destroy the code required to do so — the broader political context in which this battle unfolds suggests that Apple’s stance will have far-reaching implications. 尽管FBI一直辩称,他们的要求极低——一旦苹果帮助解锁了那部手机,就可以销毁为此开发的代码——但这场争斗所处的更广泛的政治环境表明,苹果的立场将具有深远的影响。 First, the FBI’s request comes at a time when the US government is exerting immense pressure on America’s largest technology companies to join it in the fight against Isis. Both the state department and the Department of Defense have recently expanded their presence in Silicon Valley. 首先,FBI提出请求之际,正值美国政府对美国大型科技公司施加巨大压力,要求它们加入到打击“伊斯兰国”(ISIS)中。FBI和美国国防部最近都扩大了在硅谷的存在。 While many such requests are straightforward — removing jihadist propaganda from YouTube or Twitter, for example — there are concerns that such pressure might extend to modifying their algorithms in order to hide certain types of content from easily susceptible users. 尽管许多此类要求很直接——例如,消除YouTube或Twitter上的圣战宣传标语——但仍有人担心,此类压力可能延展至要求科技公司调整算法,以便向容易受影响的用户屏蔽某些类型的内容。 Google knows what is in your inbox; why should it not modify your search results to make you less of a terrorist? 谷歌(Google)知道你的收件箱里有什么;它为何不应调整你的搜索结果以便降低你发展成恐怖分子的可能性? Second, it is hard to believe that the San Bernardino case will be an isolated episode. Not only are there several similar cases aly pending in US courts but many prosecutors have aly indicated they have their own backlog of phones to unlock. 其次,很难相信圣贝纳迪诺击案会是一个孤立事件。美国法院已有多起类似的案件等待判决,而且很多检察官已表示,他们也有大量手机等待解锁。 Manhattan district attorney Cyrus Vance said recently that he would “absolutely ... want access to all those phones that are crucial in a criminal investigation.” 曼哈顿地区检察官塞勒斯万斯(Cyrus Vance)最近表示,他“肯定……希望破解所有在刑事调查中起关键作用的手机。” Even if Apple chose to destroy the code it writes to help the FBI on this occasion, it would need to rewrite it for a new request. Should it keep this code forever, it would be holding on to a magic key to its devices — a highly prized asset for any hacker. 即便苹果选择销毁这次为帮助FBI而编写的代码,以后再有新的要求时它还得重写。如果苹果永远保留这个代码,这将为其设备保有一把带有魔力的钥匙:这对于任何黑客而言都是一项十足珍贵的资产。 Given the publicity of the case, any terrorists would probably stop using Apple’s products anyway. The only people to suffer would be ordinary users, stuck with their iPhones and iPads. 鉴于此案的曝光度,所有恐怖主义分子恐怕都不会再用苹果产品。唯一的受害者将是那些离不开iPhone和iPad的普通用户。 Third, the FBI’s rationale in this case would make any other manufacturer of smart devices — including all those smart fridges and smart thermostats in your smart home — subject to similar requests. 第三,联邦调查局在此案中提出的理由将令所有其他生产智能设备的制造商(包括你的智能家居中的智能冰箱和智能恒温器)从类似的要求。 If Apple can be forced to modify security protocols on its phone, what stops the FBI from asking the manufacturer of the smart smoke detector to trigger a fake smoke alarm? Or asking the manufacturer of the smart car to drive suspects directly to the police station? 如果苹果可以被迫修改其手机的安全协议,那么还有什么能阻止FBI要求智能烟雾报警器制造商发出虚假烟雾报警?或者要求生产智能汽车的制造商让嫌疑人乘坐的汽车直接开到警察局? All of this would seem neat so long as the government agencies were competent and nobody else could take advantage of such vulnerabilities. 所有这些似乎都会安然无事,只要政府机构有能力,而且其他人无法利用这些脆弱性。 This is not so. The San Bernardino case — where the FBI had a chance to break into the phone but blew it by changing the suspect’s Apple password — suggests that the FBI’s technical competence does not yet match the NSA’s. 但情况并非如此,在圣贝纳迪诺击案中,联邦调查局曾经有机会破解那部手机,但在修改嫌疑人的苹果密码时搞砸了。这表明,联邦调查局的技术能力还赶不上美国国家安全局。 And it would be suicidal to force technology companies to weaken security at a time when institutions of all sorts are vulnerable to hackers demanding ransoms — earlier this month, a hospital in California paid the bitcoin equivalent of ,000 to hackers who had breached its computer network. 在各类机构容易受到索要赎金的黑客的攻击之际,迫使科技公司削弱产品的安全性无异于自杀。本月早些时候,加州一家医院向攻击其电脑网络的黑客付了价值相当于1.7万美元的比特币。 Apple’s proposed solution is the right one: America needs a comprehensive political debate on the issue — one that would bypass inter-agency squabbling. 苹果提出的解决方案是正确的:美国需要就这个问题展开一场全面的政治辩论,这场辩论将绕开机构之间的争吵。 Alas, given how little the current batch of presidential candidates seems to care, or even understand, these issues, this debate is not likely to happen. 唉,当前的各位总统候选人似乎都不太关心这些问题,甚至不太了解,因此这场辩论不太可能出现。 /201603/429552

In the past, companies sought to please old customers and entice new ones by offering small holiday gifts. They gave away refrigerator magnets, calendars, and Christmas ornaments emblazoned with the company logo.过去,公司会在节日提供一些小礼品来取悦老顾客,招徕新顾客。他们会送出带有公司标志的冰箱贴、日历、以及圣诞装饰等。But in today’s geo-encoded, app-enabled world, sophisticated companies are trying something new to build trust and relationships with customers. We call them ‘benevolent apps.’ Unlike some apps that are designed to generate sales and promote special deals, benevolent apps are created to offer useful information or otherwise help with decision-making. The idea is not simply to sell products or services, but instead to build trust and relationships that eventually will lead to economic success.但如今,那些成熟老道的公司正尝试用一些新手段赢得消费者的信赖,并与他们建立情感联系。我们把它们称作“亲善应用”。与那些用来提升销量和推销打折商品的应用不同,亲善应用旨在提供实用或其他能帮助用户决策的信息。这样做并不是为了促进产品或务销售这么简单,而是为了建立信赖和联系,从而最终获得经济上的成功。One good example comes from Sea Tow Service International, a company located in Southold, New York. Sea Tow offers emergency towing and rescue services for boaters in the ed States, the Caribbean and Europe. The free Sea Tow app supports boaters’ navigation needs by offering information about local tide tables, detailed marine weather forecasts, GPS coordinates and bearing and speed.Sea Tow Service International就是一个很好的例子,这家位于纽约州绍斯霍尔德的公司,为美国、加勒比海和欧洲的船员提供紧急拖曳和救援务。他们的免费应用Sea Tow会提供当地潮汐表、详细的海洋天气预报、GPS坐标、航行方位和速度等船员定位所需的信息。A traditional marketer might argue that to the extent that Sea Tow furnishes information that can reduce accidents (thereby reducing Sea Tow calls), it is undercutting its own business. A boater, however, might be favorably disposed toward calling Sea Tow instead of its competitor, Tow Boat US, if faced with an emergency.传统的营销人员也许会认为,从某种意义上说Sea Tow提供的信息会减少事故(因此也就减少了Sea Tow收到的呼救数),这会妨碍公司本身的业务。然而,感受到这份友善的船员当面临紧急状况时,可能就会倾向于呼叫Sea Tow,而不是它的竞争对手Tow Boat US。To further study this concept, we worked with two companies—Liberty Mutual and Suruga Bank—to create two benevolent apps and then test the results.为了进一步研究这个概念,我们与利宝互助保险集团和骏河两家公司合作,创建了两个亲善应用并测试它们的效果。The Liberty Mutual app was aimed at people who were in the process of moving. The app included a digital “safe,” where they could record with text and photos their valuable-items and an inventory tool where they could record the contents of their boxes.这款利宝互助应用面向正在搬家的人群。该应用拥有一个数字“保险箱”,可以让用户用文字和照片记录自己的贵重物品;还有一个清单工具,可供用户记录箱子中的物品。Although Liberty Mutual offers auto, homeowners and personal property insurance, it does not offer moving insurance. So why did the company find the idea of creating an app to help people move appealing? Their goal was to build trust through benevolence and to improve brand image, consideration and purchase intent. On the final screen of the app, users could contact Liberty Mutual for more information on the products they offer including home, life and accident insurance. So although the app was benevolent, it had a mechanism for capturing goodwill by linking users to the company’s agents.尽管利宝互助提供汽车、房屋和个人财产保险,却并不提供搬迁保险。那么为何公司会有兴趣做一款帮人搬迁的应用呢?它的目标是通过这款亲善应用建立信赖,提高品牌形象、关注度,增强顾客的购买意愿。在应用的最后一个页面,用户可以联系利宝互助,获得更多关于该公司产品的信息,包括家庭保险、人寿保险和意外保险。所以尽管它属于亲善应用,却能建立用户和公司员工的联系,从而提高公司的商誉。The app was tested in 2010 in a comprehensive market research study of 750 consumers. Overall, respondents viewed the Liberty Mutual moving app as meaningful, believable and relevant. The favorable user experience led to positive attitude changes toward Liberty Mutual, which considers responsibility and trust to be among its key brand attributes. The company saw a significant increase in its trust rating, believability and confidence attributes.2010年,该应用经过了面向750名顾客的综合市场调研。总体来说,调查对象认为利宝互助的搬迁应用很有意义、很可靠,与他们的生活密切相关。这种良好的用户体验使得人们对该公司的态度有了正向的转变,他们觉得负责和值得信赖是该公司的品牌特质。利宝互助在信用评分、可信度和品牌信心上都有了显著提升。The second app we created was for Suruga Bank, a bank based in Shizuoka, Japan. Called, Dream Mover, it helped Japanese consumers choose new homes to purchase or rent and assisted them in understanding the financial implications of different decisions. Based on the user’s location and budget criteria, the app presented a set of home choices with details such as size, layout and proximity to public transportation. In addition to helping users screen potential places to live, the app acted as a budget-planning advisor, providing information on personal loans and mortgages as well as providing targeted advice.我们的第二个应用是为位于日本静冈市的骏河(Suruga Bank)创建的。这个应用名为Dream Mover,可以帮助日本顾客选择要购买或租赁的新房,并帮助他们弄清不同情况下涉及的财务问题。该应用能根据用户的地址和预算要求,显示一系列备选房屋,并给出大小、布局、是否便于搭乘公共交通工具等细节。此外,为了帮助用户筛选可能的居住地,Dream Mover还扮演了预算规划顾问的角色,为用户提供个人贷款和抵押信息以及其他具有针对性的建议。To assess the impact of Dream Mover, we surveyed 1,500 randomly selected respondents and found that among those who used the app, there was a measured increase in awareness, trust and positive consideration of Suruga Bank. Specifically, the bank’s ratings were significantly improved for characteristics such as being “open, honest and transparent” and offering “believable advice or information and a brand you can trust.”为了解Dream Mover的影响力,我们随机选择了1,500名受访者,发现那些用过这款应用的人对骏河的关注度、信赖度和正面印象都有提升。尤其要指出的是,骏河在“坦率、诚实和透明”等公司特色和提供“可靠的建议或信息,是一个你可以信赖的品牌”等选项的评分都有了显著提高。Our two studies show that benevolent mobile apps can positively impact a company’s brand perception, consideration and preference and therefore improve the bottom line. People using the Liberty Mutual app became significantly more inclined to prefer Liberty Mutual and switch to it for insurance versus competitors. Additionally, the brand attributes related to trust increased. In the Suruga Bank study, consideration of Suruga also rose significantly. As with the Liberty Mutual study, brand attributes related to trust rose significantly.我们的两项研究明,亲善应用可以加强人们对公司品牌的认知、关注和偏好,并由此提升公司营收。使用利宝互助应用的用户明显对利宝互助更有好感,更倾向于在保险务中选择它而不是其他竞争者。此外,用户对品牌的信赖感也有所增强。在骏河的案例中,用户对该公司的关注度同样有显著提升。而与利宝互助的案例一样,用户对骏河的信赖感也增强了。These are powerful forces that can lead to increased revenue from consumers who perceive that the brand has their interests in mind.这些亲善应用可以让顾客认为该品牌关心他们感兴趣的东西,并因此成为促进营收增长的强大力量。(财富中文网) /201412/350920

Engineers and scientists are constructing a huge mini-star, which will produce the same reactions that happen in the sun to provide energy for the future.工程师和科学家们正在建设一个巨大的迷你星,这将产生与太阳同样的反应,为未来提供能量。The project, known as Iter, is based in Cadarache, near Aix-en-Provence in southern France. It will weigh three times as much as the Eiffel Tower and be as big as 60 football pitches.该项目,称之为国际热核聚变实验堆,建在卡达拉奇,就在法国南部的艾克斯省附近。它将是埃菲尔铁塔的三倍重,与60个足球场一样大。Inside the new building will be a nuclear reactor that scientists hope can provide power through nuclear fusion. In doing so it could generate clean, safe energy and reduce reliance on fossil fuels.这个新的建筑物内部是一个核反应堆,科学家们希望能通过核聚变提供电力。这样做可以产生清洁、安全的能源,减少对化石燃料的依赖。Earlier this year, the team behind the project appointed a new leader, Bernard Bigot.今年早些时候,该项目背后的团队任命了一位新的领导人,伯纳德·比戈。;We are now entering into manufacturing and preparations for assembly,; he said as he joined in March. Bigot said that he had joined as part of a new management team that was set up to deliver ;both a research and an industrial facility;.;我们正打算开始进行生产制造,还有为大会进行筹备工作,;他于3月份加入时说道。比戈说他加入了一个新的管理团队,成为了其中的一份子。这个管理团队是设立起来作为;既是研发机构,又是产业设施;。Inside that facility there will be a smaller and controlled version of the same reactions that happen in our sun, nuclear fusion. That happens when two atomic nuclei collide with each other, releasing energy in the form of photons. The scientists hope to harness that energy and re-use it, to replace the dirty and limited forms of energy that we use today.设施内部会有一个较小的,与太阳核聚变相同反应的控制版本。当两个原子核相互碰撞时,就会以光子的形式释放出能量。科学家们希望能够驾驭住这股能量,然后重复使用它,用以取代我们当前使用的肮脏的,有限形式的能量。The project was launched in an early stage in 1987. It is now being pushed forward by a group of seven entities — including the EU, as well as the US, Russia and China.该项目于1987年开始进入其初期阶段。现在由一个7个实体集团共同推动——其中包括欧盟,美国,俄罗斯和中国。Since then, the project has repeatedly run into problems, with the schedule being pushed back. But scientists hope that early operations can begin in the 2020s, with harnessed energy coming sometime after that.自那时以来,该项目就不断遇到问题,计划也被推迟。但是科学家希望可以从2020年代开始进行早期操作,从那之后就可以开始驾驭这股能量了。Iter is the Latin for ;the way; — intended to highlight the possibilities of the energy as a way of creating safe and peaceful power for the world. But it was once known as International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor, a name that was dropped because of its potential worrying connotations.国际热核聚变实验堆的缩写;Iter;在拉丁语里面表示;方式;——旨在突出将这股能源作为为世界创造安全与和平力量的方式。但它曾经一度都以全称形式出现,之所以放弃使用全称是因为它潜在的令人担忧的内涵。 /201505/376407

A huge arthropod that lived 480 million years ago used spines on its head to filter seawater and to trap tiny particles of food. The lobsterlike animal, six feet long, is one of the earliest giant filter-feeder ever discovered, scientists reported in the journal Nature.4.8亿年前,地球上曾生活着一种大型节肢动物,用头上的骨骼过滤海水,获取食物微粒。科学家们在《自然》(Nature)杂志上报告说,这种龙虾状的动物长六英尺,是迄今发现的最早的大型滤食性动物之一。“It implies there was a rich source of plankton at the time, upon which these things may have fed,” said Derek Briggs, a paleontologist at Yale University and one of the study’s authors.“这表明,当时浮游生物资源丰富,这类动物以它们为食,”该项研究的作者之一、耶鲁大学古生物学家德里克·布里格斯(Derek Briggs)说。Dr. Briggs and his colleagues discovered the fossil remains of the new species, named Aegirocassis benmoulae, in Morocco. It belongs to an extinct family of marine animals called anomalocaridids, which first appeared during the Cambrian Period 520 million years ago.布里格斯和同事们在洛哥发现了这种名为“Aegirocassis benmoulae”的新物种的化石。它属于已灭绝的奇虾属(anomalocaridid)海洋动物,最早是在5.2亿年前的寒武纪出现的。Aegirocassis had double flaps along the side of its body, rather than the single flaps seen in previous anomalocaridid fossils. The bottom flaps may have helped Aegirocassis swim, while the top set of flaps may have been used for stabilization, Dr. Briggs said.Aegirocassis benmoulae身体两侧有双鳍,而之前的奇虾属化石都只有单鳍。布里格斯士说,下侧的鳍可能是用来帮助游动,上面的可能是用来保持身体平衡。The fossil remains are three-dimensional and exceptionally well preserved. Almost all previous anomalocaridid fossils were flat.这些化石是三维的,保存得格外完好。之前的所有奇虾属化石几乎都是扁平的。“We think it is because these things were buried quite rapidly by a storm or other event on the seafloor,” Dr. Briggs said.“我们认为,原因是这些动物因为风暴或海底的其他动荡而被快速掩埋了,”布里格斯说。 /201503/365309

文章编辑: 飞知识