湖北省襄阳四院医院是公立医院还是私立医院
时间:2019年12月09日 09:06:30

The past year has brought significant disruption to China’s financial landscape, with internet heavyweights Alibaba and Tencent leading the charge into mobile payments, deposit-like savings products, and even fully fledged banking.过去一年中,中国金融行业版图发生了巨大变化。互联网巨头阿里巴巴(Alibaba)和腾讯(Tencent)带头进入了移动付、类似吸收存款的储蓄产品,乃至成熟的业务领域。Chinese policy makers have said that internet companies can play a positive role in enhancing customer service, spurring innovation and increasing competition in financial services.中国的政策制定者曾指出,互联网公司能够在金融务领域发挥提升客户务水平、激励创新以及促进竞争等积极作用。Competition began in mid-2013 with the launch of Yu’E Bao, an online money-market fund. Run by Alibaba, the financial services affiliate of ecommerce group, the fund offers cash on demand but also provides higher interest rates than those available on bank deposits.新竞争始于2013年年中在线货币市场基金——余额宝的问世。该基金由电子商务集团阿里巴巴旗下的金融务子公司运营,向客户提供所需的现金,同时利率也比存款高。Assets under management at Yu’E Bao reached Rmb599bn (bn) by the end of 2014, making it China’s largest money-market fund.截至2014年底,余额宝管理的资产达到了5990亿元人民币(合960亿美元),成为中国最大的货币市场基金。Tencent Holdings, the gaming and social networking group, and Baidu Inc, the search provider, have also launched similar products.中国游戏和社交媒体集团腾讯控股(Tencent Holdings)以及搜索务提供商百度(Baidu Inc)也推出了类似的产品。In addition to higher yields, the money-market products have lured depositors away from traditional banks by integrating them with these companies’ mobile-payment services.除了较高的收益率之外,货币市场产品还通过与各自运营商的移动付务结合在一起,将储户从传统吸引过来。Customers can use their Yu’E Bao credit to make purchases on Alibaba’s Taobao and Tmall ecommerce platforms, as well as for paying credit card and utility bills. Alipay, Alibaba’s mobile-payment service, is also increasingly accepted at food shops.用户可以使用自己的余额宝存款在阿里巴巴的电子商务平台淘宝(Taobao)和天猫(Tmall)购物,也可以用来进行信用卡还款,缴纳公用务费。阿里巴巴的移动付务——付宝(Alipay)也被越来越多的食品店接受。Last year, taxi-hailing apps became the locus of a fierce battle for mobile-payments market share. Alibaba-backed Kuaidi Dache has vied with Tencent-backed Didi Dache for pole position. Meanwhile, Baidu haspurchased a stake in US car-hailing company Uber.去年,打车应用成为各方争夺移动付市场份额的核心战场。阿里巴巴投资的快的打车(Kuaidi Dache)与腾讯投资的滴滴打车(Didi Dache)争夺领先地位。与此同时,百度入股了美国打车软件公司优步(Uber)。Both Alibaba and Tencent spent tens of millions of dollars on hefty rebates to riders and drivers for paying taxi fares with Alipay and Tenpay, respectively, instead of cash.阿里巴巴和腾讯分别向不用现金、而使用付宝和财付通(Tenpay)结算出租车费的乘客和司机返还了数千万美元。Meanwhile, Tencent, which until recently had a minimal presence in ecommerce, has enhanced its popular WeChat instant messaging app to allow brands to sell products directly through their WeChat accounts, with payments processed by Tenpay.与此同时,直到最近都在电子商务领域占极小份额的腾讯,已经升级了其广受欢迎的即时通讯应用微信(WeChat),允许商家通过自己的微信账号直接销售产品,并通过财付通完成付。The final frontier is banking. China’s banking regulators last year approved 10 privately owned companies, including Alibaba and Tencent, to establish regional banks.最后的待开垦之地是业务领域。去年,中国业监管机构批准10家民营企业(包括阿里巴巴和腾讯)设立地区性。A joint venture led by Tencent this month became thefirst bank to start operations under the pilot. Premier Li Keqiang attended the opening ceremony for WeBank, named after WeChat.1月份,多方出资、腾讯牵头成立的深圳前海微众(WeBank,随微信之名)成为首家在上述试点计划下开业的。中国总理李克强出席了该行启动仪式。Alibaba will partner with Fosun International, one of China’s largest private conglomerates, to form Zhejiang Internet Commerce Bank this year. Other companies including an airline, a pharmaceuticals producer and an auto-parts manufacturer are also participating in the pilot project.今年,阿里巴巴将与中国最大的民营企业集团之一复星国际(Fosun International)合作筹建浙江网商(Zhejiang Internet Commerce Bank)。其他多家公司也参与了试点计划,其中包括一家航空公司、一家药企以及一家汽车零部件制造商。Policy makers want these companies to focus on lending to small, privately owned businesses and consumers, who have struggled to obtain loans from state-owned banks. There is also the potential for internet companies to draw on troves of user data to evaluate small borrowers’ credit risk.政策制定者希望,这些公司能专注贷款给那些难从国有获得贷款的小微民营企业和消费者。互联网公司还可以利用海量用户数据评估小额贷款人的信用风险。Even before the latest pilot, some lending had aly occurred. In September 2013, Alibaba’s microfinance arm sold 10 tranches of securitised loans to investors. The deal did not require a banking licence because microfinance companies, which do not collect deposits, are licensed separately.在这一最新试点计划启动之前,一些贷款业务已经开展。2013年9月,阿里巴巴旗下的小额贷款公司将10笔券化贷款出售给投资者。此类交易不需要执照,因为不吸收存款的小额贷款公司可以单独获得许可。 /201502/358697

For Carolin , as for many Germans, the Volkswagen emissions scandal is personal.和许多德国人一样,卡罗琳圠德尔(Carolin )也认为大众汽车(Volkswagen)的尾气造假丑闻影响到了个人。Speaking in the centre of Frankfurt, the country’s financial capital, the young charity worker says: “It’s catastrophic. I feel let down. VW and the other [German carmakers] were companies I felt I could believe in, but Volkswagen has ruined that image for me.这位年轻的慈善工作者在德国金融之都法兰克福市中心发表演讲时表示:“这件事是灾难性的。我感到失望。大众和其他(德国汽车制造商)是我觉得可以信任的公司,但大众破坏了我心目中的这一形象。”“It’s hurt their business, it’s hurt their image, and ultimately it has also hurt people,” she adds.她补充称:“这伤害了他们的业务,伤害了他们的形象,最终也伤害了人们。”Her opinion is widely — though not universally — shared. The German media are almost united in warning that the revelation that VW had been cheating on US emissions tests for years could affect the world’s opinion of “Made in Germany” — the country’s reputation for quality, especially in manufacturing.很多人都抱这种观点,尽管不是所有人。德国媒体几乎一致警告称,大众多年来在美国汽车尾气检测中作弊一事曝光,可能会影响世人对“德国制造”的看法——德国以产品优质闻名于世,尤其是在制造业。Bild, the top-selling tabloid, said this week in an editorial: “What has made Germany great is our engineering skill — and trust in our machine builders... is now directly at risk.”德国发行量最大的小报《图片报》(Bild)本周刊载的一篇社论称,“德国之所以伟大,系于我们的工程技术——以及对我们机器制造商的信任……现在,这种信任直接处于危险之中”。Political leaders from chancellor Angela Merkel down have called on the company to take rapid remedial action, not least to protect the good name of other German companies.从德国总理安格拉默克尔(Angela Merkel)往下的各级政治领导人都呼吁大众迅速采取补救行动——这么做的一大原因是要保护其他德国公司的良好声誉。Sigmar Gabriel, economy minister, said: “We are worried that the justifiably excellent reputation of the German car industry and in particular that of Volkswagen is suffering.”德国经济部长西格马尔加布里尔(Sigmar Gabriel)表示:“我们担心,德国汽车业——尤其是大众——无可非议的卓越声誉正在遭受损害。”Some marketing experts agree that damage from the scandal could easily extend far beyond VW, where the chief executive resigned on Wednesday. BMW and Daimler, two other standard bearers for German engineering, also produce cars with diesel engines — the vehicles at the heart of the affair.一些营销专家也认为,丑闻的影响很容易扩散至大众以外的公司。周三,大众首席执行官辞职。德国另外两家旗帜性工程企业宝马(BMW)和戴姆勒(Daimler)也生产柴油引擎汽车——柴油车正是此次丑闻事件的核心。Doreen Pick, marketing professor at Berlin’s Free University, is firmly in the pessimistic camp. “I think this will very badly damage the image of ‘Made in Germany’. [VW] stands as a synonym for what’s best in Germany — honesty, reliability and efficiency.”柏林自由大学(Free University)营销学教授多琳皮克(Doreen Pick)明显属于悲观派,她说:“我认为这将严重破坏‘德国制造’的形象。(大众)在德国是顶尖的同义词——代表着诚实、可靠和高效。”She adds: “What really matters is whether Germans see this as affecting them personally because they have a VW car or because they believe that the environment here has been polluted.”她补充称:“真正重要的是,德国人是否会因为自己拥有一辆大众车、或因为相信这里的环境已遭到污染,而认为这起事件影响到了他们个人。”However, she notes that a strong legal assault from the US authorities, who uncovered the cheating, could prompt Germans into “a bit of a patriotic/defensive” reaction. “People will ask why the Americans, who don’t really care about the environment, are attacking a German institution.”但她也指出,揭露大众作弊的美国当局发起的猛烈法律攻击,可能会让德国人产生“轻微的爱国/防御性”反应。“人们会问,为什么并不真正关心环境的美国人要攻击一家德国公司。”Others argue that history shows companies can weather even the biggest scandals as long as they respond properly, and that reputational damage rarely extends beyond the culprit business.还有人认为,从过往经验来看,哪怕是最严重的丑闻,只要应对得当,企业也可以平安度过,而且肇事公司以外的企业很少会因为受到牵连而声誉受损。“This scandal damages VW but does not damage ‘Made in Germany’ at all. Images of countries are very long-lasting. People still associate Germany with Hitler, as well as with Merkel. You can see how long it takes to change an image,” says Sven Reinecke, director of the marketing institute at Switzerland’s St Gallen University.瑞士圣加仑大学(University of St Gallen)营销研究所负责人斯文克(Sven Reinecke)表示:“这桩丑闻给大众造成了伤害,但完全没有损害‘德国制造’。国家形象是非常持久的。人们现在仍将德国与希特勒(Hitler)以及默克尔联系在一起。你可以看出一种形象要多久才能改变。”He adds: “As for VW itself, it depends on how it handles the affair. If they do it badly it will destroy the brand, but if they do it well, then not.”他补充称:“就大众本身来说,这取决于它如何处理这起事件。如果应对不当,那就会毁掉其品牌,但如果应对得体,就不会。”There are plenty of examples of German companies that have been able to rebuild investor and customer confidence after a crisis and a management clear out.过去曾有多家德国企业在遇到危机后,通过整顿管理层,重新获得了投资者和客户的信任。Bayer, the German chemicals group, was rocked in 2001 when its blockbuster cholesterol drug Lipobay was found to have serious side-effects. The company paid .1bn to settle nearly 3,000 cases, replaced management, comprehensively restructured its business and is now Germany’s biggest company by market value.2001年,德国化学品集团拜耳(Bayer)热销的降胆固醇药物拜斯亭(Lipobay)被发现有严重副作用,这让该公司遭受巨大冲击。拜耳拿出11亿美元和解了近3000起诉讼,撤换了管理层,并全面重组业务。如今拜耳是德国市值最高的公司。Siemens, the electronics group, had to shell out bn in fines and advisory payments after the 2006 discovery that slush funds were used to pay bribes to win contracts. The resulting probe shook the company to its core, led to the departure of dozens of senior managers and led to an overhaul of compliance systems.电器集团西门子(Siemens)在2006年被曝出设立贿赂基金行贿以赢取合同之后,不得不付20亿美元罚款和咨询费用。相关调查撼动了该公司的核心,导致数十位高层离职和合规制度的改革。Daimler in 2010 paid almost 0m of penalties to settle US charges that it systematically paid bribes to officials in foreign countries. It responded by appointing a former German judge to its management board to look after “integrity and legal affairs”.2010年,美国指控称,戴姆勒在海外系统性贿赂官员,该公司不得不付近2亿美元罚款了结这些指控。戴姆勒为此还指定一位前德国法官进入董事会负责“廉正和法律事务”。VW knows from its own past how scandal can hurt a company. A former group labour leader was jailed in 2008 after being found guilty in a bribery scandal. He was convicted of accepting almost ㈠洀 in illegal bonuses after a probe that also revealed company cash was used to pay for prostitutes and holidays for VW union chiefs.大众从自身经历中也知道丑闻会对一家公司造成什么伤害。2008年,一名前大众劳工领袖在一起贿赂丑闻中被认定有罪,结果被判处监禁。此人被判定收受了近200万欧元非法奖金,之前的一项调查还显示,大众用公司资金付公司工会领导人招妓和度假的费用。That affair did not stop the group in its drive to try to replace Toyota as the world’s biggest carmaker. But the latest scandal is far more serious, as it affects millions of customers directly.那起事件并没有让大众停下努力超越丰田(Toyota)成为全球最大汽车制造商的脚步。但眼下这起丑闻要严重得多,因为它直接影响到了数百万客户。Professor Martin Gornig, of Berlin’s DIW research institute, says: “If VW can clarify the situation, it can still limit the damage.”柏林DIW研究所的马丁高尼希教授(Martin Gornig)表示:“如果大众能够解释清楚,它就仍能将损害控制在一定范围内。” /201509/401119

What’s going to happen to the tech world in 2016? While of course no one really knows for sure, it’s possible to make a few semieducated guesses. Here are 10 predictions for the biggest tech trends for the coming year — from the blindingly obvious to the wildly speculative.2016年科技界会有什么样的新发现?没有人可以给出肯定的答复,但这并不妨碍我们作出一些简单猜测。以下是2016年十大科技动向,其中有的是板上钉钉,有的只是大胆推测。1. Apple will unveil a new Watch and a new iPhone 苹果公司将发布新一代Apple Watch和iPhoneThis is the easiest prediction in the world, which is why we started with it (guaranteeing that at least one of these will be right).这是铁定的事实,也是我们之所以把它放在开头的原因(至少能保这十大预测有一个是真的)。Apple is expected to release Apple Watch 2.0 sometime this spring, we hope with an improved interface and a lot more apps. And next fall will see the release of the iPhone 7, which (if rumors are to be believed) will include a fingerprint sensor on the screen, wireless charging, multiple cameras, and a USB-C port instead of power or headphone jacks.苹果有望在明年春发布Apple Watch 2.0,届时其界面或许能有所改进,应用数量也能有所增加。iPhone 7将在明天秋发布,据传其在屏幕上增加了指纹传感器,还具备无线充电功能,配有多摄像头,并用USB-C接口取代了原有的电源和耳机接口。2. Apple’s dominance of tech culture will decline 苹果的统治力将有所下降Since the Second Coming of Jobs in 1997, interest in all things Apple has been climbing at a steady rate, going into hyperdrive with the release of the iPhone (2007) and then the iPad (2010). Lately, though, the products coming out of Cupertino have been less than magical and life-changing.1997年乔布斯重回苹果公司后,苹果渐渐开始吸引大众的目光,后分别于2007年和2010年推出iPhone和iPad,引起了巨大轰动。而如今虽然苹果产品层出不穷,其创意和影响力却不比当年。And for all of Tim Cook’s many fine qualities, he can’t generate a reality distortion field the way his predecessor could. Until Cook manages to pull another rabbit out of his iHat — an Apple Car? a fully integrated smart home? — the Apple mystique has clearly peaked. Nowhere to go but down.尽管库克也推出了许多优秀产品,但他却不具备前任乔布斯那样的“现实扭曲力场”,除非他也能变戏法般地弄出个Apple Car或是一体化自能家居什么的来。苹果的创意已经达到上限,现在只能走下坡路了。3. Virtual reality will finally be real — and most people will go ‘meh’ 虚拟现实或将成真,而消费者只能望洋兴叹After nearly four years of teasing us, the Oculus Rift VR headset will finally reach consumers this year, probably some time in the early spring. HTC’s Vive and Sony’s Playstation VR (formerly Morpheus) will likely appear a few months after that. And no matter how awesome they are — and odds are they will be pretty awesome — very few people will buy them.放了四年鸽子,Oculus Rift虚拟现实眼镜终于要问世了!发售时间为今年或是明年春初。HTC的Vive和索尼的Playstation VR(原名Morpheus)也将在之后的几个月问世。这都是些使人眼前为之一亮的产品,但不管这些设备多酷多棒,只有很少一部分人会选择购买。Why? They’ll likely be expensive, require vast amounts of computing power, and be limited mostly to games and porn (ewww). The fact is, after four years of hype, VR headsets can’t possibly live up to expectations. And then there’s the whole after-15-minutes-you-feel-like-puking factor (10 minutes if you’re watching porn). VR will find a niche audience, at best, for a long time to come.究其原因,这些设备主要用于游戏和色情音像(呃),拥有强大的计算能力,其价格可能会高得离谱。而另一方面,这些虚拟现实眼镜被热炒了四年,最终可能难以达到大众的期望值。这种眼镜戴上15分钟就让人忍不住想吐(如果看的是色情片只要10分钟),可想而知,在未来的很长一段时间内,这顶多只能是一种小众产品。4. AR will beat up VR and steal its lunch money 增强现实将与虚拟现实争夺市场While the world oohs, ahhs, and hurls over VR (but doesn’t buy it), Augmented Reality (AR) will infiltrate all kinds of industries, from design and engineering to architecture, education, and medicine. Why? Being less immersive — you can actually see the world around you, as well as virtual objects — makes AR much more practical.当世人还在惊叹于虚拟现实产品(但又不买)的时候,增强现实技术已开始渗透到各个领域,从建筑设计、建造,到教育行业,再到医疗行业。这是因为增强现实技术的仿真度要相对低些,人们可以获得真实的感官体验,还包括虚拟物品。这大大增强了技术的实用性。Microsoft just released a new version of its HoloLens and will begin shipping ,000 HoloLens development kits this spring. Google Glass will also emerge from the rock it’s been hiding under since its ill-fated debut, most likely aimed at industrial use.微软刚刚推出一款全新的全息眼镜,并将于明天春推出价值三千美元的开发套件。而谷歌眼镜首次问世反响不佳,在雪藏了一段时间后也将重出江湖,很可能是面向工业用途。5. Comcast will try to acquire Netflix — or possibly vice versa 康卡斯特或将收购网飞公司,亦或是被网飞公司收购Whether or not you’re a cord-cutter, streaming media is the future of entertainment — and nobody streams bigger than Netflix, which accounted for nearly 40 percent of all Internet traffic last year. Since big cable can’t beat the streamers at this game, the only thing left is for it to join them by acquisition; Comcast (2 billion valuation) and Netflix ( billion) are the most logical candidates for an arranged marriage. While it stands to reason that the larger company will swallow the smaller one, it’s not inconceivable that the reverse will happen — not unlike AOL’s acquisition of Time Warner 15 years ago, but perhaps with better results.不管你是否承认,流媒体都将是业的发展趋势。而在这方面没有谁比网飞公司做得更大了。去年网飞公司就占据了网络总流量的百分之四十。强强争斗没有结果,唯有收购这一条出路。现在康卡斯特(价值1920亿美元)和网飞公司(价值420亿美元)最有可能走到一起。虽然一般情况下是大公司吞并小公司,但也不排除相反的情况——15年前美国在线就曾收购时代华纳。但与之相比,康卡斯特和网飞的合并或许会有更好的结果。6. Antidrone technology will rise 反无人机技术将出现The only thing people love more than ing about drones is hating them — witness all the cheering when a Kentucky man blasted one out of the sky with his shotgun last July. (Not to mention all the animals that love to attack drones.) Look for companies to come up with antidrone technology that use nonballistic methods of ridding the flight zones of these pests. Let the games begin, and let the odds be ever in the antidrones’ favor.虽然人们对无人机技术充满兴趣,但却抑制不住对无人机的厌恶之感。今年七月,肯塔基州的一名男子开打下了一架无人机,引起了围观者的欢呼(更别说还有很多动物也喜欢攻击无人机了)。现在有的公司正开发反无人机技术,这种技术不用弹,而是采用了一种挤占无人机飞机空间的方法。好戏就要开始,希望这项技术真能派上用场。7. Facebook will continue to eat the world Facebook将继续主宰世界The Facebook juggernaut will continue, though most of its membership growth will be overseas. However, expect a public backlash as Facebook assumes just a bit too much control over the media it arbitrarily delivers to everyone’s feeds. How many autoplay s of bacon, egg, and cheese bboats can one person watch?随着海外用户的增加,Facebook将继续主宰世界。然而人们现在抗议Facebook管得太宽,人们不得不被迫看一些自己不想看的视频。可以统计一下,现在每个人要在Facebook上看多少次培根、鸡蛋和芝士面包的自动播放的视频?8. Cyberterrorists will attack the Internet 网络恐怖主义来袭We’ve seen targeted hack attacks on a massive scale, and we’ve seen state-sponsored cyberespionage. In 2016 we will see them converge, with a direct attack on the Internet infrastructure motivated by politics, not greed or misplaced juvenile aggression. Time to back up your data, encrypt your hard drives, and stock up on beef jerky and tinfoil.我们目睹过大规模的黑客攻击,也见识过国家持的网络间谍活动。在新的一年里它们将结合起来,在政治目的的驱动下直接对网络基础设施展开攻击,而不再是愤青们的盲目行为。所以,是时候备份数据,加密硬盘,囤积好牛肉干和锡纸了。9. There will be an Uber for friends朋友出租务将上线Need a date for a party or someone to hang with at a ballgame? Just share someone else’s. Frog Design predicts the rise of “friendship as a service” in 2016. We liked that prediction so much we decided to borrow it. Isn’t that what the sharing economy is all about?想参加聚会、想打球但却苦于找不到伴吗?完全可以从别人那租一个来!据青蛙设计公司(Frog Design)预测,“朋友出租务”将于2016年上线。有需求就可以租,这和“分享型经济”不是同一个道理吗?10. Your next boss may be an algorithm老板也许会是机器人Artificial intelligence will continue to be baked into an increasing number of devices and services. More than that, though, entire companies may be built around self-running programs, with business decisions made without any human intervention. Think we’re joking? The first decentralized organizations are aly being developed for the Ethereum Frontier network. We have met our robotic overlords, and we’d like a 10 percent raise and more flex time, please.人工智能技术将运用到更多的产品和务中去。甚至整个公司都有可能实现自动运作。通过编排程序,商业决策或许不需要人的参与。这可不是开玩笑,以太坊(Ethereum)的Frontier平台就在实行分散性运作。这么说我们的老板也许会是机器人。那么请给我加薪百分之十再给我更多的弹性时间吧,老板! /201601/420999

Moveable Type Printig活字印刷The block printing technology in our country was probably invented in the seventh century, and reached its climax in the tenth century in the Song Dynasty. With the block printing technology, such procedures as writing samples,carving blocks, spraying the ink and printing were involved in the process of publishing a book, and it was always time-consuming and costly in the use of the material resources and manpower to print a work of great length. The procedures would have to be repeated if other books were to be published; hence our ancestors conducted active explorations and strived for improvements, which led to the eventual invention of the moveable clay-type printing technology by an ordinary man called Bi Sheng during the period of Qingli of the Northern Song Dynasty, as can be proved by the account of the book Dream Pool Essays by Bi Sheng#39;s contemporary,Shen Kuo. From then on, the moveable type printing technology was applied, and it was 400 years earlier than that used in Europe when the German Gutenburg, for the first time, printed the Holy Bible with this very technology.During the period of Dade of the Yuan Dynasty, Wang Zhen learned to use the moveable wood types to print books, of which none has come down to the present day. The oldest moveable-type printed book in existence in China is Yushice in the Yuan Dynasty, which is now collected in the National Library of China. There are, because of the differences of the times and materials, different names for the moveable type printing,such as the moveable clay-type printing, magnetic printing, moveable wood-type plate, moveable copper-type printing, moveable lead-type printing and moveable zinc-type printing. In the years of Hongzhi of the Ming Dynasty, the moveable cop-per-type printing became prevalent in Wuxi, Suzhou, Changshu and Nanjing, Jian-gsu Province, but in the years between Tianqi and Congzhen of the Ming Dynasty when a social and economic decline was pervasive, lapsed into a low ebb due to its great economic cost, the corollary of which was that there were few moveable copper-type printed books handed down to the present day. There are over 100 kinds of books in existence which were printed with the cheap moveable wood types in the Ming Dynasty. In the late Ming Dynasty, the moveable wood-type printing gradually replaced the copper-type printing for the printing of the books.People at the time also learned to use the moveable zinc types to print books; un-fortunately, there was not any book of this kind left to the present day. The moveable wood-type printing was the mainstream in the Qing Dynasty, and a great number of books of this kind have been properly preserved. After the Opium War, the moveable zinc-type printing technology originating in the west was introduced into China. The new printing technology, given its great advantages over the traditional block printing and moveable type printing, replaced them gradually as the major type of printing books, and has been used to the modern times. 我国雕版印刷技术大约发明于公元7世纪,到了10世纪的宋代达到鼎盛。使用这种技术出版一套书籍须经过写样刻版、涂墨印刷等多道工序,如果是要印一部大著作,往往要花费大量的物力、人力和时间。假如要再出版其他书籍,这些工序又得重新来过,因此我们的祖先积极探索,力求改进,终于在北宋庆历年间,平民毕异发明了用胶泥活字印刷技术。此事记载于与毕异同时期的沈括的《梦溪笔谈》一书中,从此活字印刷术开始使用了。它比欧洲最先用活字印《圣经》的德国谷腾堡要早400年。到了元代大德年间,王桢发明了用木活字印书,可惜这些都没有传本,国内现存最早的活字印刷实物是国家图书馆藏元朝的《御试策》。活字版因时代、材料不同而有不同的名称,有“泥活字版”、“磁板”、“木活字版”、“铜活字版”、“铅活字版”、“锡活字版”等等。明代弘治年间,在江苏的无锡、苏州、常熟、南京一带,铜活字印刷开始流行起来。到了天启、崇祯时期,由于社会经济的衰落,铜活字印刷因经济成本太大进入低潮,很少有传本面世了。明代用木活字这种成本价廉的印刷方式印制的书籍现存有100多种,到了明代晚期,木活字逐步取代了铜活字印书。同时在明代还发明了用锡活字印书,可惜无实物传世。木活字是清代活字印刷的主流,且有大量的木活字书籍保存下来。鸦片战争以后,西方的铅活字印刷术传人我国,这种新型的印刷术比传统的雕版印刷和活字印刷有着较大的优势,逐步取代了雕版印刷和活字印刷的地位,成为印刷书籍的最主要的方式,并一直沿用到现代。 /201601/419343


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