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Politics this week本周政治要闻The shooting down of a Malaysia Airlines jet, apparently by pro-Russian rebels fighting Ukrainian troops in eastern Ukraine, changed the parameters of the five-month conflict. The airliner was en route fromAmsterdam toKuala Lumpur; 298 people died when it crashed on July 17th. Most of the bodies were eventually put onto a refrigerated train and transported to the government-controlled city ofKharkiv, where a multinational forensics team examined them before being flown back to theNetherlands.马航飞机被击落显然是由驻扎在乌克兰东部的乌克兰亲俄叛军造成的,该事件的发生改变了这起为期五个月的冲突双方局势。该航班由阿姆斯特丹飞至吉隆坡, 于6月17日坠毁,造成298人死亡。大部分遗体将由装有冷冻箱的火车运至有政府控制的哈尔科夫,并在跨国法医检验小组检验后运回荷兰。Most of the anger over the incident was vented at Russia, suspected of providing the missile that shot down the aircraft. The European Unions efforts to impose tougher sanctions were hampered byFrance insisting that its delivery of a French-made warship toRussia would go ahead in spite of British and American calls to stop it.射击该航班的导弹疑是由俄罗斯提供,因此俄罗斯承受了此事件的大多数怒火。欧盟对俄罗斯实施更为严厉制裁的努力受到法国的阻挠,因法国不顾英国和美国的劝阻执意向俄罗斯运送法国生产的军舰。More than 60 high-ranking police officers were arrested in Turkey in connection with corruption investigations against the government. They stand accused of espionage and illegal phone-tapping.土耳其60多名高级警官反对政府的腐败调查而被捕。他们被指控犯有间谍和非法窃听电话罪。Silvio Berlusconis conviction for paying for sex with a 17-year-old girl was overturned by an appeals court inMilan. His lifetime ban from holding public office was also revoked. The former Italian prime minister wasnt in court to hear the judgment. He was working at a care home as part of the community-service sentence given to him in a separate conviction for tax fraud.西尔维奥·贝卢斯科尼关于对17岁女孩的嫖娼罪的指控被米兰的一家上诉法院翻案。对他终生禁止从事公职的处罚也已取消。这位前意大利总理并未列席听取判决,而是因其另一项税务欺诈的罪名而不得不在一家老人院进行社区务。A committee in the British Parliament issued a report into the plan by Scotlands Nationalists to share the pound if Scots vote for independence in September, and concluded that this was a “dead parrot”. The three main political parties have rejected the idea of a currency union withScotland, which the report stressed should not be seen as a bluff.英国议会委员会发布了由苏格兰民族主义者制定的若苏格兰在9月份的投票独立中胜出,将共享英镑使用权的计划报告,并称这是“垂死的挣扎”。三大主要政党已明确驳回了苏格兰成立货币联盟的想法,而报告中强调这一提案是不可缺少的。Squeezing blood from a stone铁公鸡身上拔毛A judge in New Yorkrejected a request by Argentina for a stay on a decision requiring the country to pay a small group of creditors who have been chasing it following its 2001 debt default. If the country does not reach a deal with the creditors, it will be pushed into default again, for the eighth time in its history.纽约法官驳回了阿根廷的上诉请求维持原判:要求阿根廷偿付小部分债权人追索的2001年拖欠的债务。若阿根廷未向债权人还款,美国将于史上第八次强制其进行还款。The trial of Leopoldo Lopez, a Venezuelan opposition leader, began inCaracas behind closed doors. Mr Lopez, who is accused of inciting violence during protests that began earlier this year but have since sputtered, has been in custody since February.委内瑞拉在野党领导人莱奥波尔多·洛佩兹在加拉加斯进行非公开审判。他被指控煽动今年年初抗议活动中的暴力袭击,并于今年2月份被拘留。Mexicos groundbreaking energy reform came closer to the finishing-line. The Senate approved bills to, among other things, open the hydrocarbons industry to foreign investment. The lower house is expected to add its approval shortly.墨西哥创造性的能源改革接近完工。另外,参议院还通过了法案允许外国投资碳氢化合物产业。下议院也将即刻增加该法案。Depressingly familiar郁闷的熟悉感The Israeli campaign in Gaza to clobber the Palestinians Islamist movement, Hamas, which began with attacks from the air and by artillery on July 8th, intensified on July 17th when Israeli troops entered by land. By July 24th the death toll of Palestinians, most of them civilians, had exceeded 700; 35 Israelis had died. A rocket fired by Palestinians in Gaza landed a kilometre from Israels main airport, on the edge of Tel Aviv, prompting many airlines temporarily to suspend their flights toIsrael. The American secretary of state, John Kerry, shuttled around the region, trying to arrange a ceasefire.以色列于加沙地区打击巴勒斯坦回教教徒的哈马斯运动在7月8日的空中炮击中拉开帷幕,并在以色列军队7月17日登陆巴勒斯坦后进一步加剧。截至7月24日,巴勒斯坦超过700人死亡,其中大部分为巴勒斯坦平民;以色列35人死亡。巴勒斯坦在加沙向以色列发射火箭,降落于距以色列主要机场一公里以外特拉维夫市边缘,并造成许多航班被迫暂停于以色列。美国国家秘书长约翰·克里飞往该地以期达成停战协议。The jihadist group that spearheaded last months conquest of Iraqs second city, Mosul, expelled all Christians who refused to convert to Islam. Most of them fled to neighbouring Iraqi Kurdistan. A decade ago there were reckoned to be around 60,000 Christians in the city.上月,伊斯兰圣战主义组织带头攻占了伊拉克第二大城市苏尔,他们驱逐了不愿皈依伊斯兰教的基督徒。大多数基督徒逃到了临城伊拉克的库尔德斯坦。10年前,据说苏尔大约有6万基督徒。Legal-limbo land地狱?天堂?Obamacare was thrown into confusion when two federal appeals courts issued contradictory rulings about whether people who signed up for health insurance through the federal exchange can claim subsidies. The government created the federal exchange, where most people have bought their Obamacare insurance, after dozens of states refused to set up their own.由于两个联邦上诉法院对通过联邦保险办事处参与奥巴马医保的人能否要求补助的判决截然不同,奥巴马医保陷入困境。在很多州拒绝设立自己的保险办事处后,政府设立了联邦保险办事处,大多数人都是在这里参保。The Republican Senate primary in Georgia was won by David Perdue, a businessman, who beat Jack Kingston, a congressman. Mr Perdue will face Michelle Nunn, the daughter of a former Democratic senator, in November in what promises to be a closely contested seat.商人大卫·柏杜打败了杰克·金士顿议员成功当选佐治亚州共和党参议员候选人。11月,预计柏杜将面对上届民主党参议员女儿米歇尔·娜恩卫校争夺竞争激烈的参议员席位。A majority of Detroits retired public-sector workers voted to accept a package of reduced pension benefits, a crucial part of the bankrupt citys plan to restructure its finances. Obstacles still remain. A judge will begin a hearing next month into whether the plan is fair to creditors.大部分底特律退休的国企工人投票接受微薄的补贴。这是重建破产城市金融体系计划的重要部分。然而困难依然存在。下月裁判员会对这项措施是否对债权人公平进行听。More concerns were raised about the process of executing murderers in Americaafter another man took a long time to die. Joseph Wood was put to death in Arizona. A few days earlier a court had ruled that he had a right to know the source of the drugs that were to be used to kill him, reflecting concerns about a botched execution in Oklahoma, but the federal Supreme Court overturned the delay. In California a judge struck down the capital sentences of 748 prisoners because of the long delay taken between conviction and execution.美国又一名谋杀犯男子处死过程过长引发了更多关注。约瑟夫·伍德在亚利桑那州被处死。之前法院判决其有权知道处死所用药物的来源,反映出人们担忧俄克拉荷马州搞砸了处决。但是联邦最高法院推翻了延期处决。在加利福尼亚州,一名法官因为长时间的行刑拖延推翻了748名罪犯的死刑判决。Disputed tally具有争议性的投票结果Joko Widodo, the governor of Jakarta, was declared the winner of Indonesias presidential election, with 53% of the vote. The losing candidate, Prabowo Subianto, a former general, alleged massive fraud, though he produced no evidence, and said he would challenge the result in court.印度尼西亚总统选举宣布雅加达省长佐科·维多多以53%持率获胜。失势方为上届司令普拉沃,他控诉选举有大规模欺诈行为。虽然没有给出据,他说他会在法庭上质疑这一结果。The authorities in China detained five people as part of an investigation into a company that allegedly supplied out-of-date meat to fast-food chains. Regulators suspended operations at Shanghai Husi Food following media reports that it reprocessed expired meat and sold it to companies that included McDonalds and KFC.据说某公司向快餐连锁店供应过期肉制品,中国政府进行调查时拘留了5人。随着媒体曝光了过期肉品的再加工并把其销售到麦当劳和KFC等企业的过程,监管者责令上海福喜食品公司停业。Police in South Korea confirmed that the body of a man found last month is that of Yoo Byung-eun, a tycoon who was wanted in connection with the sinking of a ferry in April that killed 300 people. Mr Yoos family owned the ferrys operating company.韩国警方确定上月找到尸体是俞炳彦。俞炳彦是个富商,因为与4月份导致300人丧生的沉船事件关联受到了通缉。俞先生的家人现在拥有着船运公司。Amnesty said that Alexander Sodiqov, a Canadian-based research student, had been released on bail in Tajikistan. He had been detained last month by the secret police for interviewing an opposition leader, a “treasonous” offence in the paranoid regime of Emomali Rakhmon.大赦国际说加拿大就读做研究的亚历山大·苏堤科维奇已经在塔吉克斯坦被保释。上月,他因采访具有叛国行为反对者领导人被秘密警察拘留。该反对者反对埃莫马利·拉赫蒙的偏执统治。 201408/319095Science and technology科学技术The joys of parenthood身为人父的喜悦Fathers day父亲节Having children really does make a man more content with life有了自己的孩子的确会让男人更热爱自己的生活WILL fatherhood make me happy?当爸爸会让我开心么?That is a question many men have found themselves asking, and the scientific evidence is equivocal.这是一个许多男人都会问自己的问题,然而科学家们对此的措辞却含糊不清。A lot of studies have linked parenthood—particularly fatherhood.许多研究项目将双亲的身份—尤其是父亲,with lower levels of marital satisfaction and higher rates of depression than are found among non-parents.和低满足感与高压抑感联系起来,而且认为那些没有为人父母的人们则要逍遥许多。Biologically speaking, that looks odd.从生物学的角度来说,以上的观点其实很滑稽。Natural selection might be expected to favour the progeny of men who enjoy bringing them up.因为从自然选择的角度来说,大自然会更加青睐那些由开心的父亲抚养大的孩子。On the other hand, the countervailing pressure to have other children, by other women, may leave the man who is aly encumbered by a set of offspring dissatisfied.从另一个角度来看,男人天性受到一种相反的压力,希望和其他女性生育更多的孩子,这种压力可能会让受到现有子女负累的父亲感到不满。To investigate the matter further Sonja Lyubomirsky, a psychologist at the University of California, Riverside, decided both to study the existing literature, and to conduct some experiments of her own.一位来自加州大学的心理学家,索尼娅·柳米尔斯基,为了弄清这件事情,决定在研究现存文献的同时,也亲自组织一些实验。The results, just published in Psychological Science, suggest parenthood in general, and fatherhood in particular, really are blessings, even though the parent in question might sometimes feel they are in disguise.她研究的结果,《心理科学》上刚发表了不久。研究结果显示,总体上来说,为人父母,的确是会受到祝福的,即便那些受访的父母很多时候觉得可能自己在接受调查时伪装了些东西。Dr Lyubomirskys first port of call was the World Values Survey.首先,柳米尔斯基士从世界价值观大调查开始着手。This is a project which gathers huge amounts of data about the lives of people all around the planet.这是个浩大的工程,用来收集海量的居住在这个星球各个角落里的人的数据。For the purposes of her research, Dr Lyubomirsky looked at the answers 6,906 Americans had given, in four different years, to four particular questions.柳米尔斯基士从这些数据中调出了6,906份来自美国的数据,用以进行她的研究。这些数据从四个不同的年份里收集获得,涉及了四个方面不同的问题。These were: how many children the responder had;这四个方面是:受访者有多少子女;how satisfied he was with life;他对自己的生活有多大程度的满足感;how happy he was;他的快乐感多大;and how often he thought about the meaning and purpose of life.以及他多少次思考过生活的意义和目标。She found that, regardless of the year the survey was conducted, parents had higher happiness, satisfaction and meaning-of-life scores than non-parents.结果她发现,剔除调查的年份因素之后,为人父母的人群比非父母人群具有更高的快乐感和满足感,生活意义项的得分值也更高。The differences were not huge,这些数据的差别其实并不明显,but they were statistically significant.但是从统计学的角度来看,其意义却非常重大。Moreover, a closer look showed that the differences in happiness and satisfaction were the result of mens scores alone going up with parenthood.另外,仔细查看这些数据会发现,男子在当了父亲后,快乐感和满足感会出现细小的差别,分数会越来越高。Those of women did not change.但是女性则没有变化。Armed with this result, Dr Lyubomirsky conducted her own experiment.有了这个结果做撑,柳米尔斯基士开始着手弄自己的实验了。The problem with projects like the World Values Survey is that, 不过诸如世界价值观大调查此类的大工程的问题是,because participants are asked to recall their feelings rather than stating what they are experiencing in the here and now, this might lead them into thinking more fondly in hindsight about their parenting duties than they actually felt at the time.它在收集数据时,要求参与者是回忆自己的感受,而不是叙述他们当下的经历,所以这就容易导致他们去深情地,美化地思考他们为人父母的责任,而不是他们当时真实的感受。Dr Lyubomirsky therefore gave pagers to 329 North American volunteers aged between 18 and 94, having first recorded, among other things, their sex, age, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, marital status and number of children.为此,柳米尔斯基士给329名来自北美地区的志愿者发了调查问卷。这些志愿者从18岁到94岁不等。她第一手记录下他们的性别,年龄,种族,社会经济地位,婚姻状态以及子女的数量。She told them they would be paged at random, five times a day.她告诉他们受访者将会被随机排列,一天五次受访。When they were so paged, they were asked to complete a brief response sheet about how they felt, then and there.当受访者被随机排列好后,将会被要求完成一份简明的答卷,用来调查关于其当时的感受。She did not, however, tell them why she was asking these questions.当然,柳米尔斯基士并没有告诉受访者她为何问他们这些问题。The upshot was the same as her findings from the World Values Survey.结果,这次的结局和她在世界价值观大调查项目里得出的结论是一致的。Parents claimed more positive emotions and more meaning in their lives than non-parents, and a closer look revealed that it was fathers who most enjoyed these benefits.相比那些还没做父母的人,为人父母者在他们的人生中显示出了更加积极的情感和更多对他们人生意义的积极思考。Moreover, further analysis revealed that this enhanced enjoyment came from activities which involved children rather than those that did not.同时,通过更加仔细的观察,显示出父亲在上述方面更加典型。另外,更进一步的分析表明了上述的那种积极和欢乐来自于有关孩子的活动。生活中不涉及孩子的日常活动则没有这种效果。It looks, then, as if evolution has bolted into men a psychological mechanism to keep them in the family.所以说,由此可见,似乎自然进化让男人们产生了一种心理学机制,把他们闩在了家庭里。At first sight, it is strange that women do not share this mechanism, but perhaps they do not need to.乍一看,似乎女性没有这种机制很奇怪,但是仔细想想,她们也许根本就不需要这种机制。They know, after all, that the children are theirs, whereas the best a man can do is hope that is true.她们至少知道,自己的孩子一定是自己生的。That, and a mans potential to father an indefinite number of offspring if he can find willing volunteers, might encourage him to stray from the bosom of his family.但是孩子是不是男人自己的血脉,他们只能祈求上天了。所以说,一个男人想做一大堆子子孙孙的父亲的潜在本能,会激励他挣扎着走出家庭的怀抱。Enjoying fatherhood, by contrast, will help keep him in the porch.但是,相反的,身为人父的喜悦,则会让他们在家里的门廊前停住脚步。 /201307/247868Driverless cars无人驾驶汽车In the self-driving seat坐在无人驾驶汽车的座位上Google is miles ahead of its rivals in the race for autonomous motoring谷歌在无人驾驶领域研发的竞争中已甩开对手几条街Not quite as glamorous as “Knight Rider”不如“霹雳游侠”有魅力TO GOOGLE is now in broad usage as a verb for retrieving information from the internet. If the tech giant has its way, “I Googled” will become a standard reply to the question, “How did you get here?” On May 28th Google said it would build 100 prototype driverless cars devoid of pedals, steering wheel or controls save an on/off switch. It is the next stage in its apparent quest to be as ubiquitous on the road as on computer screens.如今,“谷歌”常被广泛用于互联网信息检索,因而“谷歌”常被用作动词。如果这一科技巨头独行其道,对于“你是怎么过来的?”这种问题,它的标准将会是“我谷歌来的”。5月28日,谷歌表示,其将制造100辆无人驾驶原型车,它们没有踏板,没有方向盘,也没有其他各类控制表盘,只留下一个开关键。谷歌希望在无人车的市场能够做到与搜索市场一样,给人们提供生活中必不可少的务,这显然是下一阶段追求。People have dreamed about driverless motoring since at least the 1930s, but only in recent years have carmakers such as Mercedes-Benz and Volvo given the matter more thought, kitting out test cars with the sensors and sophisticated software required to negotiate busy roads. Google has roared ahead by designing a driverless car from the ground up.至少从19世纪30年代起,人们就已经开始设想无人驾驶汽车,但只有一些汽车制造商,如奔驰、沃尔沃,在近些年尝试把这一想法付诸实践。一辆装备着传感器和复杂软件的测试车需要在繁忙的道路上权衡最佳行车方案。谷歌公司从零起步,设计无人驾驶汽车,已经鹤立鸡群。But bringing autonomous motoring to the world is proving harder than Google had envisaged. It once promised it by 2017. Now it does not see production models coming out before 2020. The technology is far advanced, but needs shrinking in size and cost—Googles current test cars, retrofittedToyotaand Lexus models, are said to be packed with ,000-worth of equipment.但是现实明,无人驾驶汽车的面世比谷歌预想的要难。它曾承诺到2017年就能面世。而今预计产品模型不会在2020年前被制造出来。这项技术十分超前,但需要缩减产品尺寸及成本,谷歌现阶段的测试车改装自丰田和雷克萨斯的车型,据说测试车里塞满了价值8万美元的设备。Googles latest efforts may have as much to do with convincing the public and lawmakers as refining the technology. The firm stresses the safety advantages of computers being more likely than humans to avoid accidents. The cars will have a top speed of just 25mph and a front end made of soft foam to cushion unwary pedestrians. The benefits could indeed be huge. Driving time could be given over to working, snoozing or browsing the web. Rather than suffer all the costs of owning a car, some people may prefer to summon a rented one on their smartphones whenever they need it. However, the issue of liability in the event of a driverless car crashing has yet to be resolved.谷歌最近不仅要努力的完善这项技术,还要同样努力的说公众及立法者。谷歌强调此产品的优势是安全性,在避免车祸方面,电脑比人类表现更佳。无人驾驶汽车最高车速仅为25英里每小时,其前端由软泡沫材料制造而成,可缓冲粗心的行人。这样确有很大好处。开车的时间可以用于工作,打盹或上网冲浪。比起自己承担拥有一辆车的开销,一些人可能更喜欢在需要车的时候,用他们的智能手机叫辆出租车。然而,无人驾驶汽车发生车祸时的责任认定问题还有待解决。Turning cars into commodities may not be good news for traditional carmakers. But reinventing motoring as a service fits neatly with Googles plans to become as big in hardware as in software. And unlike car firms, which talk vaguely of becoming “mobility providers”, Google has pots of cash to make that a reality and no worries about disrupting its current business. Google admits it still has “lots of work to do”. But one day Googling to the shops may be a common activity.对传统汽车制造商来说,把无人驾驶汽车转化成为商品,也许不是什么好消息。但是把汽车彻底转变成一种务,正好契合了谷歌想在硬件领域发展的和在软件领域一样强大的计划。普通汽车公司模糊的表达着成为“移动供应商”的想法,和这些汽车公司不同,谷歌拥有大量资金来实现无人驾驶的设想,并不担心这一项目会扰乱目前公司业务。谷歌承认这一项目还有很多工作要做。但是,有一天,乘坐谷歌无人驾驶汽车去商店购物,也许会变成寻常事。 /201406/305581Smart motorways智能高速Tailblazers道路开拓者How to make life easier for motorists without building new roads无需费力新路造,司机生活更美好IDLING on a motorway for an hour or two has long been a part of any British summer holiday. But this year fractious drivers on the southern strip of the M25, an orbital road around London, may have some respite. In April part of the road, between junctions five and seven, opened as a “smart motorway”. It is one of around a dozen projects currently being undertaken by the Highways Agency, the body which manages Britains motorways and trunk roads. The scheme is an innovative way to reduce congestion cheaply. But it is also a striking example of how the government is quietly making life easier for motorists.堵在高速上一到两个小时一直是英国人暑假生活的一部分。但是今年对于环伦敦城的M25公路南部地带的司机来说,这一问题或能得到缓解。4月份该公路的部分路段被打造成“智能高速公路”。这是目前由管理英国所有高速及主干道路的高速公路负责实施的系列工程之一,该计划主要是以创新的方式以及低廉的价格解决交通拥堵问题。但这同样也是一个令人震惊的案例,因为政府就这样默默为司机减轻了生活负担。Britains roads have been creaking for years. According to the World Economic Forum, its lanes are worse than the underfunded stretches of tarmac in America. Spain and Portugal—two countries which suffered far more during the financial crisis—score higher. Funding is part of the problem: cash for maintaining major roads has halved since 2010. But motorways in Britain are particularly jammed. Although the number of people driving in cosmopolitan areas such as London is shrinking, the rise of online shopping and a growing population are pushing more delivery vans and cars on to busy roads.英国的公路问题已有多年。根据世界经济论坛数据,英国车道的状况甚至比美国因资金不足而满是碎石的停机坪还要差。连西班牙和葡萄牙这两个受金融危机影响更为严重的国家,道路评分都高于英国。资金问题只是其中一方面,自2010年以来,主干道路的维护费用便减少了一半。但是英国的高速公路实在是太挤了。尽管在诸如伦敦这样的国际大都市内驾驶的人数正在缩水,但是由于网络购物的增长以及人口的增加,仍然有更多的送货车以及汽车加入到拥挤的车流当中。Rather than spend lots of cash laying more tarmac, however, the Highways Agency has sought to invest in other ways to reduce congestion. In 2006 the Labour government ran a pilot programme, known as an “active traffic management” system, on part of the M42 in Birmingham. The scheme placed gantries with electronic signs every 500 metres along the motorway, installed CCTV cameras and allowed the hard shoulder to be used as an extra lane at busy times, boosting capacity by around a third. A variable speed limit was introduced, determined by sensors. Making cars travel at a slower, more uniform speed means more can be squeezed on the roads.尽管如此,高速公路仍选择寻求其他办法以解决交通拥堵,而不是花费大量资金扩宽车道。2006年,工党政府在伯明翰M42公路推出一项试点计划,即“主动交通管理”系统。该计划沿公路每隔500米设置电子信号架、安装闭路摄像头并允许交通繁忙时将路肩带用作额外车道,将道路容量提升了约三分之一。议员们通过了可变限速的议案,即在车辆低速、匀速行驶下亦可增大道路容量。Since then the project, now known as “smart motorways”, has become more ambitious. On certain roads the hard shoulder can be used as a fourth lane at all times. Rather than plaster a motorway with words in flashing lights, more effective signs with pictures are now in use, says Graham Dalton, the chief executive of the Highways Agency. This means that non-English speaking truck drivers are more likely to take note, he adds. Future schemes may also have fewer emergency lay-bys, after it was found that many Britons used them to fiddle with their phones or for a toilet break.自该项目以后,现在被称为“智能高速”的这一项目变得更加雄心勃勃。在一些路段,坚硬的路肩可以被用作第四车道。高速公路首席执行官格雷厄姆·道尔顿称,公路上张贴的闪光字将会被更有效的图片标志所取代,他补充说道,这意味着这些标志将更可能被不使用英语的卡车司机留意到。未来预计将减少应急车道,因为调查显示很多英国人占用应急车道只是为了玩玩手机或者去趟厕所。Elements of smart motorways have long existed elsewhere. But Britain has taken the idea further, says Mr Dalton. In the Netherlands and Germany an extra lane can be used at peak times, while a few flashing signs may also manage traffic. But Britons appear to need a shove, not just a nudge.道尔顿说,智能高速的想法由来已久,但英国采取了进一步的举措。在荷兰和德国,交通高峰期可以使用附加车道,并由闪光标志指挥交通。但一点小小的改变对英国人来说似乎是不够的,他们需要的是大变动。Motorists should expect more of this: politicians like the scheme, which is far cheaper than traditional road-widening programmes. The M25 programme cost 129m. By contrast, adding more lanes between four junctions on that motorway cost 361m. And the government is adopting a friendlier stance towards motoring groups. The budget for the Highways Agency is projected to double under the next government. Flush with cash, the smart motorways scheme may move into second gear.由于这项计划成本远低于传统的扩路项目,因此备受政客们的青睐,司机们也可以期待更多的进展。M25公路项目将花费1.29亿英镑,相比之下,在四个路口间增加车道将耗资3.61亿英镑。政府也以更友好的姿态对待公路项目,预计下届政府期间高速公路的预算将翻上一番。若资金充裕,智能高速计划或将进入高速时期。 /201408/323312

Lexington莱克星顿Dreamy footsoldiers of the Left左派步兵,如痴如梦Some Democrats havent noticed that the next election is this year, not 2016一些民主党忽视下一场选举近在今年,而不是2016ELECTION fever grips the American Left. A mood of scrappy, let-us-at-em impatience unites such gatherings as Netroots Nation, an annual shindig which this year drew thousands of activists, organisers, bloggers and candidates to Detroit from July 17th-19th. Unfortunately for the broader Democratic Party, the election that inspires the grassroots is the 2016 presidential race. The mid-term congressional elections, which will happen much sooner (in November this year), provoke a more muted response, even though there is a good chance that Republicans will seize the Senate and cripple the rest of Barack Obamas presidency.选举的风潮波及美国左派。但像网根国民大会这样的组织已经躁动不安,火急火燎,它每年纵情狂欢,今年7月17日到19日更是吸引了成百上千的激进分子,组织者,部落格和竞选者至底特律,然而对于包揽更广的民主党来说,真正让草根阶层精神抖擞的却是2016年的总统选举,即使11月的国会中期选举在即,共和党很有可能纵览大局,其余民主党席位也岌岌可危,他们却是缄默不语。The kind of people who attend Netroots Nation are passionately and uncompromisingly left wing. Their champion is Senator Elizabeth Warren of Massachusetts, a former professor who crusades against “big banks”, “powerful corporations” and their enablers on the Right. “The game is rigged,” thundered Ms Warren, whose demands include more generous Social Security benefits (pensions) for the old (paid for with steep tax hikes), cheaper student loans, a higher minimum wage and other forms of redistribution. Not for her the business-friendly centrism of the Clinton clan. Hillary Clinton did not attend Netroots Nation, instead giving a TV interview in which she suggested that a bit of economic growth might make it easier to curb inequality.网根国民议会的参与者热情高涨,是不进油盐的左翼人士,他们拥护马塞诸塞州议员伊丽莎白沃伦,她是前任教授,反对大,有权势的的企业以及他们右派的柱,她怒喝道:”这种竞争无异于徇私舞弊。她要求给予老年人更优厚的社会保险(给老年人的养老补贴通过赋税急剧增长来买单),更便宜的学生贷款,更高的最低工资标准和其他形式的重新分配,对克林顿集团亲商界的温和主义路线嗤之以鼻,希拉里克林顿并未加入网根国民议会,她在电视访谈中说,经济一点点的增长,会使得缓解社会不公的工作更易进行Sweet dreams are made of this美梦何所在Ms Warrens warm-up act was Gary Peters, a local congressman who, unlike Ms Warren, is running for election this year. Mr Peters, a moderate ex-banker, is trying to win a Senate seat that Democrats desperately need to win but might not. He could use some grassroots support, but the crowd barely noticed him. They were too happy chanting “Run Liz, Run!” or waving “Elizabeth Warren for President” boater-style hats (“theyre fun, theyre old-timey,” said a hipster handing them out). Ms Warren says she is not running for the White House. No matter. Some 100 days from an election that could condemn Mr Obama to near-impotence, some progressives prefer to daydream about President Warren, “who wont stand for all the Wall Street bullshit”, to e a new (endearingly terrible) folk song by her supporters.沃伦小试牛刀的对手是加里比德斯,与沃伦不同,这位地区议员今年参加选举,他是一位温和的前家,尝试赢得一个民主党亟需的席位但可能不会成功,他能依赖一些草根阶层的持,但基本为大众所忽视,他们乐意高呼:冲吧,利兹,向前冲!或者挥舞着硬草帽,上面标着“伊丽莎白沃伦竞选总统”的字样,(一个赶时髦的人说“这种复古的帽子十分有趣”)沃伦说她不打算竞争入驻白宫,这并无大碍,距离100天的中期选举,足以将奥巴马贬到一文不值,一些进步人士梦想着总统沃伦,她的持者在新的民谣中唱道“她不会持华尔街的所有扯谈。”The Democrats footsoldiers can ill afford to daydream in 2014. Even as digital technology transforms elections, recent research shows that flesh-and-blood volunteers tend to trump paid advertising. Candidates need supporters to sway their friends and neighbours. This “ground war” is most crucial, for both sides, in the half-dozen swing states where Senate races could go either way. The trouble is, these states are quite conservative. So the Democrats running for office there often have views on guns, coal or fracking that appal progressives, who are therefore reluctant to knock on doors for them.民主党派没有在2014年做白日梦的资本,最近调查显示,即使在电子科技引领大选变革的今天,这些有血有肉的志愿者仍出资在广告上浓墨重,竞选者需要持者说他们的邻居朋友,这场“地面战”对于双方尤其重要,因为6个摇摆州的竞选走势难以预测,问题是,这些州趋于保守,而民主党人通常在,煤,水力压裂法等进步问题上持有一家之言,很难打开这些州选民的心扉。Like the Republicans with their Tea Party zealots, the Left must choose between purity and pragmatism. MoveOn, a lefty campaign behemoth which claims 8m members, has endorsed only nine Senate candidates so far in this election cycle, conspicuously excluding centrists in tight races in Georgia, Kentucky and Louisiana. The group will “sit out” some races; its members have drawn a “bright line” against endorsing senators who voted against increased background checks for gun-owners, for instance. In 2014 that rules out Mark Begich in Alaska and Mark Pryor in Arkansas.正如共和党与茶党狂热者意气相投,左派也必须在纯洁和实用主义之间作出选择,左派竞选巨头MoveOn声称说8m成员在竞选中只认可了9名议员竞选者,很明显让乔治利亚,肯塔基和路易斯安娜州激烈竞选中的温和派吃了闭门羹,这一组织在部分竞争中坐看好戏,例如与那些拒绝增加背景调查的议员划清界限,2014年,阿拉斯加的马克贝吉奇和阿肯色的马克普瑞被列入这一黑名单内。Another group, the Progressive Change Campaign Committee (PCCC), whose members raised over .7m for 2012 candidates, calls itself “the Elizabeth Warren wing of the Democratic Party”. Its leaders can sound Tea Party-ish, declaring that “ideology” matters as much as finding candidates who can win. The PCCC has invested in such hopeless causes as the Senate race in South Dakota to demonstrate the power of “anti-corporate” messages delivered by the Democratic candidate there. Several leftish groups think the mid-terms are a chance to show that economic populism is the best way to woo unhappy voters, nationwide.另一组织名叫渐进式改变运动委员会,该组织成员在2012年为竞选者募集了超过270万美元,自称是“民主党伊丽莎白沃伦之翼”,其领导者论调听起来有些茶党化,声称意识形态和找到必胜的候选人一样重要,这一组织也曾做了些无用功,如通过投资南达科他州的议员选举,以彰显该地民主党候选者抵制大企业声音高亢,一些左派组织认为中期选举是展示经济民粹主义在取悦全国选民方面,不失为最佳方式。Yet Tea Party parallels are imperfect. Flinty conservatives often scoff that moderate Republicans are no better than Democrats. Progressives are different: many think that Republicans are wicked. That pushes their leaders, at least, towards pragmatism. “We may have to compromise on some things [to beat the Republicans],” says a boss at Democracy For America (DFA), a group founded by Howard Dean, a former Vermont governor and presidential hopeful who claimed to represent “the Democratic wing of the Democratic Party”. Take Alaskas embattled senator. To DFA, Mr Begich has been “terrible” on oil and gas and “not good” on guns. But he is “fantastic” on inequality. In Louisiana local DFA members are holding their noses and helping a pro-oil Democrat, Senator Mary Landrieu. Ultimately, DFA vows to be “all over” any race that might decide the fate of the Senate. Should Democrats lose in 2014, blame candidates “who didnt run on expanding Social Security or [raising] the minimum wage,” insists Charles Chamberlain, DFAs executive director.但茶党也不尽完美,强硬的保守党人常责备温和的共和党人比民主党人好不到哪儿去,但进步人士的观点不同,他们的很多认为共和党人十分邪恶,这至少驱使他们的领导者倾向于实用主义,一位领导者在民主美国组织上说,我们必须在部分问题上做出妥协以打败共和党人,这一组织是由前佛蒙特州长哈沃德迪安创立的,他可能会成为“民主党民主翼”的代表,击败阿拉斯加州四面楚歌的议员。对民主美国组织而言,贝吉奇在问题上的表现糟糕,在石油天然气上尤差,却在社会不公问题上异想天开。路易斯安娜州地区组织成员极不情愿的帮了一位持石油使用的民主党人玛丽朗德里厄,但最终他们还是发誓将在任何决定其命运的竞选中取得压倒性优势。该组织行政官查尔斯张伯伦说,如果民主党派在2014年大选中铩羽而归,责任就在那些不愿增加社会保险和最低工资的竞选者身上。Both DFA and the PCCC plan to use digital wizardry to help members place campaign calls to districts across the country: a nifty trick in places where members despise their own partys local candidates. MoveOn tells activists that saving the Senate is the “most important priority” of 2014, reminding them that Mr Obamas ability to nominate judges is in the balance. Over on the centre-ground, Ready for Hillary, a group working to rally a volunteer army for Mrs Clintons use (should she choose to run in 2016), will “amplify” any 2014 endorsements made by their heroine, instantly urging supporters to lend a hand to that campaign.民主美国和渐进式改变运动委员会计划使用数据技术将竞选推及全国各区,但对于那些对本区竞选者嗤之以鼻的人来说,这种伎俩口惠而实不至,MoveOn告诫激进分子保留议员席位是2014年的当务之急,提醒他们说奥巴马提名法官的能力已被架空。在中部阵营,一组织正在为克林顿招兵买马,一旦她决定参加2016年大选,便为之所用,他们将大肆宣扬这位“巾帼”在2014年所作出的任何承诺,不断要求持者助竞选一臂之力。On current showing, many will ignore such calls to arms in 2014. Despair with Mr Obama and this Congress may be part of the explanation. Progressive footsoldiers are waiting for the scrap that really interests them: a fight to drag the Democratic Party leftwards to victory in 2016. Republicans, who have plenty of problems of their own, cannot believe their luck.当下局势是,很多人都忽视了2014年为自身阵营添砖加瓦的号召,对于奥巴马和本届国会不屑一顾是原因之一,进步人士循其兴趣伺机而动,等待2016年将奥巴马和民主党一举拿下的完胜。共和党人自身弊病颇多,不敢靠运气行事。 /201408/317300

Money and happiness金钱和快乐Buy buy love买来的爱Smarter ways to spend更明智方式消费Happy Money: The Science of Smarter Spending.By Elizabeth Dunn and Michael Norton. 《快乐理财》:更明智消费的科学 伊丽莎白·唐恩和迈克尔·诺顿合著WHAT would you do with590m? This is now a question for Gloria MacKenzie, an 84-year-old widow who recently emerged from her small, tin-roofed house in Florida to collect the biggest undivided lottery jackpot in history. The blogosphere is full of advice for this lucky Powerball pensioner. But if she hopes her new-found lucre will yield lasting feelings of fulfilment, she could do worse than “Happy Money” by Elizabeth Dunn and Michael Norton.如果你有5.9亿美元,你会想做什么?葛罗瑞亚·马克肯泽尔正面对这个问题。她是一位84岁在弗罗里达拥有一座小房子的寡妇,最近获得了有史以来最大的票头奖。客上到处是给这位幸运强力球奖金领取者的建议。但如果她希望她新得到的财富会让她产生持久的满足感,她可能需要读读伊丽莎白·唐恩和迈克尔·诺顿合著的《快乐理财》。These two academics—she teaches psychology at the University of British Columbia; he lectures on marketing at Harvard Business School—use an array of behavioural research to show that the most rewarding ways to spend money can be counterintuitive. Fantasies of great wealth often involve visions of fancy cars and palatial homes on remote bluffs. Yet satisfaction with these material purchases wears off fairly quickly. What was once exciting and new becomes old-hat; remorse creeps in. It is far better to spend money on experiences, say Ms Dunn and Mr Norton, like interesting trips, unique meals or even going to the cinema. These purchases often become more valuable with time—as stories or memories—particularly if they involve feeling more connected to others这两位学者,一位在英属哥伦比亚大学教授心理学,一位在哈佛商学院教授市场营销。在书中他们引用了一些列的行为学研究向读者表明最受益的消费方式可能具有反直觉性质。财富给人的感觉经常会意味着豪车和峭壁旁的富宅。不过,这些物质采购带来的满足感会很快消失。曾经让人兴奋和带来新奇的东西到手之后不过就像是老旧的礼帽;懊恼悄然而至。远不如把钱花在生活体验上,唐恩和诺顿说道,比如说旅行,特别的膳食及去电影院看电影。随着时间的流逝,这些体验往往会变得珍贵--成为人们的故事或记忆-如果其中包含了情感故事则更是这样。This slim volume is packed with tips to help wage slaves as well as lottery winners get the most “happiness bang for your buck”. It seems most people would be better off if they could shorten their commutes to work, spend more time with friends and family and less of it watching television (something the average American spends a whopping two months a year doing, and is hardly jollier for it). Buying gifts or giving to charity is often more pleasurable than purchasing things for oneself, and luxuries are most enjoyable when they are consumed sparingly. This is apparently the reason McDonalds restricts the availability of its popular McRib—a marketing gimmick that has turned the pork sandwich into an object of obsession.无论你是工资的奴仆,还是票的幸运儿在这本薄薄的书,都能让你获得“金钱带来的快乐大爆发”。如果人们能够缩短他们的工作时间和看电视的时间而花更多的时间跟朋友和家人在一起会让他们的生活的品质更高。买礼物或捐助慈善机构往往会比给自己买东西更让人觉得开心。购买限售版奢侈品会让消费者更开心。这显然是麦当劳为什么限制受欢迎的烤汁猪排堡的出售量的原因--这个营销手段使人们为猪肉三明治着迷。Readers of “Happy Money” are clearly a privileged lot, anxious about fulfilment, not hunger. Money may not quite buy happiness, but people in wealthier countries are generally happier than those in poor ones. Yet the link between feeling good and spending money on others can be seen among rich and poor people around the world, and scarcity enhances the pleasure of most things for most people. Not everyone will agree with the authors policy ideas, which range from mandating more holiday time to reducing tax incentives for American homebuyers. But most people will come away from this book believing it was money well spent.《快乐财富》的读者显然是生活富足的人,他们考虑的是生活的满足感而不是饥饿。金钱可能不能买到快乐,但是在更富裕国家的人们一般比贫穷国家的人们快乐。不过,不管是在富裕的国家还是贫穷的国家,感觉良好和消费在其他人身上的联系随处可见。对大多数人来说,稀缺性提升了很多事情的快乐。并不是每个人都同意笔者在从安排更多的度假时间到减少税收刺激美国购房者的观点。但是读完这本书,大多数的人会觉得它值得购买。 /201404/289234

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