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楼主:69分类 时间:2019年05月27日 03:24:14 点击:0 回复:0
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It starts when people try something different-Pepsi instead of Coca-Cola, a blue tie instead of the old red one-and find that something good happens. 在一旦尝试了新东西――百事可乐替代可口可乐,用蓝领带替代旧的红领带――之后有好事发生,很多人就会变得迷信起来。 Soon, without realizing it, someone who wouldn#39;t think twice about, say, walking under a ladder or traveling on Friday the 13th begins to associate their new behavior with good luck-and starts reaching for the Pepsi again and again. 那些人虽然毫不介意走在梯子下面、不介意在恰逢13号的周五这天出远门,但他们很快也开始不自觉地将好运气和这些新行为相关联,然后就一听接着一听地喝起了百事可乐。 Such #39;conditioned superstitions#39; can develop when people believe there is something they can do to control a situation, despite there being no rational reason to think so, says Gita Johar, a professor of business at Columbia University who recently co-wrote a paper on the phenomenon. Recent research shows that superstitions that increase the illusion of control can help people find meaning and psychological comfort-and in some cases, even boost performance. 哥伦比亚大学(Columbia University)商业教授乔哈尔(Gita Johar)说,如果人们在没有合理依据的情况下相信他们可以通过做某些事来控制某一局面,这种“条件性迷信”(conditioned superstition) 就产生了。乔哈尔近期曾就这一现象与人合写了一篇论文。近期研究显示,这种能强化控制幻觉的迷信能够帮助人们找到事情的意义,获得心理安慰,有时甚至能提升业绩。 People who have both a high need for control and a sense of helplessness in a given situation-such as the straight-A perfectionist who didn#39;t have time to study for an exam-are the most likely to succumb to conditioned superstition, researchers say. 研究人员说,那些特别想要控制局面同时又在特定情境下感到无能为力的人――比如一个要求成绩全A、但又没时间复习考试的完美主义者――最有可能受到“条件性迷信”的影响。 And while such superstitions can be broken, says Dr. Johar, it often takes a lot of negative evidence before people are willing to part with their lucky rituals. That#39;s because they #39;provide some sort of a hedge against uncertainty,#39; says Eric Hamerman, an assistant professor of marketing at Tulane University#39;s Freeman School of Business who, with Dr. Johar, co-wrote the study, published in October in the Journal of Consumer Research. 乔哈尔说,尽管这类迷信可以破除,但人们通常需要看到大量的负面据,才愿意和那些被认为给他们带来好运的做法分道扬镳。图兰大学(Tulane University)弗里曼商学院(Freeman School of Business)市场营销副教授哈默曼(Eric Hamerman)说,这是因为这些迷信为人们树立起一堵抵御不确定性侵扰的围 。他与乔哈尔合着的研究论文发表在了10月份的《消费者研究》(Journal of Consumer Research)杂志上。 In their experiment, Drs. Johar and Hamerman had 275 participants play the game #39;rock, paper, scissors#39; against a computer-10 series with their right hand and 10 with their left. Unbeknownst to the participants, the computer program manipulated the results to make some people fare better with their left. When given the chance to choose which hand to use for the final matches, more than three-quarters of those playing the rigged game chose the hand that #39;caused#39; them to win more. 在他们的实验中,乔哈尔和哈默曼邀请了275名参与者与一台电脑玩“石头、剪刀、布”的游戏,每人用左、右手各玩10次。而受试者并不知道,电脑程序对游戏结果进行了操控,让某些人用左手玩的时候能更胜一筹。在最后的比赛中,受试者可以选择使用哪只手来参赛,结果超过四分之三的人选择用那只让他们赢得更多轮比赛的手。 If asked, few participants would say they consciously decided to choose the left hand because they thought it would make them lucky. However, their behavior suggests they conditioned themselves to make the connection, say the researchers. 研究人员说,在被问及原因时,很少有受试者会说他们是有意选择了更走运的左手,但他们的行为说明他们条件性地在二者间建立了因果关系。 The phenomenon of conditioned superstition is common enough that entire advertising campaigns have been built around it, says Dr. Hamerman. A recent Bud Light commercial, for example, has a fan forcing down a terrible-tasting veggie burger because his team won the last time he did so. 哈默曼说,“条件性迷信”现象的存在之广,足以让广告活动都围绕它展开。比如百威淡啤最近的一则广告中,一个球迷吃着难以下咽的素食汉堡,只因为上一次他吃这种汉堡的时候他的球队赢了。 Mary Pfister, a 20-year-old sophomore at Saint Louis University, wears her Chicago Blackhawks shirt for each game. The hockey team won big the first time she wore it this season. She once made a 15-minute trip, out of her way, back home to get it for game time. The Blackhawks have lost once while she was wearing her shirt-the only time she didn#39;t watch the game. The connection may be #39;all in her head,#39; she says, but it gives her peace of mind. 路易斯大学(Saint Louis University)的20岁大二学生菲斯特(Mary Pfister)每次看芝加哥黑鹰队的比赛时都会穿上球队的队。本赛季她第一次穿上那件衣时,该曲棍球队大比分获胜。有次她还特意花15分钟绕道回家去拿这件衣以备在比赛时间穿上。在她穿着那件衣时,黑鹰队输过一次比赛,那也是她唯一一次没有看比赛。她说,也许我是在异想天开,但这么一来我每次都能安心不少。 In their recently published experiment, Drs. Johar and Hamerman found they could reduce people#39;s superstitious behavior by reminding them of their positive traits, a technique psychologists call #39;self-affirmation.#39; In the study, people who were asked to write about times they had shown compassion later exhibited less superstitious behavior than those who had just been given a survey. 在乔哈尔和哈默曼最近发表的一篇研究中,他们发现可以通过提醒人们想起自己的优秀品质,来削弱他们的迷信倾向,这是一种被心理学家称作“自我肯定”的方法。在研究中,一些人先被要求写下能体现出自己富有同情心的经历,在随后的调查中,这些人比直接受调查者的迷信程度要小了许多。 All participants in the study answered obscure trivia questions on both blue and green computer backgrounds and were told, regardless of their actual score, that they performed better when answering questions presented on the green screen. When asked to choose the screen color for the final task, those who had been primed to remember their virtuous acts were less likely to choose the #39;lucky#39; green background. 全部受试者分别在蓝、绿色背景的电脑上回答了一些不起眼的小问题,并被告知(无论真实成绩如何)他们在绿色屏幕的那台电脑上的答题得分更高。当被问到想用什么颜色的屏幕来完成最终任务时,那些先前被提醒过自己所做善举的人们较不太会选择“幸运的”绿色背景。 Reminding people of their good traits makes them more emotionally secure, says Claude Steele, an early researcher into the psychology of self-affirmation and now a dean in Stanford University#39;s graduate school of education. #39;If I feel secure that I am a good person, I can be more open to threat in general, and that makes me less needful of being superstitious,#39; he adds. It isn#39;t that people no longer think their team will lose, or that they#39;ll fail a test, he says. Instead, self-affirmation makes them more psychologically resilient, and helps them realize they can cope even if something bad happens. 斯坦福大学教育研究生院院长斯蒂尔(Claude Steele)对自我肯定进行过早期心理学研究,他说提醒人们牢记自己的优秀品质能够让他们心里更有安全感。如果我确信自己是一个优秀的人,总体而言我可以更加勇敢地面对威胁,进而就更无须靠迷信来帮忙。他补充道,并不是说人们这样就坚信球队获胜或者考试通过。而是说自我肯定能够增强他们的心理抵抗力,帮助他们意识到即便有什么不好的事情发生,自己也能应付得了。 Still, for people under pressure to compete or perform, superstitious behavior can create a placebo effect that can improve the outcome. Since the age of 15, Maria Fabregat Farran, a 20-year-old student at the Autonomous University of Barcelona, has always worn a red bracelet while taking exams. #39;My mom gave it to me and said it was lucky, and wearing it makes me more relaxed,#39; she says. #39;I think it helps me on tests.#39; 尽管如此,如果人们肩负着竞争或尽力表现的压力,迷信行为可以催生出一种安慰剂效应(placebo effect),让他们的表现更加出色。巴塞罗那自治大学(Autonomous University of Barcelona)的20岁学生法兰(Maria Fabregat Farran)从15岁开始,每次考试都会带上一个红色的手镯。她说:我妈妈给我这个手镯,告诉我它有福气,戴着它我更放松。我觉得它能帮助我应对考试。 In a 2010 experiment published in Psychological Science, golfers sank 35% more putts when playing with a ball they were told was #39;lucky.#39; Sports teams from Little League to the pros are rife with players who practice a ritual or carry a charm they believe will boost their performance. Michael Jordan, for one, was famous for wearing his lucky college basketball shorts under his NBA ones. 据《心理科学》(Psychological Science)杂志2010年发表的一篇研究报告称,当高尔夫球手在被告知所用之球能带来好运时,他们的击球入洞率上升了35%。无论是职业球手还是美国少年棒球联合会(Little League)的小队员,都流行在比赛前举行祈福仪式或佩带一块护身符,因为相信这会让他们有更好的表现。篮球巨星乔丹(Michael Jordan)也有一个众所周知的习惯,那就是每次比赛都将他的幸运大学篮球短裤穿在NBA队的里面。 While conditioned superstitions affect personal behavior, cultural ones can impact the market at large. Some 10,000 fewer people fly on Friday the 13th, and U.S. businesses generate less revenue on those days compared with other Fridays, since some people don#39;t want to travel, work or make purchases, says Thomas Kramer, an associate professor of marketing at the University of South Carolina#39;s Moore School of Business. “条件性迷信”会影响个人行为,而文化迷信则会更广泛地影响着市场。南卡罗莱纳大学(University of South Carolina)尔商学院(Moore School of Business)市场营销副教授克雷默(Thomas Kramer)说,如果13号恰逢星期五,这天的航空出行乘客会减少约10,000人,这一天美国企业的创收也较其它周五要少,因为一些人在这一天不会出远门、工作或者购物。 In a study published in the Journal of Consumer Research in 2008, Dr. Kramer asked 95 students to write down their associations with either Friday the 13th or an innocuous day before answering questions about gambling decisions. His finding: After thinking about Friday the 13th, compared with a random day, participants became more risk-averse. #39;They were willing to forgo a gamble with a larger payoff in favor of a lower gamble with assured value,#39; he says. 在2008年《消费者研究》上发表的一篇研究中,克雷默让95名学生参与一场游戏,并在回答问题之前,让一部份人用纸笔把自己与恰逢星期五的13号联想起来,另一部份人则随便写下一个不晦气的日子。他发现:思索过13号周五的受试者比其他受试者的避险倾向更强。他说,相比一个高风险高回报的大赌,他们更倾向于有确定收益的小赌。 /201312/268157

The ability to have a productive day in which you feel motivated and completely refreshed is something not many of us have. We need alarm clocks just to get us up, are barely able to pull ourselves out of bed, and our bodies feel drained and lethargic through most of the day.并不是每个人都有能力将日子变得动力十足、多产而高效。往往只有清晨的闹钟才能勉强把我们唤醒,然后挣扎着爬出被窝,开始了疲惫而昏昏欲睡的一天。It’s for these reasons that I have put together 5 Simple and Effective Techniques that require just a few basic changes to your morning—mostly physical changes that will guarantee not only an energized body, but a motivated mind that’s y for action. You may have aly known some of the stuff mentioned in the article, but what’s the point of knowing without doing? Take a shot at using all of these steps and you should definitely see a change in the way you feel every day.正因为如此,我整理了5条简易又高效的小技巧,来帮助你改变昏昏欲睡的早晨。其中大多数都是运动技巧,这样既能保你的身体能量满满,同时也能唤醒你的大脑。也许下列例子对你来讲并不算新奇,不过,假如只是知道这些知识,却从来不利用的话,又有什么用呢?不如来亲自试试,相信你很快就能看到效果。1. Complete 30 Squats When You Wake Up1. 起床后深蹲30下Squats are known for being fairly easy with just a bit of challenge to them, but aside from the physical benefits to your outer body, squats get you worked up and essentially increase your heart rate with a corresponding increased blood flow. This means you’ll have a juiced-up body in a short space of time. I’ve practiced this when studying for exams in the past and it worked wonders to keep me awake.众所周知,下蹲是非常简单的动作,几乎没有挑战。除了对身体有锻炼作用,下蹲还能助你清醒、提高心率和血流速度。也就是说,很快你的身体就将彻底活动起来。我以前熬夜备考的时候就常用这招,事实明它超级有用哟。2. Alternate Water Temperature When Having A Shower2. 洗澡时记得变换水温A great way to start the day and feel refreshed is by having a shower. The problem that sometimes arises when we take them is that these showers can over-relax your body. I’ve had that problem quite a lot: I’d be quite excited to get on with some piece of work, after I have a hot shower, all I can think of is relaxing and taking things easy. A great way to combat the side effects of a relaxing shower is to make it quick, and end the shower off with a sudden burst of cold water. The shock to your skin will certainly wake you up if your shower relaxed you a bit too much.洗澡无疑是开始美好一天的好方法。问题在于有时候洗澡会让你的身体过于放松。这样的问题非常常见。有时候,我本来对手头的工作充满,但洗了一个热水澡后,我只想松垮垮地呆着,放慢做事的节奏。想要避免这个副作用,那就得来个很快的洗个澡让自己放松,结束的时候可以给自己浇点冷水,皮肤受到的温度刺激会迅速让你清醒,从而赶走慵懒。3. Eat a Proper Breakfast3. 吃一顿丰盛的早餐My friends have a habit of rushing through their breakfasts, which and usually just consists of coffee and a muffin. Sorry folks, but that does not count as a good breakfast. You need a proper combination of fiber, protein, and preferably some dairy , but that doesn’t mean it has to be huge enough to feed a king. Try to eliminate coffee because once the sugar and caffeine spike goes south, you’ll be down before you know it. Try oats, fruits, cereals or even whole wheat toast with a great smoothie, which will combine to get you energy levels up and keep them that way.我有些朋友早饭总不好好吃,只用一杯咖啡和一个马芬饼就打发了。同志们,这样可不是真正意义上的“丰盛早饭”哟。一顿好的早餐,要由适量的粗纤维、蛋白质及奶制品组成,不过也没必要真吃得跟国外一样丰盛。最好不喝咖啡,因为一旦糖类和咖啡因的作用一过,你立马就蔫儿了。试试用燕麦片、水果、谷物、全麦土司搭配一杯奶昔,这样的组合能让你能量满满,并持续很久。4. Groove to Some Music4. 听首好歌扭一扭Music is known as food for the soul, but it can also be a great motivator if you listen to the right choice of songs. Pick a few songs that get you worked up, inspire you, and have a good beat to them that you can groove to. Engaging your body with music is known to evoke certain feelings and emotions, so with the right choice of music and even a few dance moves, you’ll be feeling y to get on with your day and achieve the best you can.音乐是灵魂的能量来源,同样也能使你动力十足——假如选对了歌的话。挑几首自己喜欢又能激励你、节奏感强劲的曲子,然后跟着扭一扭。“闻歌起舞”能激发出相应的情感,所以选对了歌的话,只要稍微扭一扭,你就能感觉到“啊哈,美好的一天开始了!”,并信心满满地开始高效的一天。5. Don’t Fret the Small Stuff. Be Happy.5. 忽视那些琐碎烦人的小事,开心就好。There are so many things you could do physically to have a productive day, but if you’re not happy, it’s going to be one hell of a roller coaster ride focusing on work and progressing toward your dreams. We respond to things according to our emotional state, so this final in the article is the most important one of all: try to avoid fretting the small stuff—things you can’t change—and aim at solving what you can, while being happy with yourself. Appreciate small milestones because the little things you accomplish encourage you to strive for more.想要开始高效多产的一天,有很多通过身体运动就能实现的方法。但假如你心里依然不爽,那么,在工作中、在追求梦想的过程中,你依旧会情绪波动很大,自我感觉糟糕。我们对外界事物的反应,往往是由自己的心情决定的。因此,这条是最重要的一条:试着去忽略所有琐碎烦人的事物——那些你无力改变的事物,而将精力放在自己能够解决的事情上面,并同时开开心心地去面对。每次取得的一小点进步,都是值得欣喜的,因为每天的小进步,都将激励你一步步迈向更大的成功。 /201302/225044

President Barack Obama took a break from sorting out the shutdown of the federal government on Monday to make sandwiches for low-income and homeless families.美国总统奥巴马在应付联邦政府关门之际忙里偷闲,本周一亲临一家慈善机构,为低收入群体和无房家庭制作三明治。President Obama visited Martha’s Table in Washington D.C. Monday. The food bank helps low-income families. Dozens of photos were taken showing Obama smearing peanut butter and #39;sticky#39; jelly on what appears to be processed, white b. Menu option number two appeared to be stacks of processed meat, also on white b.奥巴马总统在周一光顾了华盛顿特区的一家非盈利机构“玛莎的餐桌”,这是一家旨在帮助低收入家庭的食品。奥巴马将花生奶油酱和“黏黏的”果酱涂在加工过的白面包上。另一种三明治是将加工熟肉放在白面包上。人们纷纷拍照记录下这一景象。“Can I just say just in the few moments I’ve been here I’m feeling a little sticky. I think I got some PBJ on my fingers,” Obama said.“我想说,我才刚做了一会儿,已经感觉手指有些黏黏的了。我想我的手指粘了些果酱。”This doesn#39;t exactly jibe with Michelle Obama#39;s primary initiative as first lady: healthy eating.这与米歇尔·奥巴马成为第一夫人后的第一项倡议:“健康饮食”似乎有些不符。Mrs. Obama started the #39;Let#39;s Move#39; movement, a program billed as #39;America#39;s move to raise a healthier generation of kids.奥巴马夫人发起了名为“行动起来”的倡议,这各项目旨在“培养更健康的下一代”。#39;In total, we are now eating 31 percent more calories than we were forty years ago–including 56 percent more fats and oils and 14 percent more sugars and sweeteners. The average American now eats fifteen more pounds of sugar a year than in 1970,#39; Mrs. Obama#39;s organization explains on its website.据奥巴马夫人这一项目的官方网站上称“总体上说,我们饮食中的热量比40年前多了30%——其中脂肪热量增长了56%,糖类和糖类添加剂热量增长了14%。现在美国人均每年比上世纪70年代多摄入15磅的糖分。”Peanut butter and jelly sandwiches have roughly 350 calories per sandwich, depending on the amount of peanut butter and jelly added to the sandwich, according to an online calorie counter.根据一个在线热量测评网站,每份花生酱奶油三明治的热量大约为350卡路里,依据三明治中花生酱和果酱分量多少而上下变动。To promote her initiative, Mrs. Obama even has written a book about the White House garden entitled #39;American Grown.#39;为了推广她的倡议,奥巴马夫人甚至写了一本关于白宫蔬菜种植园的书,题为“美国种植”。The situation might get even stickier when the president gets home and has to tell his wife that he#39;s been wrist-deep in peanut butter and jelly all day.试想总统回到家里,告诉夫人他一整天都在涂花生奶油和果酱,他可能会遇到比果酱更难对付的状况吧。 /201310/260835

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