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来源:知道优惠    发布时间:2020年01月19日 14:19:04    编辑:admin         

13,000 years ago, the ice age cheetah was the pronghorns greatest enemy.在13,000年前的冰河时代,猎豹是叉角羚的天敌。And pronghorn would have needed all their amazing speed.叉角羚以其令人惊叹的速度著称。The American cheetah was larger than its African cousin. But it had the same Achilles heel.美洲豹比非洲豹的体型要大。但他们的致命弱点相同。A cheetahs high-performance muscles overheat in minutes, and unlike pronghorn, they cant switch to cruising speed.猎豹高性能的肌肉会在几分钟内变热,和叉角羚不同的是,猎豹不能长时间保持这一速度。So if the pronghorn managed to outrun the cheetah for the crucial first few hundred meters, it would probably survive.所以如果叉角羚能在开始关键的几百米内跑过猎豹,那便有可能幸存。The cheetah hasnt roamed the plains of North America for thousands of years, but pronghorn are still prime for the chase.几千年来,猎豹一直没有在北美平原游荡,而叉角羚在这场角逐中依然占据优势。Other extinct links to Africa had been found in caves steep in the Ozark Mountains of Missouri.其他的一些与非洲相关联的线索十分稀缺,但被发现于密苏里州欧扎克山脉的悬崖峭壁中。Preserved in mud were huge prints recreated here, more than 18 centimetres wide. What could have made them?这里的淤泥中保存下来一些脚印,有18多厘米宽。这是什么动物的脚印?They belonged to another ice age cat, the top cat of the plains, a lion.他们是另一种冰河时代的猫科动物,也是美洲平原猫科动物的王者——狮子。 英文文本来自普特英语,译文属.201305/240224。

Business商业报道Crowdsourcing “Monopoly”众包“强手棋”The Mayfair shuffle梅菲尔洗牌One of the worlds largest toymakers tests the wisdom of crowds世界最大的玩具制造商之一体验众包智慧!IN 1904 a young American named Elizabeth Magie received a patent for a board game in which players used tokens to move around a four-sided board buying properties, avoiding taxes and jail, and collecting 0 every time they passed the boards starting-point.1904年,一位名叫Elizabeth Magie的美国青年申请获得了一个桌面游戏的专利。在该游戏中,玩家通过在一个四边的图板上左右移动一指示物赢取钱财。游戏中不仅免税合法,免除牢狱之灾,玩家还可以在每次通过棋盘上的起点时赢得100美元。Three decades later Charles Darrow, a struggling salesman in Pennsylvania, patented a tweaked version of the game as “Monopoly”.三十年之后,宾夕法尼亚的一位为生活艰苦挣扎的推销员Charles Darrow,申请了该游戏调整后的另一个版本的专利,并命名为“强手棋”。Now owned by Hasbro, a big toymaker, it has become one of the worlds most popular board games, available in dozens of languages and innumerable variations.如今,该游戏为一个大玩具商Hasbro所有,且成为了世界上最为流行的桌游之一,被翻译成几十种语言且有无数个版本。Magie was a devotee of Henry George, an economist who believed in common ownership of land.Magie是坚持土地公有制的经济学家Henry George的推崇者。Her game was designed to be a “practical demonstration of the present system of land-grabbing with all its usual outcomes and consequences.”她的游戏被设计为一个“目前土地掠夺造成的通常结局和后果的实际演示系统”。And so it has become, though players snatch properties more in zeal than sadness.尽管玩家在游戏中更多的是热衷于对财富的争抢而并非对土地掠夺问题的忧虑,但该游戏也确实反映了上述土地问题。In “Monopoly” as in life, it is better to be rich than poor, children gleefully bankrupt their parents and nobody uses a flat iron any more.无论是在“强手棋”还是在生活中,富有总是比贫穷好,……,并且也没有人再使用扁铁块了。Board-game makers have had to find their footing in a digital age.在如今的信息时代,桌游玩具制造商们不得不为自己重新寻找一席之地。Hasbros game-and-puzzle sales fell by 4% in 2010—the year the iPad came to market—and 10% in 2011.在iPad上市的2010年, Hasbro的游戏和拼图的销售额下降了4%,且在2011年下跌了10%。Since then, however, its game-and-puzzle sales have rebounded, rising by 2% in 2012 and 10% in 2013.而到了2012年和2013年,游戏和拼图的销售额又上涨了2%和10%。Stephanie Wissink, a youth-market analyst with Piper Jaffray, an investment bank, says that Hasbro has learned to become “co-creative…Theyre infusing more social-generated content into their marketing and product development.”青少年市场分析师Stephanie Wissink和投资 Piper Jaffray有关负责人表示Hasbro已经学会了集体创造。他们将更多当代社会生成的内容植入于他们的市场营销和产品开发。Some of that content comes from Facebook.有些新的元素来自于Facebook。Last year, “Monopoly” fans voted on Hasbros Facebook page to jettison the poor old flat iron in favour of a new cat token.去年,“强手棋”的粉丝在Hasbro的Facebook上投票,要求用新的猫造型令牌代替老式的扁铁块。“Scrabble” players are voting on which word to add to the new dictionary.“Scrabble”的玩家则在投票决定将哪一个词语添加到新字典中。“Monopoly” fans, meanwhile, are voting on which of ten house rules—among them collecting 0 rather than 0 for landing on “Go”, requiring players to make a full circuit of the board before buying property and “Mom always gets out of jail free. Always. No questions asked”—to make official.同时,“强手棋”的粉丝也在投票决定十条俱乐部补充规则,其中包括玩家在到达“出发”之前需集齐400美元而非200美元,在购买财富之前完成一次完整的桌面巡回,“妈妈总能无条件的出狱”。The Economist has also asked its ers for new rules, through our website and Facebook page.本刊也在通过网页和Facebook向读者征求新的规则。However, we wanted ours to reflect modern business realities.但是,我希望我们能反映现代商业现实。Several ers proposed for the bank, inevitably leading to bail-outs by other players when things went south.几个读者为提供了更为有效的建议,自然而然的,当一切都变得顺利时,其他的玩家也将得到纾困。One suggested that property prices in the London version of the game rise by 25% per turn.有一位玩家建议在伦敦那一版地游戏中,房地产价格应每一轮上涨25%。Building in inequality featured in several suggestions, the best being that some pieces begin far ahead of the others, with more money: these effects could be mitigated with cards such as “Art School” and “Finding Myself” that let other players catch up.针对那些特别的建筑,有数条建议……。这些差距会被一些类似于“Art School”、“Finding Myself”这样给其他玩家时间追赶的卡片减小。 /201404/285514。

Science and technology科学技术3D manufacturing3D制造Print me a phone给我打印一部电话New techniques to embed electronics into products新技术直接把电子元件嵌入产品中OPEN up any electronic device and inside there are circuit boards, components and bundles of wire.拆开任何一个电子设备,你都会在里面发现电路板、电子元件和一束束电线。Assembling these items into a product like a phone can be a tedious, labour-intensive process, and one that is often subcontracted to low-wage countries such as China.把他们组合在一起做成产品的过程是很乏味的,这个劳动密集型的过程常常被分包给低工资的国家,比如中国。Now new ways of printing electronics in three dimensions are being developed.现在三维电子印刷术已经比较成熟,This makes it possible to incorporate circuitry and components into the material the product is made from, such as the phones case.这种新方法使得在原材料上把电路和原件一体化成为可能,It could revolutionise the way electronic goods are made.这将彻底改变电子产品的生产方式。Printing electronics is not new; screen printing, lithography, inkjet and other processes have long been used to manufacture circuit boards and components.印刷电子技术并不新鲜,丝网印刷、光刻、喷墨印刷和其他技术用于生产电路板和元件已有很长时间,But the technologies are improving rapidly and now allow electronics to be printed on a greater variety of surfaces.由于该技术正飞速发展,现在已可以在各式各样的表面进行印刷。In the latest developments, electronics printing is being combined with additive manufacturing, which uses machines popularly known as 3D printers to build solid objects out of material, one layer at a time.在最近进展中,已经把电子印刷和快速成型制造结合在一起,快速成型制造就是使用机器对原材料进行逐层加工成型。Printing electronics requires inks with electrical properties that can act as conductors, resistors or semiconductors.印刷电子技术需要带有电气性能的墨水,这些墨水能扮演导体、电阻或半导体的角色,These inks are becoming more versatile.并且变得越来多才多艺,One example comes from Xerox, an American firm which makes office equipment and commercial printing systems. Its research centre in Canada has developed a silver ink which can be used to print flexible electronic circuits directly onto materials like plastic or fabrics.就拿施乐公司的例子来说,它开发的一种银质墨水能够直接在柔性材料上打印出电路,比如塑料和纤维织物。Silver is a better conductor of electricity than copper, which is typically used in circuits, but silver is expensive and tricky to print because it melts at 962°C.银的导电性要比铜好,所以常用在电路中,但银不仅昂贵而且很难用于印刷。However, by making silver into particles just five nanometres in size, Xerox has produced a silver ink which melts at less than 140°C.然而实验室研究主管Paul Smith说,施乐公司通过把银制成仅有5纳米的小颗粒,生产的银质墨水就能在低于140°C熔化,That allows it to be printed using inkjet and other processes relatively cheaply, says Paul Smith, the director of research at the laboratory.这样的墨水能够通过喷墨方式或者其他比较廉价的处理方式进行打印。Only minuscule quantities of silver are used and there is no waste, unlike chemical-etching processes.与化学蚀刻处理法不同,这种方法不仅银用量极少,并且不会浪费。Xeroxs PARC research centre in Palo Alto, California, is developing ways to use such inks.施乐公司位于加州帕洛阿尔托的PARC研究中心正在研发使用此墨水的技术。These can print circuits for various components, including flexible display screens, sensors and antennae for radio-frequency security tags.这些技术能够为不同的电子元件打印电路,包括柔性显示器、传感器和经安全认的射频天线。With the emergence of additive-manufacturing techniques, it starts to become possible to print such things directly onto the product itself, says Janos Veres, the manager of PARCs printed-electronics team.PARC的电子印刷技术小组主管Janos Veres说,随着快速成型制造技术的出现,直接在产品身上印刷出电路开始变得可能。That includes products with complex shapes.这还包括具有复杂形状的产品,Optomec, based in Albuquerque, New Mexico, has developed additive-manufacturing systems for a variety of industries.总部位于新墨西哥州阿尔伯克基的Optomec公司已经为多个行业开发了快速成型制造系统:It can print electronics directly onto a pair of glasses, for augmented reality; it can make a plastic water tank that uses embedded electronics to measure how full it is and turn pumps on or off; it can print sensors on military armour; or an antenna on the case of a mobile phone.为了增强现实,它能直接在眼镜上进行电子印刷;它能运用嵌入电子技术测量塑料水箱里的水有多满,并控制水泵的开关;能在军用盔甲上印刷传感器;或在手机外壳上直接印刷天线。In a recent three-way tie-up, Optomec worked with Aurora Flight Sciences, an American producer of unmanned aerial vehicles, and Stratasys, a 3D-printing company based in Minneapolis, to make a smart wing for a small drone.在最近三方合作中,Optomec公司与极光飞行科学公司和Stratasys公司合力为小型无人机打造了智能机翼。The wing was made from a thermoplastic material using a Stratasys 3D printer.该机翼由热塑性材料制造,并由Stratasys的3D打印机成型,Optomec then used a process it calls Aerosol Jet to print circuits, sensors and an antenna on the wing.然后Optomec采用名为气雾喷射的技术在机翼上印刷出电路、传感器和天线。The idea is that such technology would allow lightweight drones that can be customised for specific missions and printed on demand.采用这种技术的方法能够让轻量级无人机根据任务和需求进行定制和印刷。Optomecs Aerosol Jet works very differently from inkjet printing, in which a print head positioned barely a millimetre away deposits a droplet of ink on a flat surface.Optomec公司的气雾喷射技术与喷墨印刷术有很大不同。Aerosol Jet at first atomises nanoparticle-based print materials into microscopic droplets, which are then focused, using a sheath of gas, into a precise jet stream directed by a nozzle.后者打印头仅仅在一毫米远的位置把墨水微粒汇集在打印平面上,而气雾喷射技术会先把打印材料雾化为纳米级别的微小液滴,在气体护层下通过喷嘴进行精确聚集喷射,The nozzle can be held five millimetres or more away from the surface, which allows irregular shapes to be coated.这种喷嘴距离打印面5毫米或者更远,所以可以在不规则外形上进行打印。Both the nozzle and the tray holding the item being printed can be manipulated through different angles to work on three-dimensional structures.不管是喷嘴还是撑被打印物体的托盘都可以在三维结构上通过改变角度进行操作,The system can print electronic features smaller than a hundredth of a millimetre wide from a variety of materials.比起动辄上百毫米的电子产品,该技术可以在多种材料上打印出更小的产品。Instead of assembling an item from many separate components, 3D-printed electronics make it possible to print an entire product in a single machine, says Dave Ramahi, Optomecs chief executive.不必把多个单独的组件装配到一起,3D电子印刷术使得用单一机器打印出整个产品成为可能,Optomec 首席执行官 Dave Ramahi说到。However, for the technology to take off he believes it needs to be commercialised in an evolutionary way.然而他认为该技术的使用还需要经历商业化的发展,也就是说在目前大批量生产的过程中只在特定阶段采用该技术,This means applying it at certain stages of existing mass-production processes, such as printing antennae onto mobile-phone cases. Many phones use a number of different antennae to connect to different radio networks, so this would make more room for conventional electronics inside.比如在手机制造过程中印刷天线,因为很多手机采用不同的天线来接入不同的无线网络,这在传统电子产品内部会占用较大的空间。Some commercial applications of the technology are less than a year away, adds Mr Ramahi.他又补充说到,该技术的商业应用会在一年内实现。So how difficult would it be to print a phone complete with all its electronic gubbins?打印一部电话到底有多困难?Optomec is developing applications which could provide some of the necessary steps.Optomec正开发一些应用程序,它们可以提供一些必要的步骤。Besides antennae these include edge circuits for the screen, three-dimensional connections for chips, multiple-layer circuits and touch-screen parts.除了天线之外,它们还可以打印屏幕的边缘电路和联通芯片、多层电路板、触摸屏的三维连接器,It would also be possible to print the battery.甚至电池也可以被打印。The biggest challenge would be to print the chips that are the brains of the phone.但是最大的挑战来自于芯片的打印,These contain millions of transistors in a square millimetre and are at present made in silicon-fabrication plants costing billion or more.这里每平方毫米包含上百万个晶体管,并且目前可制造它的硅加设备价值100亿美元甚至更多,Yet embedding even some circuitry means phones could be made slimmer, as well as reducing the costs of materials and assembly.而植入电路意味着手机可以做的更加纤薄,同时也减少了原材料和装配的成本。 /201402/276294。