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来源:搜狐娱乐
原标题: 荆门市治疗睾丸炎多少钱平安优惠
Assistant attorney-general John Carlin remembers when FBI cyber intelligence specialists sat in a locked room at the US attorney’s office in Washington, cut off from criminal prosecutors in the same building. Now those walls have broken down as law enforcement officials rethink how they work with intelligence to fight the mounting risk from cyber attacks that threaten national security.The shift helps explain why authorities named North Korea as the culprit behind the Sony Pictures cyber attack less than a month after the Hollywood studio was hacked. The approach also represents a more aggressive strategy of naming and shaming cyber attackers.“The world is watching so you need to send a message to regimes about what they can expect our response to be so you’re not operating in a cost-free environment where you think it will never be attributed to you,said Mr Carlin, head of the national security division in the Department of Justice. “We’re not afraid to say it and after we say it, there will be a proportionate response.”Previously, national security cyber cases were seen as an issue for the intelligence community. The strategy meant those incidents were usually kept quiet and, with no prosecutors involved, bringing charges was not an option.The siloed structure went against the trend for more information sharing between agencies after 2001’s September 11 US terrorist attacks.“When it came to cyber, we didn’t think we were applying some of the lessons we’d learned in combating the terrorism threat,Mr Carlin said. “If you don’t have prosecutors looking at it, you don’t know whether that’s a tool in the toolbox.”The approach changed in 2012, when the DoJ’s national security division created the national security cyber specialist network. It meant retraining prosecutors in the division, and in US attorney offices to ensure each had at least one prosecutor focused on national security cyber threats.At the same time, the FBI allowed agents to share intelligence with these prosecutors, who also began working with the FBI’s national cyber investigative joint task force made up of the Central Intelligence Agency, the National Security Agency, the Defence Intelligence Agency and others.For the FBI, that meant taking classified information from the NSA, CIA and other agencies and translating that into evidence that could be declassified, which could be used in a criminal prosecution or cited to name a culprit, like in the Sony case. “Simply collecting ‘intelmay not be in the national interest when it comes to cyber attacks that threaten the national interest,said John Riggi, the FBI’s cyber division section chief. “We learnt post 9/11 that taking highly classified intelligence and turning it into evidence that can be used is a highly successful way to disrupt our adversaries.”The first public sign that the new approach was working came in the 2014 indictment of five Chinese soldiers accused of cyber hacking and economic espionage against US Steel, Westinghouse Electric and others. It was the first time state actors had been charged in that type of cyber case.FBI agents, the US attorney’s office in Pittsburgh, the NSD and others worked on the case in a way that it could be brought to a criminal court.“There was scepticism in some corners as to whether we’d be able to bring a case,Mr Carlin said. “It was important to show that yes, it can be done.”But the doubts have not disappeared. In the Sony case, sceptics were quick to say the evidence of IP addresses linked to North Korea could have been faked, for example.But translating intelligence into evidence helped authorities put the pieces together to name North Korea and issue new sanctions against the country and some of its officials. Bringing criminal charges could still be an option.The DoJ and the FBI have stepped up their efforts to encourage companies to come forward. Many are still reluctant to report breaches because they distrust agencies. “It makes it very challenging,Mr Riggi said. “Cyber is like no other threat we face and we can’t do our job without private sector help.”美国助理总检察官约翰#8226;卡林(John Carlin)还记得以前,美国联邦调查局(FBI)的网络情报专家坐在他在华盛顿的办公室中一间上锁的房间里,把同一栋大楼里的刑事检察官隔绝在外。现在,随着执法人员重新思考如何运用情报,以对抗威胁国家安全的网络攻击带来的越来越大的风险,隔绝情报人员和检察官的高墙轰然倒塌。这种转变有助于解释为何好莱坞制片公司索尼影Sony Pictures)遭受黑客攻击还不到一月,美国当局就指出朝鲜是这次网络攻击的幕后黑手。这种策略也表明美国当局对网络攻击者采用了更强硬的策略——直接点名曝光使其蒙羞。“世界都在看,因此你需要向其他政权发出信息,告诉他们我们会有什么反应,让他们明白:这不是一个做事没有代价的环境,别以为永远追查不到你头上,”现任美国司法部(Department of Justice)国家安全司主管的卡林说,“我们不怕说出来,而且说了以后,对方就会采取相应的反应。”以前,涉及国家安全的网络案件被视为情报人员要解决的问题。这种策略意味着当局对这些案件往往秘而不宣,没有检察官参与其中,因此根本不可能提起诉讼。这种封闭的机制有悖001/11恐怖袭击之后加强各机构间信息分享的趋势。“对于网络案件,我们认为我们以前没有把对抗恐怖主义威胁时吸取的一些经验运用到其中,”卡林说,“如果没有检察官参与查,你就不知道这个方法可不可用。012年这种策略发生了改变,美国司法部国家安全司创建了国家安全网络专家网,对该司和各个检察官办公室里的检察官重新培训,确保每个办公室都至少有一名检察官重点关注国家安全网络威胁。与此同时,FBI批准探员与这些检察官分享情报,这些检察官也开始与FBI国家网络调查联合特别工作组合作,小组成员来自美国中央情报局(CIA)、美国国家安全局(NSA)和美国国防情报局(Defence Intelligence Agency)。对FBI而言,这意味着将NSA、CIA和其他一些政府部门的机密信息转化成能够解密的据,以用于刑事诉讼,或者就像索尼影视的事件中那样,引为据点出肇事者的身份。“对于危及国家利益的网络攻击,仅仅收集‘情报’或许并不符合国家利益,”FBI网络部的科长约翰#8226;里吉(John Riggi)说,/11以后,我们意识到,将高度机密的情报转化成能够利用的据,是打垮我们的敌人的绝佳办法。”这种新策略首次公开亮相是在2014年,美国当局起诉5名中国军人,指控其对美国钢铁公司(US Steel)、西屋电Westinghouse Electric)等公司发起网络黑客活动和经济间谍活动。这类网络案件中,这是国家人员首次成为被控告的对象。FBI探员、匹兹堡检察官办公室、美国司法部国家安全司和其他参与方共同合作,使案件可以进入刑事诉讼程序。“有些人怀疑我们是否能够提起诉讼,”卡林说,“向世人展示我们能做到,这很重要。”但人们的怀疑并未消散。比如,在索尼影视的事件中,怀疑论者很快就表示,与朝鲜相关的IP地址据很可能是捏造的。然而,将情报化为据帮助当局将碎片拼凑在一起,指朝鲜为罪魁祸首,对朝鲜和一些朝鲜官员采取了新的制裁措施。提起刑事诉讼是可能做到的事情。司法部和FBI已加大努力鼓励企业挺身而出。许多企业在上报违法情况时依然态度勉强,因为它们不信任政府部门。“这让事情极具挑战性,”里吉说,“网络不像我们面临的任何其他威胁,如果没有私人部门的帮助,我们就无法开展工作。

Greece’s government has raided the coffers of its public health service and the Athens metro as it widens a hunt for funds to keep itself afloat and service debts.希腊政府开始物色更多资金维持自身运转并偿还债务,为此甚至已经向国内公共卫生务和雅典地铁的“小金库”下了手。Athens faces a 1.7bn bill for wages and pensions at the end of the month and then a 450m loan payment to the International Monetary Fund on April 9. Greek government and eurozone officials believe Athens does not have funds to cover both.本月底,希腊要付的工资和养老金达到17亿欧元,4日还要向国际货币基金组织(IMF)偿还4.5亿欧元贷款。希腊政府和欧元区的官员认为,希腊政府目前没有足够资金满足这两方面要求。In another constraint on Greece’s ability to raise cash, the European Central Bank decided to impose stricter curbs on the issuance of short-term government debt.欧洲央行(ECB)决定对希腊发行短期政府债施加更严苛的限制,这是希腊政府融资能力面临的又一项约束。EU officials expressed hope that a marathon Monday night meeting between Alexis Tsipras, the Greek prime minister, and his German counterpart, chancellor Angela Merkel, would spark long-stalled talks over economic reforms Greece must implement to unlock 7.2bn in frozen bailout aid.欧盟(EU)官员们表示,他们希望周一晚希腊总理亚历克西#8226;齐普拉斯(Alexis Tsipras)和德国总理安格#8226;默克Angela Merkel)的马拉松式会谈,能启动停滞已久的、有关希腊必须执行哪些经济改革措施的谈判,以释放被冻结的72亿欧元纾困资金。Athens has promised to deliver a list of reforms to eurozone authorities by Monday. But officials cautioned that the list would still have to be agreed with bailout inspectors before eurozone authorities could make progress on any deal to free up new funding.希腊政府此前已承诺,到周一将向欧元区当局提出一份改革清单。但官员们警告称,该清单仍然必须先获得纾困督察员的认可,然后欧元区当局才可能在达成释放新资金的协议方面向前迈出一步。Though Mr Tsipras discussed his reform plans with Ms Merkel on Monday night, there were few signs that talks in Athens with bailout inspectors had become more active following the Berlin meeting.尽管周一晚齐普拉斯与默克尔讨论了他的改革方案,但基本没有迹象表明柏林会谈之后,在雅典举行的与纾困督察员之间的谈判已变得更加活跃。来 /201503/366459Chinas top cross-strait negotiator began a landmark visit in Taiwan Wednesday, aimed at forging ties with the Taiwanese people amid their growing skepticism toward Beijing.中国国务院台湾事务办公室主任张志军周三开始了访问台湾的破冰之旅。台湾民众对北京的怀疑态度日益加重,他这次访台的目的就是巩固与台湾民众的关系。Zhang Zhijun, the head of Chinas Taiwan Affairs Office, is the first Chinese government official visiting Taiwan in an official capacity since the two sides governed separately 65 years ago. Mr. Zhang and his counterpart, Wang Yu-chi, chairman of Taiwans Mainland Affairs Council, met in their official capacities for the first time in Nanjing, China,in February. Some analysts said these meetings indicate Beijing is eager to start a political dialogue with Taipei.这是中国大陆和台5年前分而治之以来中国政府官员首次以官方身份访问台湾。张志军与台湾大陆委员会主任王郁琦今月在南京举行了首次官方会面。一些分析人士说,这些会谈表明北京急切希望与台北展开政治对话。Apart from a closed-door meeting with Mainland Affairs Council, Mr. Zhang also has plans to meet with Kaoshiung City Mayor Chen Chu, a heavyweight in the opposition Democratic Progressive Party. Mr. Zhang wont be meeting with high-ranking officials from Taiwans government. Instead he will be spending most of his four days in Taiwan visiting local businesses, farms, an aboriginal village and a university.除与台湾大陆委员会召开闭门会议外,张志军还计划与高雄市市长、台湾反对党民进党的重量级人物陈菊会面。张志军不会与台湾地区政府高级别官员举行会谈。这次访台行程为期四天,他将主要拜访一些当地企业、农场、一个原住民部落和一所大学。Mr. Zhang told reporters that cross-strait development is like rowing a boat against the currents.张志军对记者表示,两岸关系发展就像是“逆水行舟”The development of cross-strait ties is bound to be challenging but if there is will, there is a way, Mr. Zhang said.他说,两岸关系发展必定具有挑战性,但有志者事竟成。Ma Xiaoguang, a spokesman from Chinas Taiwan Affairs Office, added that there were some new situations in Taiwan that might have snagged cross-strait development. The main purpose of Mr. Zhangs visit, he said, is to listen to the voices of the people at the grass-root level, underscoring Chinas longstanding unification tactic of winning the hearts and minds of the Taiwanese people.国台办发言人马晓光还表示,台湾内部出现可能阻碍两岸系关发展的“一些新情况”。他说,张志军此行主要目的是倾听基层民众声音,这凸显出中国长期以来“赢得台湾民心和民意”的两岸统一策略。Mr. Wang told reporters: During our meeting, I expressed that the future of Taiwan must be decided by the 23 million people here. This is the consensus of Taiwan and we hope China can respect it. 王郁琦告诉记者,他在南京举行的会谈中曾表示,台湾的未来应该由台湾2,300万人民决定,这也是台湾人民的共识,希望大陆方面予以尊重。Suspicion toward Beijings intention to reclaim Taiwan has been growing on the island of 23 million people. In March, student-led protesters stymied the passage of a services-trade agreement with China and occupied the legislature for more than two weeks. The protesters said the trade pact only favors big conglomerates but leaves small businesses in the dust and were concerned of Taiwanese economys increasing reliance on China.台湾人越来越怀疑大陆有意将台湾收回。今月,以学生为首的示威者阻挠海峡两岸贸协议获得通过,他们还占领了台湾立法院超过两周时间。抗议者称贸协议只对大型企业有利,但将严重冲击小企业,他们还担心台湾经济愈发依赖中国。Fewer than 100 protesters, mostly students, were kept away from greeting Mr. Zhang. They were encircled by multiple rows of policemen with shields and sticks and were kept away from the hotel where Mr. Zhang stays by barbed wire fences.数十名抗议者(主要是学生)被警察阻拦、无法接近张志军。张志军下榻的饭店外,手持盾牌和警棍的警察组成数层人 将示威者围成一圈,并用铁丝网限制了示威者的活动范围。Lin Fei-fan, a leader of the Sunflower Movement that led the siege of the legislature for weeks, said: The government should not meet with any Chinese officials until a government watchdog on cross-strait affairs is established.“太阳花运动”学生领袖林飞帆表示,在一个海峡两岸事务监督机构成立之前,台湾政府不应当与中国大陆官员会晤。Mr. Lin said he wanted to have a face-to-face dialogue with Mr. Zhang, who hasnt responded to this request.林飞帆称他希望与张志军面对面交流,但后者没有回应这一请求Look at whats happening in Hong Kong. Under Chinese rule, many of the basic human rights that Hong Kong residents once enjoyed are stripped away. This is why we must safeguard Taiwans democracy and rule of law, Mr. Lin added.林飞帆还说,看看香港的情况吧,在大陆统治下,香港市民曾经享有的很多基本人权现在被剥夺了,这正是我们必须要保卫台湾民主和法治的原因。Taiwan split from the mainland in 1949 amid a civil war that has not formally ended. While both sides have agreed to promote peace across the Taiwan Strait, China still sees Taiwan as part of its territory, which must be taken back, by force if necessary.1949年,台湾在一场一直没有正式结束的内战中脱离大陆统治。虽然双方一致同意要推动海峡两岸的和平,但中国仍视台湾为自己领土的一部分,不仅必须收回,且如有必要还将诉诸武力。Political observers say Mr. Zhangs trip signifies a victory for Beijing against the Taiwanese independence supporters.政治观察人士表示,张志军此次访问是北京对台独持者的胜利Even the DPP has not objected to his visit, said Chang Kuo-cheng, a military strategist and a professor at Taipei Medical University, saying the timing of the visit shows Chinas unwavering resolve to absorb Taiwan at all cost.台北医学大学军事策略师、教授Chang Kuo-cheng说,连民进党都不反对张志军访台。在他看来,这次访问的时间显示出中国要不惜一切代价坚决将台湾收入囊中Of course Beijing is aware of the rising anti-China sentiment in Taiwan. But the message it wants to convey is, even as popular as the Sunflower Movement was, no matter how hard you object, nothing will ever spook Beijing or derail its timetable, he added.他还说,北京当然清楚台湾日益高涨的反大陆情绪,但北京想要传达出的意思是,无论台湾反对得多么坚决,哪怕像太阳花学运那样受大众欢迎,北京都不会被吓到,也不会打乱自己的时间表。来 /201406/308351Russias upper house of parliament has approved a request by President Vladimir Putin to deploy military forces abroad in Syria to aid the government of Bashar al-Assad in the fight against Islamic State militants.俄罗斯议会上院投票批准普京总统的要求,同意向叙利亚派兵,援助正在打击伊斯兰国组织激进分子的阿萨德政府。A government spokesman said on state television that the vote regarded use of the Russian air force in Syria.俄罗斯政府发言人对国家电视台表示,投票涉及在叙利亚动用俄罗斯空军部队。Russia has been building up its forces in Syria, with bombers, jets and troops arriving in northwest Syria in recent weeks, according to Pentagon officials.五角大楼官员说,近几个星期,俄罗斯向叙利亚北部地区派遣轰炸机、喷气机和地面部队,增加它在叙利亚的军事力量。On Monday, President Putin addressed the growing role of Russia in Syria, telling the ed Nations General Assembly that the forces of Syrian President Assad are ;valiantly fighting terrorism face to face; and that refusing to cooperate with them is ;a huge mistake.; He criticized the West for arming ;moderate; rebels in Syria, who, he said, joined forces with the Islamic State group.普京总统星期一在联合国大会发言时谈到俄罗斯在叙利亚发挥了日益重要的作用。他说,叙利亚总统阿萨德的部队正在“与恐怖主义分子面对面地英勇作战”,拒绝与他们合作大错特错。他批评西方为叙利亚温和派反叛分子提供武装,并说这些人与伊斯兰国组织站在一起。来 /201509/401569

The shuttered banks of Greece represent a profound failure for the EU. The current crisis is not just a reflection of the failings of the modern Greek state, it is also about the failure of a European dream of unity, peace and prosperity.希腊最近关闭了,这标志着欧盟的重大失败。当前危机不仅反映了现代希腊国家的缺陷,也反映了追求团结、和平与繁荣的欧洲梦的破碎。Over the past 30 years Europe has embraced its own version of the “end of history It became known as the European Union[TWEAK WORDING? SOMETHING LIKE: “IT CHOSE THE NAME EUROPEAN UNION]. The idea was that European nations could consign the tragedies of war, fascism and occupation to the past. By joining the EU, they could jointly embrace a better future based on democracy, the rule of law and the repudiation of nationalism.过去30年,欧洲迎来了自己版本的“历史的终结”。它成了广为人知的欧EU)。人们认为,欧洲国家能够将战争、法西斯主义和占领等等悲剧留给历史。通过加入欧盟,欧洲国家可以共同拥抱基于民主、法治以及摒弃民族主义的更美好未来。As Lord Patten, a former EU commissioner, once boasted, the success of the union ensured that Europeans now spent their time “arguing about fish as or budgets, rather than murdering one another欧盟委员European Commission)前委员彭定康勋爵(Lord Patten)曾说,欧盟的成功保了欧洲人如今把时间花在“争论配额或预算,而不是相互残杀”。When the Greek colonels were overthrown in 1974, Greece became the pioneer of a new model for Europe in which the restoration of democracy at a national level was secured by a simultaneous application to join the European Economic Community (as it then was).1974年,希腊军政府被推翻后,希腊成为欧洲一种新模式的先驱——在国家层面恢复民主,与此同时,希腊也提交了加入欧洲经济共同体(EEC,欧盟的前身)的申请。Greece became the 10th member of the European club in 1981. Its early membership of an EU that now numbers 28 countries is a rebuke to those who now claim it has always been a peripheral member.希腊1981年成为这个欧洲俱乐部的第10个成员。希腊在欧盟中(如今包括28个国家)的早期成员国资格可以用来反驳那些声称它一直是成员国的人。The model first established in Greece democratic consolidation, secured by European integration was rolled out across the continent over the next three decades. Spain and Portugal, which had also cast off authoritarian regimes in the 1970s, joined the EEC in 1986. After the fall of the Berlin Wall, almost all the countries of the former Soviet bloc followed the Greek model of linking democratic change at home to a successful application to join the EU.这种首先在希腊建立的模式——欧洲一体化保障下的民主巩固——在后来30年间被推广到整个欧洲大陆。同样在上世0年代摆脱威权体制的西班牙和葡萄牙,于1986年加入了欧共体。柏林墙被推倒后,几乎所有前苏联国家都效仿了希腊模式——将国内民主变革与成功申请加入欧盟结合起来。For the EU itself, Greek-style enlargement became its most powerful tool for sping stability and democracy across the continent. As one Polish politician put it to me shortly before his country joined the EU: “Imagine there is a big river running through Europe. On one side is Moscow. On the other side is Brussels. We know which side of the river we need to be on.”对欧盟自身来说,希腊式的扩大成为其在整个欧洲大陆推动稳定和民主的最强大工具。波兰即将加入欧盟之前,该国一位政治家对我说:“想象一下,有一条大河贯穿欧洲。一边是莫斯科,另一边是布鲁塞尔。我们知道自己需要到河的哪一边。”That powerful idea that the EU那种强大的观念——欧盟代表好的政府和稳固的民主——一直在现代欧洲流传。这就是为什么乌克兰示威014年推翻维克托#8226;亚努科维Viktor Yanukovich)的腐败政府时挥舞着欧盟旗帜的原因。represented good government and secure democracy has continued to resonate in modern Europe. It is why Ukrainian demonstrators were waving the EU flag when they overthrew the corrupt government of Viktor Yanukovich in 2014.当前的危险是,过去在民主转型与欧洲一体化相联结方面扮演开拓者角色的希腊,如今亦可能成为一个新的危险进程——欧盟解体——的象征。当前的危机很容易导致希腊退出欧元区,并最终退出欧盟。这将破坏欧盟的根本命题,即加入这一欧洲俱乐部是对未来繁荣和稳定的最佳保障。The danger now is that, just as Greece was once a trailblazer in linking a democratic transition to the European project, so it may become an emblem of a new and dangerous process: the disintegration of the EU. The current crisis could easily lead to the country leaving the euro and eventually the union itself. That would undermine the fundamental EU proposition: that joining the European club is the best guarantee of future prosperity and stability.即使一个愤怒和贫困的希腊最终留在欧盟,欧盟和繁荣之间的联系也会被切断。人们逐渐明白一个可怕的事实:欧盟不仅未能兑现其关于繁荣和团结的承诺,通过把希腊和其他欧盟成员国捆绑在一个失败的关于欧元的经济实验之中,欧盟反而在主动摧毁财富、稳定和欧洲的团结。Even if an angry and impoverished Greece ultimately remains inside the tent, the link between the EU and希腊的地理位置具有高度战略意义,就更加突显了这种危险。希腊的南面是混乱的正在上演流血冲突的利比亚,北面是动荡的巴尔干地区,而东面则是愤怒和复兴的俄罗斯。prosperity will have been ruptured. For the horrible truth is dawning that it对于欧盟似乎打算放任希腊走向失败,了解这一切的巴拉#8226;奥巴Barack Obama)政府越来越不敢置信。在华盛顿的一些人看来,欧洲人似乎忘记了在冷战期间学到的关于希腊重要性的战略教训。is not just that the EU has failed to deliver on its promises of prosperity然而,这种看法对欧洲人来说是不公平的。面对华盛顿方面的指责,欧洲人的回应是,欧盟之所以能够运作,只是因为这是一个法律和相互义务的共同体。如果你允许像希腊这样的单个国家藐视这些法律和义务——比如在债务上违约——那么这个俱乐部无论如何都会开始分崩离析。相较之下,如果你把希腊踢出去,还有一线机会把损害限制在一个国家之内。and unity. By locking Greece and other EU countries into a failed economic experiment the euro it is now actively destroying wealth, stability and European solidarity.这场危机对民主也有深远的影响,民主正0年前吸引希腊进入欧盟的原始凝聚力。希腊总理亚历克西#8226;齐普拉斯(Alexis Tsipras)现在认为,欧盟不仅没有确保希腊的民主,反而变成了希腊的敌人,践踏了希腊人民的意愿。The dangers of that process are all the more pronounced because Greece is in a highly strategic location. To the south lies the chaos and bloodshed of Libya; to the north lies the instability of the Balkans; to the east, an angry and resurgent Russia.当然,事实上这是一场不同民主授权的冲突,是希腊选民的意愿与其他欧盟成员国选民(及纳税人)的意愿之间的较量,前者希望摆脱紧缩,而后者则希望看到他们的贷款得到偿还,不愿意让一个没有改革的希腊继续受益于欧盟的资金。Knowing all this, the administration of Barack Obama is increasingly incredulous about the EU’s apparent willingness to let Greece fail. To some in Washington, it seems as if the Europeans have forgotten all the strategic lessons learnt during the cold war about the country’s importance.在下周日的全民公投上,这两种民主意愿或许将痛苦地调和。如果希腊人投票决定接受欧盟债权人的要求——他们的政府刚刚拒绝了这些要求——希腊或许将继续留在欧元区和欧盟之内。但那将是一个受到胁迫、愤愤不平的国家做出的决定。希腊还将是欧盟的一员,但它的欧洲梦将破碎。来 /201507/383872U.S. Defense Secretary Ash Carter called on North Korea to end its nuclear weapons program during a visit Sunday to the Demilitarized Zone that separates the two Koreas.美国国防部长卡特呼吁朝鲜放弃其核武器项目。他在星期天访问了分割朝鲜和韩国的非军事区。Carter traveled to the DMZ from Seoul and walked up to Observation Post Ouellete, the closest point where South Koreas side of the DMZ meets with the Norths.卡特从首尔前往非军事区,并走到一个最靠近北朝鲜一方的韦莱特观察哨。Pyongyang abandoned negotiations on its nuclear program in conducted with five other nations, including China, Japan, Russia, South Korea and the ed States. Carter said Washington remains committed to the negotiations, and called on the communist country to return to the talks.平壤009年放弃了有关它的核项目的谈判。参加谈判的除了平壤之外,还包括中国、日本、俄罗斯、韩国和美国。卡特说,华盛顿依然致力于谈判,并呼吁平壤返回谈判;They should be on a path of doing less, and ultimately zero, in the nuclear field,; Carter told reporters.他对记者说,“朝鲜应当减少并最终终止其核项目。”Carter will attend a joint U.S.- South Korea security meeting in Seoul later Sunday.卡特星期天晚些时候将在首尔参加美韩双方联合安全会议。来 /201511/407136

Kim Jong Un LINKED TO FRIDAY ADVANCE PE aly rules North Korea like a medieval despot, but his latest eccentricity is actually trying to turn back time. To mark the 70th anniversary of victory over the “wicked Japanese imperialists the poobah of Pyongyang has decreed that his country will set its clocks half an hour later to reject the timezone Japan imposed during its occupation of the Korean peninsula.金正Kim Jong Un)已经像个中世纪专制君主那样统治朝鲜了,但他最近的怪异法令事实上是试图改变时间。为纪念战胜“邪恶的日本帝国主义0周年,这位朝鲜普巴(poobah,意为至高无上的君主——译者注)颁布法令,规定他的国家将把时区推后半小时,以抵制日本在占领朝鲜半岛时强加于朝鲜的时区。Eccentric it may be, but there is a history of rulers changing time zones to assert their power. When such decisions institutionalise real authority, they look masterful; when they substitute for it, they range from in to absurd.这一法令或许怪异,但历史上不乏统治者更改时区以彰显自己权力的先例。当这类决定将真正的权威制度化时,它们显得专横;而当这类决定只不过是假装权威时,它们呈现出从不安到荒谬的各种面貌。Time zones were forced by new technology but shaped by political whim. They emerged as the agricultural pulse set by the sun was replaced by the grinding rhythm of industry. In the agrarian mid-19th century the US had more than 300 time zones. As railways took over, a private sector solution emerged: in 1883 railroad companies imposed the four time zones that still exist.推进时区的是新科技,但时区的面貌则是由政治上的心血来潮决定的。当工业的刺耳节奏取代了太阳设定的农业节拍时,时区就诞生了。在农业社会时期9世纪中叶,美国有300多个时区。随着铁路的发展,一个私营部门解决方案诞生了:几家铁路公司在1883年强制分出四个时区,一直沿用至今。The world soon organised itself into longitudinal zones anchored on Greenwich Mean Time in London. But symbolic quirks and anomalies persist.全世界很快理顺了时间——基于伦敦格林尼治标准时GMT)划分成数个纵向时区,但具有象征意义的古怪、异常安排依然存在。Imposing a single timezone on a recalcitrant populace, as did the Japanese in Korea, is a show of power as well as of administrative efficiency. No one can control the sun but rulers can change how much of it their subjects see. Nazi Germany enforced uniform time on its conquered countries in western Europe. Russian President Vladimir Putin imposed Moscow time on Crimea after seizing the province last year.对不顺从的民众强行施加单一时区,就如日本曾经对朝鲜做过的那样,除了可以展示力量,还能提高行政效率。没人能控制太阳,但统治者可以控制臣民能看到多少阳光。纳粹德国在它占领的西欧国家实施统一时间。俄罗斯总统弗拉基米尔渠Vladimir Putin)去年侵占克里米亚后,在该省强行实行了莫斯科时间。However, adopting inconvenient time zones for symbolic reasons begins to look like insecurity. After the Communist takeover in China in 1949, Mao Zedong imposed Beijing time nationwide. China now has one timezone covering latitudes where Russia has five. Inhabitants of western China have to get up in darkness for winter months on end. But introducing a new zone might look like a concession to the repressed discontents in the western region of Xinjiang, some of whom have informally adopted their own local time.但是,出于象征原因而采用不方便时区,就显得缺乏安全感了949年共产党接管中国后,毛泽东在全国推行了北京时间。中国现在只有一个时区,而横跨同样纬度范围的俄罗斯有五个时区。每年冬天,中国西部地区居民都有好几个月得在黑暗中起床。但实行新的时区,看起来可能像对新疆西部地区受压抑的不满分子作出让步,其中一些人已经非正式地用起了当地时间。Similarly, India combined several imperial time zones into one after independence from Britain in 1947, and then underlined the point by setting it an awkward five and a half hours ahead of London time. This wastes electricity, and farmers in Assam in India’s far east have to use an informal “tea garden timeto align the sun and the clock.同样地,1947年印度脱离英国独立后,也将英帝国统治时期的几个时区合并成一个,然后刻意将这个统一时间奇怪地设定为比伦敦时间早五个半小时。统一时区浪费电力,而且为了让太阳和时间相一致,印度最东边的省份阿萨姆邦的农民不得不使用非正式的“茶园时间”。And when a timezone is purely symbolic, it really can begin to look odd. President Hugo Chávez set Venezuela’s clocks back half an hour in 2007, putting them out of kilter with its neighbours, for no apparent reason but cussedness.而当一个时区的设定纯粹出于象征意义,它真的会显得奇怪007年委内瑞拉总统乌戈查韦Hugo Chávez)将本国时区调后半小时,让委内瑞拉的钟表与邻国对不上时间,这么做唯一明显的理由就是因为固执。The most entertaining example is Spain. It should really observe the same time as the UK and Portugal since the vast bulk of it is west of the Greenwich meridian. Instead it keeps central European Time, putting it in the same zone as Poland. A parliamentary commission has concluded that using the wrong clock keeps Spaniards up too late and makes them tired and unproductive.最有趣的例子莫过于西班牙。西班牙大部分国土都位于格林尼治子午线的西边,其实本应该与英国和葡萄牙遵循同样的时间。可是西班牙全国使用的是欧洲中部时间,与波兰位于同一个时区。西班牙的一个国会委员会已经得出结论,使用错误的时区导致西班牙人起得太晚,容易疲倦,且生产效率低下。The timezone is the legacy of the deep cunning of Francisco Franco. Knowing a terrible idea when he saw one, the dictator resisted pressure from Adolf Hitler to abandon neutrality and enter the second world war. But, realising the symbolic importance to fascism of uniformity in everything, he made the magnificently pointless gesture of adopting Berlin time. (A reminder: Hitler committed suicide as his Reich imploded in 1945; Franco died peacefully in office 30 years later.)西班牙现行时区是朗西斯科嬠朗Francisco Franco)留下的一个老谋深算的遗产。当年阿道夫希特Adolf Hitler)要求佛朗哥放弃中立、加入第二次世界大战,因为佛朗哥这个人对坏主意有敏锐的判断力,他抵挡住了希特勒的压力。但他知道一切保持一致对法西斯具有重要的象征意义,于是他作出了一个了不起的、毫无意义的姿态,改用了柏林时间。(提醒一下,1945年希特勒在德意志Reich)崩溃后自杀,而佛朗哥则是0年后安详地死于位上。)It is not hard to see where on the spectrum of absurdity North Korea’s action lies. Given its shambolic economy, it scarcely matters what timezone Pyong adopts. Japan may have lost the war, but its economic miracle won the peace. Mr Kim may change the clocks, but he cannot put history into reverse.不难看出朝鲜此次更改时区在“荒谬光谱”上处于何种位置。考虑到朝鲜一团糟的经济情况,平壤方面采取何种时区其实没多大重要性。日本当年输掉了战争,但日本的经济奇迹赢得了和平。金正恩能改变时区,但他无法逆转历史。来 /201508/394361

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