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Professor Colin Blakemore works at Oxford University Medical School doing research into eye problems and believes that animal research has given humans many benefits:The use of animals has been central to the development of anaesthetics, vaccines and treatments for diabetes, cancer, developmental disorders…most of the major medical advances have been based on a background of animal research and development.There are those who think the tests are simply unnecessary. The International Association Against Painful Experiments on Animals is an organization that promotes the use of alternative methods of research which do not make animals suffer. Their spokesman Colin Smith says:Animal research is irrelevant to our health and it can often produce misleading results. People and animals are different in their reactions to drugs and in the way their bodies work. We only have to look at some of the medical mistakes to see this is so.But Professor Blackmore stresses:It would be completely irresponsible and unethical to use drugs on people that had not been thoroughly tested on animals. The famous example of thalidomide is a case for more animal testing, not less. The birth defects that the drug produced were a result of inadequate testing. If thalidomide were invented today, it would never be released for human use because new tests on pregnant animals would reveal the dangers.Another organization that is developing other methods of research is FRAME. This is the Fund for the Replacement of Animals in Medical Experiments. It recognises that many experiments still have to be done on animals and is aiming for Reduction, Refinement and Replacement of animals in experiments. In 1981, it established a research programme to improve and expand non-animal testing. Increasingly, new technology is making it easier for us to find alternative methods of testing. Computer models can be used to simulate the way that cells work and to try to predict the toxicity of chemicals. Data from previous animal experiments is used to develop a computer model which will predict what will happen if you add a chemical with an unknown biological effect to a substance. The eventual aim of computer modeling is to reduce the number of animals used in experiments.The Lethal Dose 50 test (LD50) may also be replaced. In the original test, all the animals in a test group are given a substance until half of them die. The test indicates toxicity. A method using a fixed amount, which gives the same eventual information but uses fewer animals and does not require that they die, may replace the LD50. Many other new techniques are now available that enable more research to be done in the test tube to see if chemicals produce harmful biological effects.The number of animals used in laboratory tests has declined over the last 20 years. This is partly due to alternatives and partly to the fact that experiments are better designed so fewer need to be used - healthier animals provide better experimental results. For example, it used to take 36 monkeys to test a sample of polio vaccine, now it takes only 22. Also, lack of money has reduced the number of animals used - they are expensive to buy and expensive to keep.Birmingham University now has Britain's first department of Biomedical Ethics. Professor David Morton of the department is involved in animal research and is concerned with reducing animal suffering as much as possible. Animals spend 95% of their time in their cages and refinement also means making their lives better when not undergoing tests. This includes keeping them in more suitable cages, allowing social animals like dogs to live together and trying to reduce the boredom that these animals can experience.In Professor Morton's laboratory, rabbits live together in large runs, filled with deep litter and boxes that they can hide in. The researchers have also refined some experiments. In the US, one experiment in nerve regeneration involves cutting a big nerve in a rat's leg, leaving its leg paralysed. In Morton's lab, the researcher cuts a small nerve in the foot. He can see if it can regrow and the rat can still run around its cage.Even with these new developments in research, only a tiny proportion of all tests are done without using animals at some stage. The use of animals in experiments cannot stop immediately if medical research is to continue and consumer products are to be properly tested, and Professor Blakemore believes that sometimes there are no alternatives:Wherever possible, for both ethical and scientific reasons, we do not use animals. But cells live in animals and we can only really see how they behave when they are inside animals. We cannot possibly reproduce in a test tube or a computer model all the complex reactions of the body to a drug or a disease. When it comes to research into heart disease and its effects on the body, or diseases of the brain for example, we do not have adequate substitutes for the use of animals.As research techniques become more advanced, the number of animals used in experiments may decrease, but stopping testing on animals altogether is a long way away. Article/200803/28122。

;The Sorting Ceremony will take place in a few minutes in front of the rest of the school. I suggest you all smarten yourselves up as much as you can while you are waiting.;Her eyes lingered for a moment on Neville#39;s cloak, which was fastened under his left ear, and on Ron#39;s smudged nose. Harry nervously tried to flatten his hair.  ;分配仪式几分钟后就会在全校师生面前开始,我建议你们利用这段等待的时间里,把自己打扮得漂亮些。;她的目光在尼维尔那固定于左耳下方的帽绳和罗恩那脏脏的鼻子上停留了好一会儿。哈利见状,连忙摸了模自己的头发,想把它弄平整些。;;I shall return when we are y for you,; said Professor McGonagall. ;Please wait quietly.;he left the chamber. Harry swallowed.  ;我们准备好了就会来叫你们,你们先在这里安静地等会儿吧。;她终于离开了那间小房间,哈利紧张地咽了咽口水。;How exactly do they sort us into houses?; he asked Ron.  ;他们根据什么标准将我们分配到不同的学院呢?;他问罗恩。;Some sort of test, I think. Fred said it hurts a lot, but I think he was joking.;  ;可能是通过考试吧。弗来德曾说分配时会很痛,不过我想他只是在开玩笑罢了。Harry#39;s heart gave a horrible jolt. A test? In front of the whole school? But he didn#39;t know any magic yet ; what on earth would he have to do? He hadn#39;t expected something like this the moment they arrived. He looked around anxiously and saw that everyone else looked terrified, too. No one was talking much except Hermione Granger, who was whispering very fast about all the spells she#39;d learned and wondering which one she#39;d need. Harry tried hard not to listen to her. He#39;d never been more nervous, never, not even when he#39;d had to take a school report home to the Dursleys saying that he#39;d somehow turned his teacher#39;s wig blue. He kept his eyes fixed on the door. Any second now, Professor McGonagall would come back and lead him to his doom.  哈利的心情顿时沉重了下来。考试?还要在全校师生面前?但他现在甚至连最简单的魔法都还不会呀,他该怎么办呢?刚到这儿的时候他可从没想到会有这样的事情发生。他焦急地四周张望了一下,发现其他人也像他一样害怕极了。人群中只有荷米恩。格林佐在七嘴八舌地小声向旁边的人罗列她所会的魔法,还说不知道哪些能派上用场。哈利真想塞住自己的耳朵,他从来没有如此紧张过,即使是那次不明不白地将老师的假发变蓝后拿着学校的告状信回杜斯利家里,也没有现在这么紧张。那个麦康娜教授随时都会回来把他带到决定他命运的地方。。

CHAPTER XXIIIFire RisesTHERE was a change on the village where the fountain fell, and where the mender of roads went forth daily to hammer out of the stones on the highway such morsels of b as might serve for patches to hold his poor ignorant soul and his poor reduced body together. The prison on the crag was not so dominant as of yore; there were soldiers to guard it, but not many; there were officers to guard the soldiers, but not one of them knew what his men would do--beyond this: that it would probably not be what he was ordered. Far and wide lay a ruined country, yielding nothing but desolation. Every green leaf, every blade of grass and blade of grain, was as shrivelled and poor as the miserable people. Everything was bowed down, dejected, oppressed, and broken. Habitations, fences, domesticated animals, men, women, children, and the soil that bore them--all worn out. Monseigneur (often a most worthy individual gentleman) was a national blessing, gave a chivalrous tone to things, was a polite example of luxurious and shining life, and a great deal more to equal purpose; nevertheless, Monseigneur as a class had, somehow or other, brought things to this. Strange that Creation, designed expressly for Monseigneur, should be so soon wrung dry and squeezed out! There must be something short-sighted in the eternal arrangements, surely Thus it was, however; and the last drop of blood having been extracted from the flints, and the last screw of the rack having been turned so often that its purchase crumbled, and it now turned and turned with nothing to bite, Monseigneur began to run away from a phenomenon so low and unaccountable. But, this was not the change on the village, and on many a village like it. For scores of years gone by, Monseigneur had squeezed it and wrung it, and had seldom graced it with his presence except for the pleasures of the chase--now, found in hunting the people; now, found in hunting the beasts, for whose preservation Monseigneur made edifying spaces of barbarous and barren wilderness. No. The change consisted in the appearance of strange faces of low caste, rather than in the disappearance of the high-caste, chiseled, and otherwise beatified and beatifying features of Monseigneur. For, in these times, as the mender of roads worked, solitary, in the dust, not often troubling himself to reflect that dust he was and to dust he must return, being for the most part too much occupied in thinking how little he had for supper and how much more he would eat if he had it--in these times, as he raised his eyes from his lonely labour, and viewed the prospect, he would see some rough figure approaching on foot, the like of which was once a rarity in those parts, but was now a frequent presence. As it advanced, the mender of roads would discern without surprise, that it was a shaggy-haired man, of almost barbarian aspect, tall, in wooden shoes that were clumsy even to the eyes of a mender of roads, grim, rough, swart, steeped in the mud and dust of many highways, dank with the marshy moisture of many low grounds, sprinkled with the thorns and leaves and moss of many byways through woods. Such a man came upon him, like a ghost, at noon in the July weather, as he sat on his heap of stones under a bank, taking such shelter as he could get from a shower of hail. The man looked at him, looked at the village in the hollow, at the mill, and at the prison on the crag. When he had identified these objects in what benighted mind he had, he said, in a dialect that was just intelligible: `How goes it, Jacques?' `All well, Jacques.' `Touch then!' They joined hands, and the man sat down on the heap of stones. `No dinner?' `Nothing but supper now,' said the mender of roads, with a hungry face. Article/200904/68376。

A florist in Delhi, India fell to his death after he was attacked by a gang of monkeys. He was on his balcony watering his plants. Three monkeys, which usually were friendly beggars, sat on his balcony railing and watched. They were hoping that he would offer them some food. When he finished watering the plants, he sat down in a chair to enjoy the sunset.The monkeys waited a minute. When they realized that he was not going to feed them anything, they leaped on him. They scratched his face and pulled at his hair and his clothes. Bleeding and screaming, he panicked. Instead of going back into his apartment through the sliding glass door, he leapt off his balcony. He lived on the second floor, so it was only ten feet to the pavement below. However, he struck the pavement head first, immediately breaking his neck.The monkeys jumped to the pavement. They dug through his shirt and pants pockets looking for food. One monkey took off with his keys. As humans destroy the forests in India, monkeys like these are getting hungrier and more aggressive.“Our monkeys are getting out of control,” said a neighbor. He said he had aly barricaded his balcony with barbed wire. “It’s ugly, I must admit. A balcony shouldn’t look like the outside of a prison. My neighbors want me to take it down. They say the barbed wire might injure the monkeys and it’s unsightly. But I’ll bet that some of my neighbors will be going to the hardware store tomorrow.” Article/201106/139710。

Power corrupts, and absolute power corrupts absolutely. This is an interesting saying. It’s very true. If you look at the world leaders with the most power, they are the most corrupt. When someone has so much power, they want more. Maybe power is like a disease. It eats into your brain and makes you want more. Once you have a lot of power, you forget about being a real human being. The usual story with people in power is taking lots of money from the country and forgetting about the people. It depends on the country, I suppose. The most powerful person in the world is the president of the USA. But in America, the president doesn’t actually have a lot of power. Every four years, Americans can vote a president out of power. Article/201107/143985。

6The company of the prophets said to Elisha, "Look, the place where we meet with you is too small for us. 2Let us go to the Jordan, where each of us can get a pole; and let us build a place there for us to live." And he said, "Go." 3Then one of them said, "Won't you please come with your servants?" "I will," Elisha replied. 4And he went with them. They went to the Jordan and began to cut down trees. 5As one of them was cutting down a tree, the iron axhead fell into the water. "Oh, my lord," he cried out, "it was borrowed!" 6The man of God asked, "Where did it fall?" When he showed him the place, Elisha cut a stick and threw it there, and made the iron float. 7"Lift it out," he said. Then the man reached out his hand and took it. 8Now the king of Aram was at war with Israel. After conferring with his officers, he said, "I will set up my camp in such and such a place." 9The man of God sent word to the king of Israel: "Beware of passing that place, because the Arameans are going down there." 10So the king of Israel checked on the place indicated by the man of God. Time and again Elisha warned the king, so that he was on his guard in such places. 11This enraged the king of Aram. He summoned his officers and demanded of them, "Will you not tell me which of us is on the side of the king of Israel?" 12"None of us, my lord the king," said one of his officers, "but Elisha, the prophet who is in Israel, tells the king of Israel the very words you speak in your bedroom." 13"Go, find out where he is," the king ordered, "so I can send men and capture him." The report came back: "He is in Dothan." 14Then he sent horses and chariots and a strong force there. They went by night and surrounded the city. 15When the servant of the man of God got up and went out early the next morning, an army with horses and chariots had surrounded the city. "Oh, my lord, what shall we do?" the servant asked. 16"Don't be afraid," the prophet answered. "Those who are with us are more than those who are with them." 17And Elisha prayed, "O Lord , open his eyes so he may see." Then the Lord opened the servant's eyes, and he looked and saw the hills full of horses and chariots of fire all around Elisha. 18As the enemy came down toward him, Elisha prayed to the Lord , "Strike these people with blindness." So he struck them with blindness, as Elisha had asked. 19Elisha told them, "This is not the road and this is not the city. Follow me, and I will lead you to the man you are looking for." And he led them to Samaria. 20After they entered the city, Elisha said, "Lord , open the eyes of these men so they can see." Then the Lord opened their eyes and they looked, and there they were, inside Samaria. 21When the king of Israel saw them, he asked Elisha, "Shall I kill them, my father? Shall I kill them?" 22"Do not kill them," he answered. "Would you kill men you have captured with your own sword or bow? Set food and water before them so that they may eat and drink and then go back to their master." 23So he prepared a great feast for them, and after they had finished eating and drinking, he sent them away, and they returned to their master. So the bands from Aram stopped raiding Israel's territory. 24Some time later, Ben-Hadad king of Aram mobilized his entire army and marched up and laid siege to Samaria. 25There was a great famine in the city; the siege lasted so long that a donkey's head sold for eighty shekels of silver, and a quarter of a cab of seed pods for five shekels. 26As the king of Israel was passing by on the wall, a woman cried to him, "Help me, my lord the king!" 27The king replied, "If the Lord does not help you, where can I get help for you? From the threshing floor? From the winepress?" 28Then he asked her, "What's the matter?" She answered, "This woman said to me, 'Give up your son so we may eat him today, and tomorrow we'll eat my son.' 29So we cooked my son and ate him. The next day I said to her, 'Give up your son so we may eat him,' but she had hidden him." 30When the king heard the woman's words, he tore his robes. As he went along the wall, the people looked, and there, underneath, he had sackcloth on his body. 31He said, "May God deal with me, be it ever so severely, if the head of Elisha son of Shaphat remains on his shoulders today!" 32Now Elisha was sitting in his house, and the elders were sitting with him. The king sent a messenger ahead, but before he arrived, Elisha said to the elders, "Don't you see how this murderer is sending someone to cut off my head? Look, when the messenger comes, shut the door and hold it shut against him. Is not the sound of his master's footsteps behind him?" 33While he was still talking to them, the messenger came down to him. And the king said, "This disaster is from the Lord . Why should I wait for the Lord any longer?" Article/200809/49400。

The essential problem of man in a computerized age remains the same as it has always been. That problem is not solely how to be more productive, more comfortable, more content, but how to be more sensitive, more sensible, more proportionate, more alive. The computer makes possible a marvellous leap in human proficiency; it pulls down the fences around the practical and even the theoretical intelligence. But the question persists and indeed grows whether the computer will make it easier or harder for human beings to know who they really are, to identify their real problems, to respond more fully to beauty, to place adequate value on life, and to make their world safer than it now is.Electronic brains can reduce the profusion of dead ends involved in vital research. But they can't eliminate the foolish ness and decay that come form the unexamined life. Nor do they connect a man to the things he has to be connected to - the reality of pain in others; the possibilities of creative growth in himself; the memory of the race; and the rights of the next generation.The reason these matters are important in a computerized age is that there may be a tendency to mistake data for wisdom, just as there has always been a tendency to confuse logic with values, and intelligence with insight. Easy and convenient access to facts can produce unlimited good only if it is matched by the desire and ability to find out what they mean and where they would lead.Facts are terrible things if left sping and unexamined. They are too easily regarded as evaluated certainties rather than as the rawest of raw materials crying to be processed into the texture of logic. It requires a very unusual mind, Whitehead said, to undertake the analysis of a fact. The computer can provide a correct number, but it may be an irrelevant number until judgment is pronounced.To the extent, then, that man fails to distinguish between the intermediate operations of electronic intelligence and the ultimate responsibilities of human decision, the computer could prove a digression. It could obscure man's awareness of the need to come to terms with himself. It may foster the illusion that he is asking fundamental questions when actually he is asking only functional ones. It may be regarded as a substitute for intelligence instead of an extension of it. It may promote undue confidence in concrete answers. "If we begin with certainties," Bacon said, "we shall end in doubts but if we begin with doubts, and we are patient with them, we shall end in certainties."The computer knows how to conquer error, but before we lose ourselves in celebrating the victory, we might reflect on the great advances in the human situation that have come about because men were challenged by error and would not stop thinking and exploring until they found better approaches for dealing with it. "Give me a good fruitful error, full of seeds, bursting with its own corrections," Ferris Greenslet wrote, "You can keep your sterile truth for yourself."The biggest single need in computer technology is not for increased speed, or enlarged capacity, or prolonged memory, or reduced size, but for better questions and better use of the answers. Without taking anything away from the technicians, we think it might be fruitful to effect some sort of junction between the computer technologist wonders of the creative imagination on the kinds of problems being put to electronic technology. The company of poets may enable the men who tend the machines to see a wider range of possibilities than technology alone may inspire.A poet, said Aristotle, has the advantage of expressing the universal; the specialist expresses only the particular. The poet, moreover, can remind us that man's greatest energy comes not from his dynamos but from his dreams. But the quality of man's dreams can only be a reflection of his subconscious. What he puts into his subconscious, therefore, is quite literally the most important nourishment in the world.Nothing really happens to a man except as it is registered in the subconscious. This is where event and feeling become memory and where the proof of life is stored. The poet - and we use the term to include all those who have respect for and speak to the human spirit - can help to supply the subconscious with material to enhance its sensitivity, thus safeguarding it. The poet, too, can help to keep man from making himself over in the image of his electronic wonders. For the danger is not so much that man will be controlled by the computer as that he may imitate it.The poet reminds men of their uniqueness. It is not necessary to possess the ultimate definition of this uniqueness. Even to speculate on it is gain.在计算机时代,人类的基本问题依然是过去一直存在的问题。这个问题不仅仅是如何更多产、更舒适、更惬意,而是如何更敏感、更明智、更均衡、更有生机。计算机使人类能力上的巨大飞跃成为可能;它打破了束缚实践智能和理论智能的藩篱。但是计算机是使人类更容易还是更难以理解自己究竟是什么,是否有助于识别真正的问题,有助于对美作出更全面的反应,对生活作出更充分的评价?是否能使世界变得比现在更安全?这个问题一直存在而且越来越突出。电脑能够减少许多生命研究中的死胡同。但它们不能消除因为生活未经反省产生的愚蠢和腐朽;它们也不能把一个人同之相关的事物--别人的痛苦现实、自我创造性发展的可能性、种族的印记以及下一代的权利联系起来。这些事情在计算机时代之所以重要是因为可能有一种错把数据当智慧的趋势,就像一直存在的把逻辑与价值、智力,以及见解混为一谈的趋势一样。获取事实的便捷手段只有与弄清这些事实的意义与导向的愿望和能力一致时才能使人们受益无穷。如果任其事实流传而不加检验,这样的事实是可怕的,因为它们极容易被认为是已获定评的事实,而不是迫切需要处理使之具有逻辑条理的原始材料中最原始的部分。怀特里德说,对事实进行分析需要非凡的头脑。计算机能够提供正确的数字,但如果不作判断,这个数字可能毫无意义。因而,在人类不能区分电子智力的中间运算与人的决定的最终责任的情况下,计算机可能被明是一种节外生枝。它可能模糊人类满足自身条件的意识。它可能使人产生错觉,当他实际上只是在问功能的问题时,却认为他在问基本的问题。它可能被认为是智力的替代物,而不是智力的延伸。它可能使人过分相信具体。培根说:"如果我们肯定开始,就会以疑惑结束;如果我们以疑惑开始,并且耐心处之,我们就会以肯定结束。"计算机懂得如何克错误,但在我们得意忘形地为此欢呼之前,我们不妨思考一下人类的处境之所以出现巨大的进步是因为人类受到错误的挑战而且总是不停的思考、探索,直到找到的更好的处理方法。"给我一个内容丰富的错误,充满希望的种子,包含自我更正,"费里斯·格林里特道,"你可以把贫瘠的真理留给自己。"对计算机技术最大的、唯一的要求不是提高速度、扩大容量、延长记忆或减小体积,而是要提出更好的问题,更好地利用其。我们认为,在计算机技术专家和诗人之间衽某种结合可能会卓有成效,而且对技术人员不损秋毫。通过充分发挥由电子技术处理的问题的创造性想象的神奇力量,计算机起到真正的作用。与诗人为伍可能使使用计算机的人能看到比技术自身激发出的更大范围的可能性。亚里士多德说,诗人的优势是表达共性,而专家表现的仅仅是某个特性。而且诗人能够提醒我们,人最大的能量并不来自精力,而是来自他的梦想。但是人的梦想的特征仅仅是他的下意识的反映。因而,他存在下意识的东西实质上是世界上最好的营养。并没有什么事会真的发生在一个人的身上,除非这件事已在他的潜意识里烙下了印记。正是在潜意识里,事件和感情变成记忆,生活的据储存于此。诗人--我们用这个词指所有新生人类精神,诉说人类精神的人--能够帮助为潜意识提供材料,增强其敏感度,从而保护它。诗人也能使人们不至于按照电子奇迹的形象改变自己,因为危险不在于人被计算机控制而在于人可能会模仿计算机的思维。诗人提醒人们记住自己的独特性。没有必要弄清这种独特性的终极定义,但即是这种独特性进行思考也是一种收获。 Article/200803/28208。

Where would we be without the media? How would we get information about the world? All of us are interested in the news. We all want to know what’s happening around the world. We switch the TV on just to watch the news. It seems as though every train passenger has a newspaper. The journalists who bring us the news do a very important job. Many risk their lives to bring us the news from the world’s danger zones. Unfortunately, many reporters are killed while they are covering a war. The media make us feel we are part of the world. We become experts on other countries and on the big news stories. The media also bring us many unforgettable images, such as a man walking on the moon. Really, the media show us history as it happens. Article/201105/138568。

The next morning, Sean and Darren got into Sean’s car. Sean took The Club off the steering wheel. Darren noticed that Sean didn’t unlock The Club first. He asked Sean if The Club had been unlocked all night. Sean said yes. Darren fumed. “Do you know how long it takes a thief to smash the window and drive off with this car?! Less than two minutes! Do you think cars grow on trees? Do you have the money to buy another car if this one is stolen?” Sean said that he had forgotten to lock The Club. Darren reminded Sean that he had spent a lot of time finding Sean a clean, reliable, used car. He also reminded Sean that he, not Sean, had paid for the car.He barked at Sean off and on during the next two hours. They went south on Santa Anita Avenue to the 10 and headed west to downtown LA. They went south to the USC Coliseum and turned around at the two statues of the Olympic athletes. Then they went north on Figueroa Street to the 110 and headed back to Arcadia. Darren continued to yell at Sean about his driving errors. When Sean tried to parallel park in front of Gwen’s apartment, Darren scolded him for taking 20 seconds to do something that should have taken five seconds.As they walked upstairs to the apartment, Darren apologized to Sean for all the yelling he had done. Sean didn’t respond. Instead, he entered the apartment, spoke angrily to his mother in their native language, went into his bedroom, and slammed the door. Gwen looked at Darren but said nothing. She simply shook her head. Article/201108/148092。

Mike was late for school. He said to his teacher, Mr. Black, "Excuse me for my coming late, sir. I watched a football match in my dream." "Why did it make you late?" inquired the teacher. "Because neither team could win the game, so it lasted a long time," replied Mike.迈克上学迟到了。他对老师布莱克先生说:“对不起,我迟到了,老师。我梦见了一场足球赛。”老师问:“那为什么会使你迟到呢?”迈克回答说:“因为两个队不分胜负,所以持续了很长时间。” Article/200804/36104。