原标题: 广东惠州中心医院治疗早泄多少钱龙马时讯
As you lie on the ground with your hands behind your head and your knees bent, you lift your upper body towards your knees.当你躺在地上,双手置于脑袋下方,你弯曲双膝,抬起上身靠近膝盖。That’s how you do a traditional sit-up, an exercise many of us have been doing since elementary school. However, the benefits of this abdominal workout are now in doubt.这是传统仰卧起坐的姿势,很多人从小学就开始接触这项运动了。不过现在这项腹肌训练的效果受到了质疑。Earlier last month, an editorial from the Navy Times, a US military publication, said that the sit-up is “viewed as a key cause of lower back injuries”. A study conducted by the US National Center for Biotechnology Information confirmed that 56 percent of the injuries in the US army’s fitness test result from sit-ups. The Canadian Armed Forces banished the sit-up from its fitness test for the same reason.12月初美国军事报刊《海军时报》的一篇说,仰卧起坐“是腰背损伤的主要诱因”。美国国家生物技术信息中心的一项研究实,56%的美国军队体能测试受伤案例都是由仰卧起坐引发。加拿大武装部队也因此将仰卧起坐从其体能测试中剔除。“Sit-ups can put hundreds of pounds of compressive force on the spine,” Stuart McGill, a spine biomechanics specialist at the University of Waterloo, Canada, told The Wall Street Journal. “[It] can squeeze the discs in the spine, [and] eventually can cause discs to bulge, pressing on nerves and causing back pain, potentially leading to disc herniation.”加拿大滑铁卢大学脊柱生物力学专家斯图尔特麦吉尔告诉《华尔街日报》:“仰卧起坐会给人的脊柱增加上百磅的压力。它会挤压腰椎间盘,最后可能会导致腰椎间盘变形,压迫腰椎神经,造成背部疼痛,很可能形成腰椎间盘突出症。”In addition to its health disadvantages, the sit-up is also seen as lacking efficiency. A new report from Harvard Medical School disclosed that traditional sit-ups only target certain muscle groups instead of strengthening the entire set of core muscles.除了不利于健康,仰卧起坐还被视为低效运动。哈佛医学院的一项最新报道表明,传统仰卧起坐只能锻炼到特定的肌肉群,并不能起到强化全身核心肌肉的作用。As a result, many fitness gurus are abandoning sit-ups. “I really believe that the traditional, antiquated crunch has seen better days, and it’s time to make a change,” said Tony Horton, the creator of the popular P90X workout series. Horton revealed that he no longer does sit-ups.因此许多健身达人不再做仰卧起坐了。P90X系列健身法的创始人托尼眠羃说:“我相信传统、过时的卷腹运动曾风靡一时,但现在是时候改改了。”荷顿透露,他也不再做仰卧起坐了。For fitness lovers who used to do traditional sit-ups, Dr McGill recommends a modified curl-up that puts less stress on spines than traditional sit-ups. It requires adopters place hands underneath the back and then only lift head and shoulders.麦吉尔士建议那些过去常做仰卧起坐的健身爱好者可以改练改良版的卷腹,它给脊柱的压力会小很多。动作的要领是,将手置于背部下方,只需抬起头和肩即可。Sit-ups can also be practiced in different ways, and the variations range from V-Ups, Swiss ball sit-ups and reverse sit-ups. The injury risk not only depends on the variations that people use, but also on an individual’s physical well-being.仰卧起坐也有多种训练方法,从V字向上、瑞士球腹肌训练到反向仰卧起坐。是否会受伤不仅取决于仰卧起坐的姿势,还和个人的身体健康状况相关。John Childs is the CEO of Evidence in Motion, a US company that trains physical therapists, and he remains skeptical about the latest study against sit-ups. He acknowledges that sit-ups can increase the stress placed on backs, but he doesn’t see a direct link between sit-ups and back pain.美国理疗师培训公司运动迹象的CEO约翰蔡尔斯对有关仰卧起坐的最新研究持怀疑态度。他承认仰卧起坐会给背部增加压力,但不认为仰卧起坐和背部酸痛有直接关系。“The most important thing is for people to perform exercises they enjoy so they’ll continue doing them,” Childs told The Wall Street Journal. “Staying active and doing regular exercise the old-fashioned way is far more advantageous than doing nothing.”“最重要的是选择自己喜欢的运动,这样才能坚持锻炼,”蔡尔斯告诉《华尔街日报》。“保持活力,定期锻炼,就算过时的运动方式也比一动不动来得好。” /201601/421317

Although most young Argentinians aren’t even thinking about marriage these days, they seem quite fond of wedding ceremonies. So they’ve come up with a bizarre party trend of fake weddings, where groups of 20- and 30-somethings get together to attend wedding-themed parties complete with fake bride and groom.虽然大多数阿根廷年轻人根本没考虑过谈婚论嫁,可他们似乎都还很喜欢参加婚礼。所以他们开启了“假结婚”的奇异潮流,一堆20或者30多岁的年轻人齐聚一堂,参加婚礼主题的聚会,不过新郎和新娘都不是真的。The idea was the brainchild of 26-year-old publicist Martin Acerbi, who, a couple of years ago, organised a fake wedding with four of his friends in La Plata, about 32 miles away from Buenos Aires. “It all started two years ago with a group of friends: we realised we hadn’t been to a wedding in a long time because hardly anybody is getting married anymore,” Acerbi says.26岁的公关马丁·阿克比想出了这一主意,几年前,他与他的四位朋友在距离阿根廷布宜诺斯艾利斯51.5公里远的拉普拉塔组织了一场假婚礼。他回忆道:“一切始于两年前我和一群朋友的经历:由于现在很少有人结婚,我们意识到我们很久没有参加过婚礼了。”To his surprise, the event was a huge success which got him thinking about a new business. The friends went on to found ‘Falsa Boda’, a fake wedding organising company, in November 2013. They rent out real wedding locations, hire caterers, florists, and DJs, and make everything look like a real wedding. Except, there is no ‘happily ever after’.令他惊讶的是,他们组织的假婚礼获得了空前的成功,这使得阿克比想到了新商机。这几位志同道合的好友于2013年11月成立了一家组织假婚礼的公司Falsa Boda。他们租赁了真正的婚礼举办地点,雇佣了宴席承办者、花匠和DJ,让一切看上去与真正的婚礼一模一样。唯一的差别在于,婚礼过后没有“从此之后的幸福生活”。The bride and groom are hired too, as is a secret boyfriend or spurned lover who arrives unexpectedly to disrupt the ceremony. There’s a fair bit of drama when the bride or groom abandons the wedding and elopes with the third actor. There’s a different storyline for each event, and sometimes the ‘bride’ even throws her bouquet to the female guests.新娘和新郎也是雇佣来的,假婚礼上还会有秘密男友或者感觉备受冷落的情人前来闹场。有时新娘或者新郎会抛弃婚礼与第三名演员私奔。每场假婚礼最后都会有不同的故事结局,有时新娘会将捧花扔给女性客人。“These wedding professionals have become our strategic allies, we organise it like it’s the real thing, except the marriage itself is fake,” Acerbi said. “Our guests get all the fun of a wedding party with none of the commitment, or the problem of finding someone who is actually getting married.”阿克比说:“这些婚礼专家已经成为了我们的战略同盟,我们将它当做一场真正的婚礼来举办,只有婚姻本身是假的。我们的客人可以充分享受这场没有承诺的婚礼的乐趣,就算看中新郎新娘也没有关系,因为他们不是真的结婚。”Each fake wedding event can accommodate 600 to 700 guests, who all pay about to attend. According to Acerbi, the events are mostly targeted at women, who end up buying the majority of the tickets. “The romanticism around weddings is clearly still alive, at least in that respect,” he explained.每场假婚礼能容纳600-700名客人,每位客人需付50美元入场费。据阿克比透露,假婚礼的主要目标是女性,她们购买了大部分入场券。他解释说:“虽然婚姻本身是假的,但婚礼的浪漫氛围并未减少。”32-year-old marketing manager Pablo Boniface, who recently attended a fake wedding, said: “The girls were euphoric, as if a cousin of theirs was really getting married, but it was just an actress. When the bride arrived, everyone went crazy, pulling out their phones and snapping pictures like she was a Hollywood star.” He agreed that the fake weddings were a big hit because hardly anyone his age ever talks about getting married. “I’m single and so are all of my friends of both sexes. Marriage is something we don’t even think about. It’s a formality that has nothing to do with love.”32岁的市场经理帕布洛·伯尼菲斯最近参加了一场假婚礼,他说:“姑娘们的情绪都很高涨,感觉就像她们的亲戚真的在结婚一样,但其实婚礼上只有演员。新娘入场之后,每个人都很疯狂,拿出他们的手机拍摄照片,感觉她就像一名好莱坞明星。”他承认假婚礼特别受欢迎,因为他的同龄人很少会考虑结婚。“我还是单身,我身边的男女朋友们也一样。婚姻是我们不会考虑的东西。这是一场与爱无关的仪式。”There’s plenty of data to prove Boniface right. 22,000 couples tied the knot in Buenos Aires in 1990, but that number nosedived to almost half that – 11,642 – by 2013. According to government statistics, the people who do get married are much older. So people these days don’t have many opportunities to attend wedding parties, which is why Acerbi’s fake weddings are so popular.不少数据显示1990年布宜诺斯艾利斯有2.2万人结婚,而这一数字到了2013年暴跌至11642人。据政府统计,真正结婚的人年纪都比较大。如今阿根廷的年轻人没什么机会参加婚礼,阿克比的假婚礼才会如此受欢迎。“They are going to see something they don’t do in real life any more,” explained sociologist Victoria Mazzeo. “The fact is that very few young people get married anymore.”社会学家维多利亚·马泽尔表示:“他们会见识到现实生活中看不到的东西。事实上,现在很少有年轻人结婚了。”And as Boniface pointed out, it’s apparently easier to meet someone at fake weddings than at real ones!正如伯尼菲斯指出,很明显去假婚礼结交朋友远比去真婚礼方便。 /201510/404684

A professional street beggar in Wolverhampton, Britain, is earning up to 500 pounds a day, according to a local councillor.根据当地的议员透露,英国伍尔弗汉普顿一位职业街头乞丐一天的收入最高可达500英磅。The astonishing figure - which is the equivalent of a 130,000 pounds a year - puts the unnamed man#39;s earnings at just 12,000 pounds than Prime Minister David Cameron#39;s 142,000 pounds earnings.这是一个令人吃惊的数字,相当于他每年的收入约为13万英镑。这一数字使得这个无名之辈的收入只比首相卡梅伦的年薪少1.2万英镑。英国首相的年薪也仅为14万2千英镑。What makes the numbers even more incredible is that the beggar is not homeless and simply targets kind-hearted shoppers in the city.比起这一数字,更不可思议的是,这名乞丐并不是无家可归,他只是单纯地将目标定位在那些城市中善良的消费者身上。Labour councillor Steve Evans claimed that most beggars in the area were not homeless and just wanted free money so they could buy alcohol.工党议员史蒂夫·埃文斯声称,该地区大多数乞丐都不是无家可归的,只是想要一些钱来买酒。He said: ;We have got some information that one man was making between 300 to 500 pounds a day and wasn#39;t homeless at all. I don#39;t think it#39;s acceptable.;埃文斯说道:“我们已经获悉到,那个每天乞讨到300到500英镑的乞丐,根本不是无家可归。我认为这简直令人难以接受。”He added that the council are looking into ways to prove that beggars are simply conning the public so that they can be taken to court and excluded from the city.他还补充说道,有关当局正在采取措施来明这些乞丐只是在欺骗群众,这样就能将他们带上法庭,并从城市中遣送回去。Genuine homeless people in Wolverhampton have said they are ;worried; that bad publicity will stop people being so generous in future.但是,伍尔弗汉普顿真正无家可归的人表示,他们很担心这一负面影响将会使得以后人们不再慷慨。Then there#39;s the claim that a man who was caught on film clambering back into his 50,000 pounds Audi sportscar, after a day begging in Cornwall.此外,听说在康沃尔郡,一名男子被拍到在乞讨一天之后,钻进了一辆价值5万英镑的奥迪跑车扬尘而去。It was reported that only one in five beggars in the UK is genuinely homeless, while many are doing it to top up their benefits or even incomes from work.据报道,英国的乞丐中5人中只有一人是真的无家可归,其他许多人则是把乞讨当成捞好处、甚至是工作之余增加收入的方式。 /201603/430636

The age of the Qing Dynasty is, not only in the eyes of Westerners, but also in the mind of Chinese,a period of prosperity, of decay,of stag-nation,of revolution,of laziness and of challenges that came upon a population that seemed to sleep a beauty’s sleep of Confucian social ethics in a paradise where a wise ruler governed over a satisfied and happy population,and on the other side a society that was bound by rules of a backward social thinking.清朝无论在西方人的眼中还是在中国人的眼中,是一个经历了繁荣、腐败、停滞、革命、惰性和挑战的时代,所有这些都发生在这个国家国人的身上。它就像是沉睡在天国里封建道德中的睡美人。在那里,聪明的统治者统治着满足和幸福的国民,也统治着一个受落后的社会思想束缚的社会。The period of early and middle Qing Dynasty Is the culmination of two thousand years of bureaucratical administration, two thousand years of literature, thinking and art.清朝早中期是中国2000年官僚统治的顶峰,也是2000年文学、思想和艺术的顶峰。Their rule over the majority ofculturedand highly sophisticated Chinese population was only possible by a mixture of authoritarianism, or force, and paternalism, or benevolence.他们对于这个有文化的、老于世故的绝对大汉族的统治只有通过多方面的专制来实现—— 要么是武力,要么是家长制统治,要么是亲善。The second and third generation emperors of the Qing learned that it was only possible to rule China if the Manchu became Chinese themselves , not racially, but culturally and mentally.清朝的第二代、第三代皇帝懂得,只有满人汉化才能统治中国。所谓的汉化,不仅仅是种族上,关键是文化和思想意识。Therefore, the three great emperors with the reign mottos Kangxi, Yongzheng and Qianlong, saw themselves as protectors of Chinese literature and art.所以,清朝的三位皇帝以“康熙、雍正和乾隆”为座右铭,将自己看作是汉文化艺术的保护者。China was the largest, richest and most effectively governed state of the world till the 18th century.直到18世纪,中国在世界上是最大、最富有、最有影响力的政权国家。Internal problems and external conflicts led to the decay of a glorious empire from the beginning of 19th century, focusing on the Opium war and the following unequal treaties.内忧外患,尤其是鸦片战争和战后一系列不平等条约,最终导致了在19世纪开始辉煌的帝国的最终灭亡。 /201603/428566To discover the secret to a longer life, the best people to ask must surely be those who have lived the longest. Some of the oldest people in the world were born before the turn of the 20th century, and have lived well past 100 without, well erm, dying. This certainly isn#39;t medically sound advice for the most part, more like an insight into what it is that the world#39;s super centenarians believe has kept them going all these years. So what is it that makes these people special? What#39;s their secret? As we#39;ll discover, its not always what you might imagine…如果要与人探讨长寿的秘诀,那么最佳人选当然是那些活得最久的人。最长寿的人当中,有些在20世纪来临之前就已出生,100年来都还好好地活着,至少没有死。这当然不是主要从医学上进行探究,更多的是观察到底是什么使得这些百岁老人相信并一直持他们活到现在。那么到底是什么使他们变得如此特殊呢?他们的秘密到底是什么?随着我们的发现,其中的秘密可能并不是你所想象的那样。10.Mind your own business10.少管闲事In 2011 the Guinness World Records handed the title of #39;world#39;s oldest living person#39; to Georgia resident, Besse Cooper who retained the record until she passed away in 2012 at the age of 116. Of the two pieces of advice that she offered, one is perhaps more likely to be in line with your doctor#39;s recommendations than the other. Her secret to longevity? ;I mind my own business, and I don#39;t eat junk food.;2011年世界吉尼斯纪录将;世上最长寿的人;这一头衔颁给一名叫Basse Cooper的佐治亚州居民,她一直保持着这个纪录直到2012年去世,享年116岁。她提出两条建议,其中一条是尽可能听从医生的建议。那另一个长寿的秘诀是什么?;我只关心自己的事,不多管闲事,并且我不吃垃圾食品。;So maybe cutting down on the unhealthy stuff would be a good start. Beyond that, maybe you should stop being such a busybody!因此,减少不健康食品应该是个好的开始。除此以外,也许你应该停止成为一个爱管闲事的人!9.Sushi and sleep9.寿司和睡眠Misao Okawa is a Japanese super centeniarian at 116 years old, and is currently the world#39;s oldest living person. Born on 5th of March 1898 in Tenma, Osaka, Misao says the key to a long life is eating sushi and getting at least eight hours sleep a night. She said in 2014 ;Eat and sleep and you will live a long time. You have to learn to relax.;.Misao Okawa是日本一名长寿老人,现年116岁,是目前世上最长寿并且还在世的人。Misao于1898年3月5日出生于大阪的天满,她坦言道长寿的关键是吃寿司和保晚上至少8小时的睡眠。2014年她还说道:;吃好、睡好,你就能长寿。你得学会放松。;Who would have thought that one of the secrets to a longer life could involve getting enough sleep? So next time we#39;re feeling guilty for sleeping in passed what others might call a #39;reasonable time,#39; we can be reassured that we#39;re simply investing in our longevity. Sushi for breakfast!谁会想到长寿的秘诀之一竟包括保充足的睡眠?所以啊,下次当我们为睡过头而感到愧疚时,不妨安慰自己;我们是仅仅是为了希望自己能活得久点;。再把寿司当做早餐!8.Never get bored8.永远不要感到无聊;I#39;ve only ever had one wrinkle, and I#39;m sitting on it;.;我全身只有一处皱纹,那就是我的下面。;Quoted on her 110th birthday, there was really no doubt that Jeanne Calment still had her sense of humor. Calment was born in France 14 years before the construction of the Eiffel Tower, and at 122 was the oldest person ever when she died in August 1997. Every birthday during her last decade was celebrated in France. She delighted in amusing reporters with her many secrets of longevity. The list was different every year and included (among others) laughter, activity and ;a stomach like an ostrich.; Calment also attributes her many years to her faith, stating ;(God) has forgotten me. He can#39;t be in such a hurry to see me. He aly knows me very well.; At her party a year before her death, Calment gave some insight into what it takes to stay interested and engaged during a life as long as hers. ;I dream, I think, I go over my life… I never get bored.;.这句话来自Jeanne Calment的110岁生日,毫无疑问,她还是很有幽默感的。Calment出生于埃菲尔铁塔修建前14年的法国,1997年8月去世,那时她122岁,是当时最长寿的人。她人生最后十年里的每个生日都是在法国庆祝的。她喜欢用她许多的长寿秘诀来记者,每年的秘诀清单都不一样,但都包括大笑、活跃和;有一个像鸵鸟一样的胃;。Calment同样也为自己信仰付出许多年,她称道:;(上帝)已经忘了我,他并不急着见我,他已经很了解我了。;在她去世前一年的一次聚会上,Calment对她如何在一生中保持有趣和保持忙碌有了更深入的见解:;我梦想,我思考,我认真过着我的生活……我从未感到无聊。;7.Hard work and a glass of wine7.努力工作加一杯小酒Well, it was inevitable that #39;hard work#39; would come up eventually, but the wine is a silver lining.当然,;努力工作;这一项必然会逐渐被提到,但酒也有一线希望。Marie-Louise Meilleur lived in Corbeil, Ontario and was 117 years old when she died in 1998. She cited hard work as the major factor in contributing to her impressive age, but she likely extended her life by some years when she stopped smoking at 90 years old. As well as hard work, Meilleur was known to enjoy a glass of wine, which she also cited as a contirbuing factor in her longevity. At least after all that hard work you#39;ll feel like you#39;ve earned your glass of wine, right?生活在安大略省科尔贝的Marie-Louise Meilleur去世于1998年,那时她已117岁了。她将努力工作视为助她拥有傲人年龄的主要因素,但她90岁时的那次戒烟似乎也对延长寿命起到作用。Meilleur不仅仅工作努力,她同样也喜欢来点小酒,这也是她所认为的助她长寿的因素之一。毕竟,你真心努力工作后所体会到的感觉恰恰就像浅尝过一杯小酒,不是吗?6.Be nice, worship God and eat pigs#39; feet6.为人和善崇拜上帝多吃猪蹄Jeralean Talley is an American super centenarian who is, at the age of 115 years, the oldest living person in the ed States and third verified oldest living person in the world. Talley still lives very much as she always has done, often staying up until midnight feasting on some of her favorite foods: potato salad, honey buns, McDonald#39;s chicken nuggets and Wendy#39;s chili.Jeralean Talley是一名美国百岁老人,她115岁了,是美国年龄最大且还在世的人,还是世界上有据可查的第三长寿的人。Talley仍然过着往常的生活,经常熬夜,半夜还大吃大喝她最爱的食物:土豆沙拉、蜂蜜面包、麦当劳鸡肉块和辣椒。Staying active at her age isn#39;t a problem either. Talley sews dresses, makes quilts and enjoys playing the slot machines at casinos. At 104 years old she had to give up bowling though, as she no longer had the strength in her legs. Staying active isn#39;t Jeralean#39;s secret to a long life though. ;Do unto others as you desire them to do unto you,; is her mantra, and she insists that#39;s the secret to living a long life. It should also be said though, that eating plenty of pork is on her list too. Every Christmas, she bakes pigs#39; ears and feet in a jelly stock for herself and her family.在她那个年纪保持活跃依然不是问题。Talley自己做裙子,缝被子,还喜欢在里的上来几把。但在她104岁时,她不得不停止打保龄了,因为她的腿不再那么有力了。保持活跃并不是Jeralean的长寿秘诀。;己所不欲,勿施于人;是她的信条,她坚信这才是保持长寿的秘诀。同样,据说多吃猪肉也在她的长寿秘诀清单里。每个圣诞节,她都会为自己和家人烤猪耳和猪蹄。翻译:张洋 前十网 /201511/412422Despite all great jobs he did, Qin Shi Huang ruled as a ruthless tyrant.尽管秦始皇有许多创举,但他却是个暴君。To prevent future uprisings, Qin Shi Huang ordered to confiscate weapons, to destroy the city walls and military fortifications and to move the old nobles and magnates of the six states to Xianyang, Nanyang and Bashu so as to weaken their political and economic influence.为了防范暴乱,秦始皇下令收缴散落在民间的兵器,拆毁各地的城墙和防御工事,迁徙各国的旧贵族和豪富到咸阳及南阳、巴蜀等地,以削弱他们的政治、经济势力。To facilitate the movement of troops and the transportation of army provisions, the First Emperor ordered to build highways.秦始皇为了方便调拨士卒和转运粮饷,又大修驰道。Meanwhile, the Lingqu Canal was dug, which linked the Yangtze River and the Zhujiang River together.同时开凿灵渠,沟通了长江和珠江水系。Burning books and burying scholars alive were brutal suppression in ideological field with which the First Emperor repressed the dissenting ones, and exercised autocratic control over thinking and culture.“焚书坑儒”事件则是秦始皇在意识形态领域内对不同政见士人的残酷镇压,是对思想文化的专制统治。In 213 B. C. , at a court banquet, Chun Yuyue proposed to follow the conventions of fief system and granted titles and ands to the heroes and nobles.公元前213年,秦始皇在咸阳宫举行宴会,士齐人淳于越倡议,主张学古法,分封皇子功臣为诸侯。Li Si, the Prime Minister held that these scholars were dangerous, so suggested that all historical records except those written by Qin historians be burned ; that the Books of Odes and Book of History and works by scholars of different schools except those stored by officials be handed in to the local authorities for burning; that anyone discussing these two particular books be executed; that those using ancient examples to criticize contemporary politics be put to death and their families killed ; that those who had not burned the listed books within 30 days be sentenced to four yearsJ service ; that books about medicine, divination, agriculture be preserved.丞相李斯认为这样一群儒生是一种危险势力,于是提出了焚书的建议:“史官非秦记皆烧之。非士官所职,天下敢有藏《诗》、《书》、语者,悉诣守、尉杂烧之。有敢偶语《诗》、《书》者弃市。以古 非今者诛。吏见知不举者与同罪。令下三十日不烧,黥为城旦。所不去者,医药卜 筮种树之书。”The First Emperor accepted all these proposals ,and then the event of burning books occurred.秦始皇接受了这一建议,于是就发生了焚书事件。In the second year of burning books, the event of burying scholars alive underwent.第二年,又发生了坑儒事件。Dissatisfied with the First Emperor, some Confucian scholars and alchemists criticized him.起因是由于有些儒生和方士对秦始皇不满。The First Emperor sent inspectors to investigate, then arrested over 460 people and finally had all of them buried alive in Xianyang.秦始皇派御史侦察,先后逮捕了 460多个儒生,全部在咸阳坑杀。By these means, the First Emperor gave a heavy blow on the aristocratic splittism, but wrecked the culture severely at the same time, causing enormous losses in the conservation of ancient documents and impartment of learning.秦始皇以焚书坑儒的手段打击了贵族政治的分裂思想,同时却严重摧残了文化,对于古文献的保存和学术的传授,造成了极大的损失。All the practice made by the First Emperor were in line with the legalists, and many of his such behaviors had demonstrated it.秦始皇施政定制根本上是以法家思想为依据。焚书坑儒以及“以法为教”,“以吏为师”等,更突出地反映了他的法家思想。 /201511/407456

While the Eastern Jin existed in the south, northern China fell into disunifi-cation of warfare. The Yellow River valley became the battlefield for warlords from the five Hu nationalities—the Xiongnu, the Xianbei, the Jie, the Diand the Qiang. Each Hu (minority) state established its own government to front the Eastern Jin and there were a bunch of countries came into existence and vanished. These governments are known as “the Sixteen States”.当东晋在江南建国的同时,中国的北方则陷人分裂混战,黄河流域成为匈奴、鲜卑、羯、氐、弟等五个主要游牧民族争杀的战场,并分别建立了自己的国家,相互争霸,不断有国家成立和灭亡,这些国家被称为北方的十六国。In 304, the Xiongnu noble Liu Yuan set up the Han state which, in 316, vanquished the Western Jin. In 439, the Tuoba tribe of the Xianbei nationality united the north. For over a hundred years, frequent wars took place among different nationalities, resulting in the establishment of 15 states. They were the Former Zhao (Xiongnu), the Later Zhao (Jie), the Former Yan (Xianbei), the Former Liang (Han), the Former Qin (Di), the Later Qin (Qiang), the Later Yan (Xianbei), the Western Qin (Xianbei ),the Later Liang ( Di), the Southern Liang (Xianbei), the Western Liang (Han), the Northern Liang (Lushuihu), the Southern Yan (Xianbei), the Northern Yan (Han), and the Xia (Xiongnu). These fifteen states together with the Han state of Cheng established by the Di nationality in the southwest are historically called the Sixteen States.从公元304年匈奴贵族刘渊建立汉国,316年灭掉西晋,到439年鲜卑拓拔部统一北方,这130多年里,北方各民族相互争战,先后建立了前赵(匈奴)、后赵(羯)、前燕 (鲜卑)、前凉(汉)、前秦(氐)、后秦(羌)、后燕(鲜卑)、西秦(鲜卑)、后凉(氐)、南 凉(鲜卑)、西凉(汉)、北凉(卢水胡)、南燕(鲜卑)、北燕(汉)、夏(匈奴)等15个政 权,连同西南氐族建立的成汉,共十六国,和东晋汉族政权长期对峙,史称五胡十六国。Besides, there were five regimes:the Wei founded by Ran Min of the Han nationality; the Wei founded by the Zhai family in Dingling; the Chouchi founded by the Yang family in Wudu, a leader of the Di nationality; the Western Yan founded by the Murong family of the Xianbei nationality, and the Dai by the Tuoba family of the Xianbei nationality. There were altogether 21 states in this period.除十六国之外,还有汉人冉闵建立的魏、丁灵翟氏建立的魏、武都氐帅杨氏建立的仇池国、鲜卑慕容氏建立的西燕、鲜卑拓跋氏建立的代五个政权,总计先后建立了21个政权。Among them, the Later Zhao,the Former Yan and the Former Qin successively occupied most of the northern territories;especially, the Former Qin almost united the whole northern part of China.上述政权中,后赵、前燕、前秦都曾占据过北方的大部分疆域。4世纪下半期,氐族贵族建立的前秦,基本上统一了北方。After the Feishui Compaign,the Former Qin was shattered, thus over a century, warfare never stopped in the north.淝水之战后,前秦统治瓦解,北方再度陷人四分五裂和军阀混战状态。The wholescale migration to the hinterland brought many minorities into full contacts with the Huaxia (Chinese) culture. They acquired the same tastes and conventions with Han nationality and were assimilated and accommodated in Han culture.由于少数民族人主中原,更多地接触到华夏文化,使之与汉民族逐渐发展为同一生活习惯的民族,进而被汉族融合。Since then, China was a nation embracing various ethnic groups that imbued with similar customs due to the fact that the minorities live along with the majority Han side by side in the northern part of central plain.自魏、晋、南北朝之后,中原北方大体已形成以汉族为主,其他少数民族混居的人口构成形式,使中国正式成为具有相似生活习惯的多民族国家。The rulers of Eastern Jin were contented with their sovereign in the south and did not take serious of recovering of the Central Plain.由于东晋统治者安于江南,不以恢复中原为意,门阀大族致力于南方的庄园经营。Those landlord gentries and noble families concentrated their minds on economic developments in the south. Therefore It was possible for the nobles in the south to know the prestigious families and refugees migrated from the north in the war which enhanced the social development in the south.北方大族及大量汉族人口迁徙江南,使得江南的名士与渡江的中原人士有了更多的交流机会,促进了社会文化的发展。Since Wei there was a prosperous development of literature,especially in the Eastern Jin Dynasty.自曹魏以来,中国的文学发展一直处于大步前进的时期,其中以东晋年间的文人最为著名。For example, Xie Lingyun, a landscape poem writer and Tao Yuanming , a pastoral poet grew out of the old style of poem writing and wrote the poems full of imagination and the flavor of rustic life. These new ideas and reforms laid foundation for later flourishing of poems and prose in Sui-Tang dynasties.东晋出现了山水诗人谢灵运、 田园诗人陶渊明等人,他们对旧体诗作出改革,为将来隋、唐的诗文盛世创造了前提条件。In social development, the handicraft industry was advanced in a wide margin compared to that of the Western Jin owing to the melting and communications of the north and the south.在社会生产上,北方的手工业技术与南方的技术相互融合,使东晋的手工业水平比西晋有了大幅度的提高。With the industrious working of the immigrated farmers from the north and the native farmers in the south, enormous wilds were cultivated and empoldered, which made the Yangtze River valley the center of e-conomy following the Yellow River valley in Chinese history.南下的北方农民和土著农民辛勤劳动,开辟南方广大的山泽荒野,促进了江南的开发,使中国经济重心开始由黄河流域向长江流域转移。 /201512/415745The lives of children from rich and poor American families look more different than ever before.美国贫富家庭子女的生活差异,看起来比以往任何时候都大。Well-off families are ruled by calendars, with children enrolled in ballet, soccer and after-school programs, according to a new Pew Research Center survey.皮尤研究中心的一项新调查发现,富裕家庭完全按日程安排行事,子女跳芭蕾、踢足球、参加课外项目。There are usually two parents, who spend a lot of time ing to children and worrying about their anxiety levels and hectic schedules.这些家庭通常是双亲家庭,家长会花大量时间给子女读书,并且担心他们的焦虑程度和紧张的日程安排。In poor families, meanwhile, children tend to spend their time at home or with extended family, the survey found.调查还发现,贫困家庭的孩子往往待在家中或在大家庭中消磨时光。They are more likely to grow up in neighborhoods that their parents say aren#39;t great for raising children, and their parents worry about them getting shot, beaten up or in trouble with the law.他们成长的社区更可能被父母形容为不适合养育孩子,而父母会担心他们遭击、挨打或参与违法活动。The class differences in child rearing are growing, researchers say, a symptom of widening inequality.研究人员认为,子女抚养方面的阶级差异正在扩大,这是不平等现象加剧的一个征兆。 /201512/417259

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