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来源:爱中文    发布时间:2020年02月22日 23:05:48    编辑:admin         

I’ve seen things you people wouldn’t believe,” the villain played by Rutger Hauer reminisces at the end of the film Blade Runner after hauling Harrison Ford’s character on to a roof top and sparing his life. “People” is the operative word since Roy Batty is not a person but an android who escapes to earth from a space colony and takes revenge on the Tyrell Corporation, his creator.“我见过的事,你们人不会相信。”在电影《银翼杀手》(Blade Runner)末尾,鲁特格尔樠尔(Rutger Hauer)饰演的反派将哈里森輠祹(Harrison Ford)饰演的角色拉回屋顶,饶了他一命,然后说出了这句话。在这句话里,“人”是最重要的字,因为罗伊巴蒂(Roy Batty)不是人类,他是个机器人。他从太空殖民地逃到地球,向自己的创造者“泰勒公司”(Tyrell Corporation)实施报复。That is what I call a killer robot — a being that can hold an intelligent conversation with you before wiping you out. It was science fiction in 1982, when Blade Runner, based on Philip K Dick’s dystopian fantasy novel Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep? came out. It is now faintly plausible — sufficiently for artificial intelligence researchers to warn this week of the dangers of an autonomous arms race.这才是我认为的“杀手机器人”(killer robot),一个在消灭你之前,能与你进行一场高智商谈话的存在。电影《银翼杀手》改编自菲利普迪克(Philip K. Dick)的反乌托邦奇幻小说《机器人会梦见电子羊吗?》(Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep)。影片上映于1982年,当时它还是一部科幻电影,如今却有点像真的,反正对于人工智能研究人员来说已经足以成真了,前不久他们警告要谨防出现自主式武器军备竞赛的危险。The killer machines feared by those such as Elon Musk, the founder of Tesla Motors, and Stephen Hawking, the theoretical physicist, are crude terminators by comparison with the Nexus replicants in Blade Runner. No one would fall in love with an armed quadcopter that blows up enemy soldiers, as the hero of Blade Runner does with Rachael, the female android who does not realise that she is a replicant.包括特斯拉汽车(Tesla Motors)创始人埃伦穆斯克(Elon Musk)、理论物理学家斯蒂芬霍金(Stephen Hawking)在内,这些专家们所担心的杀人机器,与《银翼杀手》里的“连锁”(Nexus)复制人相比的话,只是原始级别的终结者。《银翼杀手》里的瑞秋(Rachael)开杀死哈里森輠祹葲敌人时,这位男主公爱上了她——瑞秋是个女机器人,她并不知道自己是复制人。但是当一台配备武器的四轴飞行器干掉敌方士兵时,没人会爱上它。Robots can murder us but they cannot understand us. Autonomous killing machines are becoming reality — Israel aly has its Harpy anti-radar drone, which loiters in the sky before choosing and destroying targets itself. A sentient, sophisticated machine with common sense and the capacity to grasp people’s moods and predict behaviour is still a distant prospect.机器人可以杀死我们,但它们无法理解我们。自主式杀人机器正在成为现实,以色列已经拥有了哈比(Harpy)反雷达无人机,它可以在空中漫无目的地飞行,然后自主选择目标并加以摧毁。但是想创造出一架具备常识,能理解人类情绪,预测人类行为,拥有感知能力的复杂机器,仍是个遥远前景。In theory, it will be created. Artificial intelligence researchers do not see the barrier in principle to robots developing higher reasoning powers, or the kind of physical dexterity that humans possess. The last remaining workers on car assembly lines are people who can attach screws nimbly and reach inside the body shells for electrical wiring in a way that has defeated robots to date.理论上讲,这种机器人是能造出来的。人工智能研究人员看不到任何原则上的障碍,阻止机器人发展出更高水平的推理能力,或是人类那种灵活的身体。汽车装配线上目前仅剩下能够敏捷地拧螺丝的工人,以及一些能够到车身外壳里焊电线的工人,机器人暂时还无法胜过他们。Machines also possess some advantages. They do not have to constrict their processing units to fit into skulls, and they do not need to supply them with oxygen, an energy-hogging technology. Nor are they limited by an evolutionary edict to reproduce, rather than purely to get cleverer.机器还占有一定的优势。它们不必为了适合颅骨大小而压缩处理装置,它们也不需要氧气供应——这是个高度耗能的技术。它们的再造也不受进化法则限制,完全可以变得越来越聪明。But despite rapid advances in machine learning, visual and voice recognition, neural network processing — all the elements that are now transforming the potential of artificial intelligence — androids are not with us. Computers can beat humans easily at chess, but poker at the highest level is beyond them — they would need to see through the other players’ bluffs.但尽管机器在学习、视觉及语音识别、神经网络处理(这些元素都在改变人工智能的潜力)方面发展迅速,机器人还是不能理解人类。计算机可以在国际象棋上轻松击败人类,但它们玩不了最高水平的扑克牌游戏,因为它们得看穿对手的虚张声势。“Computers are becoming better and better at perception tasks,” says Fei-Fei Li, director of Stanford University’s artificial intelligence laboratory. “Algorithms can identify thousands of types of cars while I can only tell three of them. But at the cognitive, empathetic, and emotional level, machines are not even close to humans.”斯坦福大学(Stanford University)人工智能实验室主任李飞飞说:“计算机在感知任务上正变得越来越好。它的算法已经能识别数千种汽车,而我只能认出三种。但在认知、同理心和情感层面,机器还无法接近人类。”I have also experienced something you people would not believe — Google’s self-driving car. The thing that struck me as it toured Mountain View in California recently was that it felt human. It accelerated from junctions confidently, even assertively, closing the gaps with vehicles in front so others could not rush in. We would be safer if all drivers were equally calm and rational.我也经历过一些事,你们这些人不会相信——谷歌的无人驾驶汽车。最近我坐着它游览了加州的山景城,震惊地发现它感觉上就像人类。它自信地,甚至是果断地从交叉路口加速,缩小与前方车辆的距离,让其他车辆无法插入。如果所有司机都能这样冷静和理性,我们的生命会更安全。Inside the car, you can see what it perceives with its sensors and rooftop radar. The outlines of objects around, including pedestrians, buses and other cars, are displayed like hollow, moving shapes on the screen of a laptop held by a Google engineer. The objects are categorised by different colours, so the vehicle knows it should react to them and how far to steer clear.在谷歌无人驾驶汽车里,你可以看到它如何用传感器和车顶雷达进行感知。一位谷歌工程师手持一台笔记本电脑,行人、公交车和其他车辆等周围物体的轮廓呈现为空心的、移动的图形显示在屏幕上。这些物体按照不同颜色分类,因此无人驾驶汽车知道该对它们作出反应,以及该从多远避开。A self-driving vehicle would, in other words, be a perfectly capable killer robot if you attached a missile launcher to its roof, and machine guns to its sides (not that Google would do such a thing, of course). It could cruise through cities, scanning for warm, slow-moving, pink-coloured objects to destroy.换言之,如果你在自动驾驶汽车的车顶安装一个导弹发射器,并且在车身两侧装上机(当然啦,这并不是说谷歌会干这种事),它完全能化身“杀手机器人”。它可以悠闲地穿越城市,扫描搜寻有热度的、缓慢移动的粉红色目标加以摧毁。So it is not scaremongering for scientists to warn of artificial intelligence research being tainted by association with autonomous weapons. The internet itself emerged from research funded by the US Department of Defence in the 1960s, and military and space programmes have the deepest pockets and the keenest interest in developing cutting-edge technology. What would be foolish would be to think the advent of killer robots means that machines are y to take over the world.因此,科学家们警告人工智能研究领域存在与自主武器相结合的情况,并非是危言耸听。互联网本身就发源于美国国防部在上世纪60年代资助的研究课题,而且在开发尖端技术方面,军事和航天计划拥有最雄厚的财力和最强烈的兴趣。要有多蠢,才会认为“杀手机器人”的出现就意味着机器将接管全世界。Destroying things is easier than understanding or creating them. Artificial intelligence — the ability to scan, process and analyse large data sets — is not the same as the capacity to perform most human tasks (known as artificial general intelligence).破坏事物比理解或创造事物更容易。人工智能(扫描、处理和分析大型数据集的能力)并不等同于“强人工智能”(artificial general intelligence),后者才具有执行大多数人类任务的能力。Even those who warn of machines taking jobs that are now performed by humans accept that managerial, professional, and artistic jobs that demand high level reasoning, empathy and creativity are still safe. A robot that scans a set of features to identify a woman, but cannot grasp her mood, or use common sense to solve an unexpected puzzle, remains very limited.一些人警告说机器将抢走目前由人类完成的工作,但就连他们也同意,管理、专业和艺术工作仍然是安全的,因为这些工作需要具备高水平的推理能力、同感能力以及创造能力。机器人的能力仍非常有限,它可以通过扫描一系列特征来识别一个女人,却无法体会她的情绪,也无法运用常理来解决意料之外的难题。“Quite an experience to live in fear, isn’t it? That’s what it’s like to be a slave,” Roy Batty remarks to the human bounty-hunter he has defeated in combat before reaching out and rescuing him from falling to his death. Let us not enslave ourselves yet.罗伊巴蒂已经在对决中战胜了人类赏金猎人,却又在对手坠下屋顶时伸手救了他一命。接着他对赏金猎人说道:“活在恐惧里的滋味不好受吧?这就是当奴隶的感受。”我们千万不要让自己沦为奴隶。 /201508/391134。

Since Apple launched the iPhone in 2007, Nintendo stock has dropped nearly 80 percent.自苹果2007年发布iPhone以来,任天堂的股价下跌了近80%。The Japanese game maker still dominates the portable game market, thanks to its 3DS family of handheld devices. But it’s an admittedly huge piece of an otherwise shrinking pie that market researchers estimate will generate .1 billion in software revenue and .1 billion in hardware revenue this year.凭借3DS系列手持游戏机,这家日本游戏厂商仍然在便携式游戏机市场占据统治地位。但无可否认,这一巨大利好正在逐渐缩水。市场研究人员预计,任天堂今年将从该市场获得41亿美元的软件收入和31亿美元的硬件收入。The money is moving to those other handheld devices, of course—smartphones and tablets. By the end of 2015, eMarketer estimates there will be 1.91 billion smartphone users and 1 billion tablet users.显然,利润正在流向其他手持设备——智能手机和平板电脑。网络调研公司eMarketer预计,到2015年底,智能手机用户将达到19.1亿,平板电脑用户也将达到10亿。Nintendo wants to tap into this growing market with its original game characters such as Mario, Link, Donkey Kong, Star Fox, and Kirby. Through a new partnership with Japanese mobile game publisher DeNA, it will design original games featuring Nintendo characters exclusively for smart devices.任天堂希望凭借公司独创的游戏人物,比如马里奥(Mario)、林克(Link)、大金刚(Donkey Kong)、星际火狐(Star Fox)和星之卡比(Kirby),进入这个蓬勃发展的市场。通过与日本移动游戏厂商DeNA合作,该公司将为智能设备专门开发拥有任天堂游戏人物的原创作品。The move allows Nintendo to continue to deliver exclusive games featuring these characters for its own devices, while offering separate adventures designed for smart devices. Lewis Ward, game analyst at IDC, predicts Nintendo mobile games could grow into Top 10 hits on the global games charts because the appeal of these characters is so strong.凭借这一举动,任天堂不仅能够开发面向智能设备的游戏产品,还可以继续为该公司自身的游戏机提供拥有这些人物的独家游戏。IDC公司的游戏分析师刘易斯o沃德预计,由于这些游戏人物的吸引力很强,任天堂的移动游戏有望跻身全球游戏前十强。A Nintendo spokesman told Fortune: “We have the opportunity to reach hundreds of millions of people. As these consumers enjoy the unique kind of gameplay found only with Nintendo, they will have the opportunity to explore even more premium experiences on Nintendo’s dedicated game platforms.”任天堂发言人对《财富》表示:“我们有机会接触到数亿用户。当这些顾客喜爱上任天堂独一无二的游戏玩法时,他们就会发现,只有在任天堂专有的平台上才有机会享受更优质的游戏体验。”The Nintendo spokesman also said that even when the company uses the same intellectual property, the gaming experience will be different on Nintendo hardware and on smart devices. He added that if Nintendo and DeNA can provide Nintendo-like content on smart devices, Nintendo believes that it will be able to expand its business while keeping the value of its intellectual property intact.这位发言人还表示,即便公司开发的是同一款游戏,在任天堂游戏机和智能设备上的游戏体验也有所不同。他补充道,任天堂相信,他们和DeNA如果在智能设备上提供类似任天堂游戏的内容,就能拓宽业务范围,也不会损害公司知识产权的价值。“It took them a long time, but Nintendo finally realized that the billion mobile gaming market in 2015 is too big to ignore,” said Peter Warman, analyst at game research firm Newzoo. “Nintendo might even realize that the future is device-agnostic, and franchises will eventually be delivered to every screen through the cloud.”研究公司Newzoo的分析师彼得o沃尔曼表示:“任天堂花了很长时间,终于意识到2015年规模300亿美元的移动游戏市场太大了,不容忽视。他们甚至还意识到,未来的游戏不会受到设备的限制,其专有游戏将会通过云,传递到每一块电子屏幕上。”Warman said top mobile game franchises can generate over billion. Nintendo’s strong franchises could be worth more than billion in the mobile games market. With revenue growth rates for console games in single digits, the 22 percent compound annual growth rate seen in the mobile segment is an opportunity and a threat that Nintendo needed to address, added Tim Merel, managing director at Digi-Capital.沃尔曼表示,顶级的移动游戏专营权可以获得10亿美元以上的收入。任天堂的系列游戏影响力强大,在移动游戏市场价值会超过20亿美元。市场研究公司Digi-Capital的董事总经理蒂姆o麦洛表示,任天堂在主机游戏上的年增长率仅有个位数,对他们来说,移动游戏领域整体22%的年增长率,既是需要把握的机遇,也是将要应对的挑战。The failure of the Wii U to compete with Sony’s PlayStation 4 and Microsoft’s Xbox One may have played a significant role in Nintendo’s shift in thinking. At the same time, DeNA has focused recently on partnerships with companies such as Marvel for Marvel Mighty Heroes and Square Enix for Final Fantasy: Record Keeper.在与索尼PlayStation 4和微软Xbox One的竞争中,任天堂的Wii U游戏机败下阵来,这也许是促使该公司转变思路的重要因素。与此同时,DeNA最近还与《漫威奇迹英雄》系列游戏的开发商漫威公司,以及《最终幻想:记忆水晶》的开发商的Square Enix展开合作。“This is a partnership between two weakened parties, and this could prove to be beneficial for both,” Ward said. “DeNA’s home-grown games haven’t performed well so they’re now working with established brands through partnerships, and that poor performance over the last two years like gave Nintendo favorable terms for this relationship.”沃德表示:“这是两大弱势方的一次合作,应该会获得双赢。DeNA的本土游戏表现不佳,所以他们开始与那些知名厂商合作,而过去两年的糟糕业绩让任天堂也有理由接受对方伸出的橄榄枝。”As part of the new collaboration, Nintendo and DeNA invested 1 million in each other through a capital alliance. The companies will also develop and launch a new online membership service this fall that will be accessible from smart devices, PC and Nintendo systems like the Nintendo 3DS and the Wii U.作为新合作的一部分,任天堂和DeNA通过资本联盟,各为对方投资了1.81亿美元。双方还将在今年秋天开发和推出一项新的网络会员制务,该务横跨智能设备、个人电脑和任天堂3DS、Wii U等任天堂产品。Nintendo president Satoru Iwata also announced that the company is working on a new console, codenamed NX. He revealed no further details, but said that Nintendo is committed to continuing its hardware business.任天堂公司总裁岩田聪还宣布,公司将开发一款代号为NX的新主机。他并未进一步公布详细情况,但表示任天堂将一如既往地开展硬件业务。Ward noted that Wii U will have its strongest year yet in 2015 because of the strong lineup of exclusive franchise games like Kirby and the Rainbow Curse, Mario Party 10 and The Legend of Zelda. It’s those characters and franchises that could connect with the more mainstream audiences that are spending more time playing games on tablets and smartphones than ever before.沃德指出,凭借《星之卡比:虹诅咒》、《马里奥派对10》和《塞尔达传说》等独家游戏,Wii U在2015年的表现将空前强劲。这些人物和游戏将与那些花费更多时间在平板电脑和智能手机上的主流玩家,进行前所未有的亲密接触。 /201503/367038。

China has announced an ambitious space telescope program that would give the nation astronomy research capabilities to rival those of U.S. programs like the Hubble Space Telescope, according to Popular Science. The space telescope would have a lens 2 meters in diameter, giving it a field of view 300 times larger than that of the Hubble.据Popular Science报道,中国已经宣布了一项雄心勃勃的太空望远镜项目。这个项目将会大大增强中国的天文学研究能力,并与美国的哈勃太空望远镜等项目相媲美。这台太空望远镜将配置直径两米的镜头,让它能够拥有哈勃望远镜300倍大的视野。With such a large area of coverage, the space telescope would only take 10 years to survey 40 percent of the observable universe. The space telescope#39;s imaging capabilities would make it capable of satisfying a number of significant astronomy research needs, such as identifying exoplanets and searching for dark matter and dark energy.拥有如此大的覆盖范围,该太空望远镜只需要十年时间就能观测可见宇宙中40%的空间。并且,这台机器卓越的成像能力,也让它能够满足许多重大天文研究的需求,比如说辨认外星球和寻找暗物质和暗能量。The ambition of China#39;s program, announced in a parliamentary meeting earlier this year, doesn#39;t end there. The new telescope would be put into orbit next to the Tiangong 3 space station, planned for launch in 2022, and would be capable of docking with it. Keeping the space telescope close to the Tiangong 3 would allow Chinese astronauts, or taikonauts, to service it much more ily. (It took NASA three-and-a-half years and four servicing missions to fix a problem with the Hubble#39;s mirror after it launched.) China#39;s space telescope program could pave the way for assembling spacecraft in orbit, too.中国的这份雄心揭露于今年年初举行的某次国务院会议,但它并不仅仅停止于此。这台新的太空望远镜将被放置在天宫三号空间站旁边的轨道上。而天宫三号计划于2022年发射,并能够和这台太空望远镜对接。让太空望远镜和天宫三号保持较近距离。从而能够让中国的宇航员们更容易地对其进行检修。(NASA花费了三年半的时间,启动了四个检修项目来解决哈勃望远镜在发射后镜子出现的问题。)同时,中国的太空望远镜项目能够为在轨道上设置更多飞行器奠定基础。As Universe Today notes, other countries and space agencies will release a timeline and technical details about the spacecraft#39;s instruments when they announce a program like this. China has been more secretive with their research plans and capabilities, so it is hard to gauge the likelihood of all these plans coming together by 2030 or so (China has yet to launch the Tiangong 2, a space station planned for this year).正如Universe Today表明,其他国家和太空机构会在公开项目时透露时间表和太空飞行器的技术细节。而中国对其研究计划和能力则守口如瓶,所以很难估计这些计划到2030年实现的可能性有多大。(中国还没有发射原本计划于今年发射的天宫二号)Still, China#39;s apparent intent to push more aggressively into space telescope technology is encouraging. With NASA#39;s James Webb Telescope scheduled for launch in 2018, and more powerful radio telescopes being built on Earth, we will soon peer back in space and time further than ever before. Let the international competition to map the cosmos begin.即便如此,中国大力推进发展太空望远镜技术仍然令人鼓舞。NASA所研发的韦伯望远镜计划于2018年发射,而地球上将设置更多功能强大的电波望远镜。不久,我们就能在时间和空间上同时取得更大的进步。就让这场划分太空版图的国际竞争开始吧。 /201603/432303。

In Chinese mythology, the Monkey King is a beast with magical fur. All he has to do is pull out a hair, blow on it and it is instantly transformed into a clone of himself.在中国的神话故事里,孙悟空身上的猴毛有着巨大的魔力。他只需拔下一根,吹口气,瞬间就能变出一只跟他一模一样的猴子。Xu Xiaochun, chief executive of BoyaLife, says the fable is not far from reality, as far as his Chinese biotechnology company is concerned. This week he announced an investment of m in a joint venture with South Korea’s Sooam Biotech that aims to clone 1m cows a year from their hair cells.雅(BoyaLife)首席执行官许晓椿表示,对于他执掌的这家中国生物技术公司,这种神话并非可望不可即。上周他宣布投资3100万美元与韩国秀岩生命工学研究院(Sooam Biotech)组建一家合资公司,计划通过克隆毛发细胞每年生产100万头牛。The Monkey King “sounds like a fairy tale but we are really doing the same thing”, he says. “We pull out 200 hairs, blow on them — and boom!”他表示,孙悟空“听上去像是一个神话故事,但我们确实在做同样的事情”,他表示,“我们拔下200根牛毛,吹一口气,然后就会变出很多头牛!”Sometime next year, researchers in BoyaLife’s laboratory on the outskirts of the coastal city of Tianjin will take skin cells from a few carefully chosen cattle (Kobe beef is Mr Xu’s favourite). The scientists will extract the nucleus from each cell and place it into an unfertilised egg from another cow. The cloned embryos will then be implanted in surrogate dairy cows housed on cattle ranches throughout China.明年某个时候,位于沿海城市天津郊区的雅实验室的研究人员,将从几头精心挑选的牛提取皮肤细胞(神户牛肉是许晓椿的最爱)。这些科学家将从每个细胞中提取细胞核,将其置入另一头牛的还未受精的卵细胞。接着克隆胚胎将被植入中国各地养牛场的奶牛体内。His ambition is staggering. Starting with 100,000 cloned cattle embryos a year in “phase one”, Mr Xu envisages 1m annually at some point in the future. That would make BoyaLife by far the largest clone factory in the world.他的远大理想是惊人的。他计划“一期”每年生产10万个克隆牛胚胎,未来将每年生产100万个。这将令雅成为全球遥遥领先的最大克隆工厂。Mr Xu says the latest techniques enable cloning to be carried out in an “assembly line format” at a rate of less than 1 minute per cell. Based on a four- hour shift and 250 working days a year, a proficient cloner would “manufacture” 60,000 cloned cow embryos a year, he says, adding that a team of 50 will be sufficient for the planned scale of the project. Mr Xu plans to have a staff of 300 and eventual total investment is estimated at 0m.许晓椿表示,最新技术意味着,能够按照“生产线模式”以每个细胞不到1分钟的速度进行克隆。他表示,根据每4个小时倒一次班、每年250个工作日计算,一个熟练的克隆者每年可“生产”出6万个克隆牛胚胎。他补充称,按照项目的计划规模,有一个50人的团队就够了。许晓椿计划员工总数将达到300人,最终的投资总额预计将达到5亿美元。If the venture comes anywhere near achieving its goal, it will be another example of the recent surge of path-breaking, taboo-busting biotechnology research, with China introducing mass production and commercialisation of projects that are still in the experimental and clinical stages elsewhere.如果该项目接近达到其目标,它将代表着近期一连串突破禁忌的开创性生物技术研究的又一例,在此类项目中,中国将其他国家仍处于试验和临床阶段的技术投入量产和商业化。China’s flag-bearer in biotech is BGI, formerly known as Beijing Genomics Institute and now based in Shenzhen. BGI has grown into the world’s biggest genomics organisation, with a huge capacity to , analyse and alter DNA from plants, microbes, people and animals. It employs more than 2,000 PhD-level scientists and 200 top-of-the-range gene-sequencing machines.中国在生物技术领域的另一个旗手是总部位于深圳的华大基因(BGI),该公司的前身是北京基因组研究所(Beijing Genomics Institute)。华大基因已发展成为全球最大基因组组织,拥有从植物、微生物、人类和动物身上读取、分析和改变DNA的强大能力。该公司聘用2000多名士级别的科学家和200台顶级基因测序设备。In September BGI captured the public imagination with an announcement that “micropigs”, originally developed for biomedical research through gene editing and cloning, would be sold as pets.今年9月,华大基因宣布将销售通过基因编辑和克隆开发的“迷你猪”(最初用于生物医学研究)宠物,此举抓住了公众的想象力。Chinese scientists are enthusiastic adopters of a “gene editing” technology called Crispr, invented in the US about three years ago, which greatly accelerates the insertion and deletion of DNA in any type of living cell.中国科学家对于采用“成簇规律间隔短回文重复序列”(Crispr)的“基因编辑”技术充满热情,该技术于大约3年前在美国发明,它大大加快了对任何活体细胞插入和删除DNA的速度。In September researchers from several Chinese universities published a study of Shanbei cashmere goats, whose genes were edited to produce larger muscles and longer hair, making them potentially more valuable as sources of meat and textile fibres.今年9月,来自中国多所大学的研究人员发表了一项有关陕北绒山羊的研究,这些山羊经过基因编辑后,长出更大块的肌肉和更长的毛,潜在让它们作为肉和纺织纤维的来源具有更高价值。“The results showed that simultaneous editing of several [DNA] sites was achieved in large animals, demonstrating that the Crispr system has the potential to become a robust and efficient gene engineering tool in farm animals and therefore will be critically important and applicable for breeding,” they wrote in Scientific Reports, a leading western journal.他们在西方领先刊物《科学报道》(Scientific Reports)上写道:“结果表明,已在大型动物体内实现多处DNA同时编辑,这表明Crispr体系有望成为牲畜领域一件强大且高效率的基因工程工具,因而将至关重要,而且适用于繁殖。”But the most controversial application of gene editing is in human cells. In April scientists from Sun Yat-sen University in Guangzhou used Crispr to modify the genomes of 85 non-viable human embryos, despite a number of pre-emptive articles in western medical journals urging them not to do it. Although the experiment failed, it provoked an outcry from scientific peers and ominous headlines about the risks to passing on genetic changes to future human generations.但最具争议的基因编辑应用是人体细胞。今年4月,广州中山大学(Sun Yat-sen University)的科学家利用Crispr技术修改了85个无法存活的人类胚胎的基因组,尽管西方医学期刊上很多文章事先敦促他们不要这么做。尽管这项实验失败了,但它引发了科学界同行的强烈抗议以及媒体的不祥头条,称风险在于把基因变化传递给人类后代。While China’s biotech sector overall is small in financial terms — a study by McKinsey last month found that Chinese biotech companies account for less than 3 per cent of global revenues in the sector worldwide — they aspire to be world leaders in some of the most advanced and controversial biotech. Critics say this is partly due to looser regulations and a more relaxed treatment in China of some of the ethical issues involved.总体而言,从收入来看,中国生物技术领域规模很小(麦肯锡(McKinsey) 10月的一项研究发现,中国生物技术公司占该行业全球营收的不到3%),但他们希望在一些最先进和最具争议的生物技术领域成为全球领袖。批评者表示,部分原因是中国的法规较为宽松,对涉及的一些道德问题态度也比较随便。In contrast, cloning of farm animals is effectively outlawed in Europe, which is where the technology started with the birth in 1996 of Dolly the sheep at the Roslin Institute in Edinburgh. Roslin has moved away from cloning to other areas of animal research, and today its scientists are reluctant to talk about the issue.相比之下,在欧洲,克隆牲畜实际上已被界定为非法。1996年,爱丁堡的罗斯林研究所(Roslin Institute)克隆出多利羊,为全球首例克隆动物。该研究所已从克隆转向其他动物研究领域,如今该所的科学家不愿谈论克隆话题。The European Parliament voted by a large majority in September to ban agricultural cloning and the sale of cloned livestock on the grounds that cloned offspring suffer more health problems than conventional animals.欧盟议会(European Parliament)今年9月高票通过禁止农业克隆和销售克隆牲畜,理由是克隆的后代比常规繁衍的动物存在更多健康问题。In the US, on the other hand, cattle have been cloned successfully for several years. In 2008 the US Food and Drug Administration ruled that the practice was safe; the leading livestock cloning company ViaGen, a subsidiary of Intrexon, says it “has successfully delivered thousands of healthy cloned animals to clients”.另一方面,美国已经连续好几年成功克隆牛。2008年,美国食品药品监督(FDA)裁定克隆牛的做法安全。Intrexon的子公司、领先牲畜克隆公司ViaGen表示,它“已经成功地向客户交付数千头健康的克隆动物”。Mr Xu says people may be applying double standards when they judge China. “We are [cloning] on a scale of millions, and suddenly people say, ‘Gee, do they have a lower standard of ethics?’ We do not. We just do things on a massive scale,” he says. “If we made a factory that produces 10 cows a year rather than a million, no one would even blink.”许晓椿表示,在评判中国的事务时,人们可能在运用双重标准。“我们要以数百万的规模(进行克隆),突然间人们说,‘呀,他们的道德标准是不是比较低?’我们的标准并不低。我们只是规模更大而已,”他表示,“如果我们建造一家每年只出产10头牛而不是100万头牛的工厂,人们连眼睛都不会眨一下。”However, according to Yusheng Wei, researcher at Peking University’s School of Life Sciences, unclear and incomplete rules make it easier to push ethical boundaries in China. “It’s not so much that we have a different ethical system but that China is relatively new to this field, and there are not enough laws and restrictions in place,” he says. “China#39;s rapid progress in gene technology does have something to do with loose regulations. It’s hard for regulations to keep up with the development.”然而,根据北京大学生命科学学院研究者韦玉生的说法,相关规则的不清晰和不完备,使得中国的科学家更容易逾越道德底线。“与其说我们有一套不同的道德体系,不如说中国在这个领域相对较新,相关的法律和限制不足,”他说,“中国在基因技术方面的快速进步的确和宽松的法规有关。法规难以跟上发展。”Mr Wei says there is disagreement even within the Chinese scientific establishment over some aspects of gene modification. “There are no ethical debates over cloning,” he adds. “It’s just that everything is being drowned out by the debate over gene modification.”韦玉生表示,即使是在中国科学界的体制内部,对于基因修饰的某些方面也存在分歧。“没有关于克隆的道德辩论,”他补充道,“一切都被有关基因修饰的辩论淹没了。”If there is an ethical gap between Chinese and western research, as some believe, it is narrowing as “Chinese scientists are being brought into the global scientific community”, says Peter Mills, assistant director of the Nuffield Council on Bioethics in London.如果的确像某些人所认为的那样,中国和西方的研究之间存在道德差距,那么据伦敦纳菲尔德生命伦理委员会(Nuffield Council on Bioethics)副主任彼得猠尔斯(Peter Mills)表示,这个差距也正因“中国科学家逐渐被融入全球科学界”而缩小。An encouraging sign of this process is the key role played by the Chinese Academy of Sciences in organising a meeting on gene editing in Washington next week, along with the US National Academy of Sciences and UK’s Royal Society.这一进程中一个令人鼓舞的迹象是,中国科学院与美国国家科学院(National Academy of Sciences)及英国皇家学会(Royal Society)下周将在华盛顿共同主办一场基因编辑会议,中科院在其中发挥了关键作用。“We would like to work together with international communities for the proper regulation and application of such technology,” says Bai Chunli, president of the Chinese Academy.“我们希望与国际社会合作,对这类技术进行妥善监管和应用,”中国科学院院长白春礼表示。Mr Xu points out that the FDA last week approved transgenic salmon, the first genetically engineered animal to be permitted for sale as food. Chinese regulators have not approved any GM animal to be used as food, nor have they approved GM crops to be planted in China for human consumption, with some minor exceptions. They do allow the import of a number of GM strains, notably soya beans used in cooking oil and animal feed.许晓椿指出,上周FDA批准了转基因三文鱼,这是第一种被批准作为食物销售的基因工程动物。中国监管机构尚未批准任何转基因动物被用作食品,也没有批准在中国种植供人食用的转基因作物(有少数例外)。中国监管机构允许进口几种转基因品种,主要是用于食用油和动物饲料的转基因大豆。While scientists have generally welcomed the FDA approval of GM salmon, there may be consumer resistance to the fish in the US, where environmental groups are pushing retailers to boycott the product. This week Friends of the Earth called on supporters to “celebrate” as Costco “joined more than 60 grocery store chains nationwide, including Kroger, Safeway, Trader Joe’s, Target and Whole Foods, that listened to the science and consumers and made commitments to not sell this unnecessary, risky and unlabelled ‘frankenfish’.”尽管科学家普遍欢迎FDA批准转基因三文鱼,但这种鱼可能会遭到美国消费者的抵制,美国的一些环保组织正在呼吁零售商抵制这种产品。最近,地球之友(Friends of the Earth)呼吁持者“欢庆”,因为好事多(Costco)“加入克罗格超市(Kroger)、Safeway、Trader Joe’s、Target、Whole Foods等全国60余家连锁生鲜超市的行列,听取科学家和消费者的意见,承诺不销售这种无必要、有风险和未经标记的‘科学怪鱼’。”When it comes to scientifically enhanced food, Mr Xu says Chinese consumers are more conservative than their American counterparts. So cloned beef may be a tough sell. “It’s always hard to get people to try new things. It’s hard to get them to trust science.”对于用科学手段增强的食物,许晓椿表示,中国消费者比美国消费者更保守。因此销售克隆牛肉可能比较困难。“让人们尝试新事物总是很困难。很难让他们信任科学。”Mr Xu uses an analogy to illustrate why cloned meat is intrinsically safe. “If you have a glass of water and you pour half into another glass, that would be cloning. If you add a drop of ink into a glass of water, that would be genetically modifying. The determining factor is whether you change the species.”许晓椿用一个类比来说明为何克隆肉从本质上说是安全的。“如果你有一杯水,你把其中半杯倒进另一个杯子里,这就是克隆。如果你往这杯水里加一滴墨水,这就是基因修饰。决定因素是你是否改变了物种。”That is true in theory, but in practice there are obstacles to creating a perfect replica, says Kehkooi Kee of Tsinghua University. “There are risks because it won’t be an exact copy,” he says.清华大学的纪家葵(Kehkooi Kee)表示,理论上这是正确的,但在实践中,创造完美的复制品是有障碍的,“因为不会是完全一样的复制,所以这是有风险的。”But Mr Xu says cloning is the best way to produce enough elite calves to satisfy growing demand for the meat that China is consuming in greater quantities as incomes rise. “Cloned beef is the tastiest beef I’ve had,” he says.但徐晓椿表示,随着收入增长,中国人的肉类消费量不断上升,克隆是供应足够的优质牛犊,以满足日益增长的需求的最佳办法。“克隆牛肉是我吃过的最美味的牛肉,”他说。 /201512/413509。