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来源:家庭医生健康    发布时间:2019年07月20日 05:13:50    编辑:admin         

ADDIS ABABA, Ethiopia — The sleek, white train glides through the hilly Ethiopian countryside, the first to travel this route in nearly a decade.亚的斯亚贝巴,埃塞俄比亚——整洁的白色火车滑行穿过丘陵起伏的埃塞俄比亚乡村,在近十年里第一列火车经过这条线路。The contrast is stark as the new, Chinese-made electric train passes horse-drawn carriages, oxen hauling plows and crowds of curious village children. But soon it crosses over a gleaming six-lane expressway and snakes past a row of newly erected wind turbines — all Chinese-built and, like the train, part of Ethiopia’s ongoing effort to remake itself.中国制造电气化火车经过马拉的车厢、牛拉犁和成群好奇的村庄孩子,这些景象形成了鲜明的对比。但是火车很快跨越一个瞬息一现六车道高速公路和蛇爬过的一排新建的直立着的风力发电机——这些全部是中国建造的,像火车行驶那样,埃塞俄比亚持续努力的一部分来重塑自己。The standard-gauge rail line, which will be officially inaugurated this week, stretches 470 miles from the capital, Addis Ababa, to the port of Djibouti, which handles 90 percent of the landlocked country’s trade and is its main window to the outside world. Seventy percent of the .4 billion project is financed by China’s Export-Import Bank, and it is one of the biggest of the mega-projects that Ethiopia says will transform its largely agricultural economy — once known for little more than famine and coffee — into East Africa’s manufacturing hub.这条标准轨距铁路线将会在本周正式揭牌,它从首都亚的斯亚贝巴延绵470英里到吉布提口岸,首都亚的斯亚贝巴处理着该内陆国90%的贸易并且它是对外部世界的主要窗口。34亿美元项目的70%由中国进出口提供资金,并且它是最大的大型项目之一,埃塞俄比亚认为该项目将会很大程度上改变农业经济——成为东非制造业中心——该国曾经仅仅是因为饥荒和咖啡而闻名。“Our economy is one of the fastest-growing economies in Africa and the world, so at the end of the day, when the train is connected to the port and transporting that much freight, .?.?. it will add value,” said Mekonnen Getachew, the railway’s project manager, speaking after a recent trial run for journalists .“我们的经济是非洲和世界上增长最快经济体之一,所以在这一天结束时,当火车与港口连接进而运输更多的货物,它会增加价值,”梅克恩·格塔丘说,这位铁路项目经理,在最近一次试车运行之后对新闻记者发表了讲话。Between 2005 and 2015, Ethiopia’s economy grew at an average rate of 10 percent a year, and the country took pride in its reputation as Africa’s latest success story. But that is starting to unravel, with the worst drought in 50 years halving the growth rate and widesp social unrest erupting in two of the country’s most populous regions.在2005年和2015年间,埃塞俄比亚经济以每年平均10%速度增长,并且该国因为非洲最新成功故事的名声,而为此骄傲。但是这种情况开始瓦解,随着50年来最严重干旱把增长率减半并且大范围的社会动荡在该国两个人口最稠密的地区爆发。A finish-line protest at this year’s Olympics in Rio de Janeiro by an Ethio-pian marathon runner alerted the world to the country’s internal problems.在今年的里约热内卢的奥运会上,一名马拉松运动员伊索·皮安在完成线路上抗议以提醒世界注意该国内部的问题。The drought’s effect has been so dire that the new railroad was pressed into service in November, before construction was even completed, to get emergency imports of wheat closer to famine-stricken areas.干旱的影响是非常严峻的,以至于这条新铁路甚至在完工之前在去年十一月被暂时征用,以获得紧急进口小麦去更接近饥荒受灾区域。Without the train, Ethiopia’s imports and exports must travel between Djibouti and Addis Ababa on a winding, pitted road plied by more than 1,500 trucks daily, a trip that takes two days. When the railroad is fully operational, travel time for freight will be cut to just 12 hours — and 10 hours for the faster passenger trains.如果没有火车,埃塞俄比亚的进口和出口必须在吉布提和亚的斯亚贝巴之间缠绕行进,维修加油的公路每天被超过1500辆卡车使用,一次行程花费两天。当铁路完全运转时,货运行程时间将会减少到只有12小时而更快的旅客列车只有10小时。The new line actually replaces a narrow-gauge railroad built by France starting in 1894, when it controlled Djibouti. The French left behind elegant, arcaded train stations, inscribed “Chemin de Fer Djibouto-Ethiopien,” in the heart of Addis Ababa and in the eastern city of Dire Dawa, but the line was largely defunct by the mid-2000s, a victim of war and neglect.这条新线路实际上取代了由法国始于1894年建造的一条窄轨铁路,当时法国控制着吉布提。法国人在亚的斯亚贝巴中心和东部城市尔达瓦遗留下了优雅的、有拱廊的火车站,火车站题写着“吉布提-埃塞俄比亚铁路”,但是这条线路在2000年代中期大部分报废了,是一场战争的牺牲品和被疏于维护。The century-old tracks can still be seen in places from the new train, but the Chinese elected to build all new stations. The palatial multistory buildings stand well outside cities and towns, suggesting that the new line will be used more for freight than for passengers.具有百年历史的轨迹仍然可以在新火车的地方被看到,而中国人委任建造全部新的火车站。这些宏伟多层的建筑良好地矗立在城市和城镇之外,这表明新线路将会被更多用于货物而不是旅客。The rail link to Djibouti will be just the beginning, the government says. Plans have been made for 1,500 more miles of track to criss-cross the country, including to its borders with Kenya, Sudan and South Sudan — all part of an African Union goal of once more uniting the continent by rail.政府说,这条连接吉布提的铁路将只是一个开始。超过1500英里的轨道计划已经规划好,该轨道让该国纵横交错,包括与它接壤的肯尼亚、苏丹和南苏丹——一部分非洲联盟目标因为铁路又一次团结成大陆。Ethiopia is a lot closer to achieving its part of this goal than most African countries, largely because of the massive support and financing from China.埃塞俄比亚与大多数非洲国家相比很接近完成这个目标的一部分,主要因为大量援和融资来源于中国。According to the China Global Investment tracker, Beijing has poured more than .6 billion into Ethiopia since 2005, much of it in low-interest loans to build infrastructure, such as roads, rail lines and telecommunication.根据中国全球投资跟踪系统,北京自2005年以来已经倾入超过206亿美元到埃塞俄比亚,大多数资金以低利率贷款用于建造基础设施,例如公路、铁路线和通信。On the train, with its clean, blond-wood interiors, loudspeakers announce the stations in three languages: Amharic, English and Chinese. All the attendants are Chinese.在火车上,它有着干净、金色木质纹理的内部,扩音器用三种语言:阿姆哈拉语、英语和中文播报车站。所有的务员是中国人。For its first five years, the new railway will be managed by a Chinese company to allow time to train enough Ethiopians to take over running it.在最初的五年里,这个新铁路将会由一家中国公司来管理以便有时间去培养足够的埃塞俄比亚人来接管运行它。The train line is a key part of the government’s strategy to industrialize the country by luring foreign investment — and the 70-mile trip last weekend between Addis Ababa and Adama attests to the plan’s success so far. From the window, the view includes not just traditional farms but also greenhouses marking the country’s burgeoning commercial flower industry and distant plumes of smoke from new factories.铁路线是政府战略的一个关键部分,从而通过引诱外国投资实现该国的工业化——而上周在亚的斯亚贝巴和阿达玛之间70英里的运行明到目前为止该计划的成功。从火车窗口上看,视野不仅包括了传统农场而且还有温室,这标志着该国增长迅速的商业花卉产业还有遥远的来自新工厂羽毛状的烟雾。Chinese cement and shoe companies, Indian painting and textile firms, and numerous Turkish enterprises have set up shop here in recent years, attracted by Ethiopia’s cheap labor and electricity — and eventually, the government hopes, by its superior infrastructure.中国的水泥和制鞋公司、印度绘画和纺织品工厂,还有许多土耳其企业在最近几年里已经在这里开设商店,这些企业被埃塞俄比亚廉价劳动力和电力所吸引——而最终,政府希望企业被它的优秀的基础设施所吸引。Foreign direct investment has grown from just 8 million in 2009 to an estimated billion in 2016.外国直接投资已经从2009年只有108百万美元增长到2016年预估的20亿美元。A report by the World Bank last year, though, warned that Ethiopia still had far to go in its quest to move labor from agriculture to industrial jobs. About 80 percent of the jobs in the country are still in farming. Meanwhile, unemployment is at 17 percent nationally and at 24 percent in the capital.尽管,世界去年的一份报告,警告埃塞俄比亚寻求把劳动力从农业转移到工业工作上仍然很遥远。在该国,大约80%工作仍然是农业。同时,全国失业率是17%而在首都是24%。The economy remains closed and state-controlled, and the small and medium enterprises that would probably produce the most jobs are having trouble getting financing. Even foreign firms, which are given preferential treatment, complain about bureaucracy, red tape and the difficulty of repatriating profits and acquiring hard currency.该国经济保持着封闭和国家控制,并且很可能将会产生更多工作的中小企业正在为获得融资发愁。即使是给予优先对待的外国农场,他们抱怨着官僚主义、繁文缛节还有遣返利润和获得硬通货的困难。The new factories are also being built on confiscated farm land, which helped spark the protests in the Oromo region that began in November and later sp north to the Amhara region. International rights groups estimate that some 500 people have been killed in the repression that ensued.另外新工厂正建设在被没收农地上,这导致了在奥罗莫人地区引发抗议,抗议从11月份开始并且后来传播到北方至阿姆哈拉地区。国际认全组织估计大约500人在随后的镇压中丧生。Just on Sunday, police fired tear gas at a political protest taking place at an Oromo cultural festival in Bishoftu, the next station on the train line after Addis Ababa, and provoked a stampede that killed 52 according to the government — with the opposition saying twice as many died.就在周日,一场政治抗议发生在德布雷塞特的一个奥罗莫文化节上,德布雷塞特是在火车线路上在亚的斯亚贝巴之后的下一站,警察对抗议发射了催泪瓦斯,并引发了踩踏事故,按照政府说法踩踏导致52人丧生,而反对派说死亡人数是政府说法的两倍。Linda Thomas-Greenfield, assistant secretary of state for african affairs, last week described the government response as an “intense and somewhat harsh crackdown.”琳达·托马斯·格林菲尔德,负责非洲事务的助理国务卿,上周形容政府反应是一种“强烈的并且稍微严厉的打击。”“We think it could get worse if it’s not addressed — sooner rather than later,” she told Voice of America.“我们认为这可能会变得更糟,如果它得不到解决——宜早不宜迟,”她告诉美国之音。The unrest poses a threat to Ethiopia’s vision of foreign-driven industrialization.动荡不安的局面对埃塞俄比亚由外国驱动工业化的愿景形成一种威胁。On Aug. 29, in the Amhara region, mobs attacked at least seven flower farms belonging to Israeli, Italian, Indian and Belgian companies. In a statement on its website, the Dutch-owned Esmeralda Farms said its entire .2 million investment, including machinery and greenhouses, was destroyed.在8月29日,在阿姆哈拉地区,暴徒袭击了至少7个属于以色列、意大利、印度和比利时公司的花卉农场。在其网站的声明中,荷兰拥有的埃斯梅拉达农场说它全部的11.2百万美元投资,包括机械和温室,被摧毁了。In the first-person statement, the unnamed author laments how Ethiopia was once a safe country.在第一人称陈述中,未署名的作者感叹埃塞俄比亚曾经是一个多么安全的国家。“Last year I traveled 24 times to Ethiopia to start up the farm,” the statement said. “It was one of the most peaceful countries in Africa.”“去年我行程24次到埃塞俄比亚去开设农场,”声明说。 “这曾是最和平的非洲国家之一。” /201610/471535。

The obstacles facing this weekend’s global climate change accord were thrown into relief last night when businesses and government officials played down its impact and US Republicans underlined their opposition.周末达成的全球气候变化协议所面临的障碍昨晚表露无遗,企业和政府官员纷纷淡化其影响,而美国共和党明确反对。The Paris agreement, which requires all countries to regularly publish plans to deal with global warming, was hailed by international leaders as a turning point after more than 20 years of effort to make this century the last to be powered by fossil fuels.巴黎协议要求所有国家定期发布应对全球变暖的计划。该协议被世界领导人誉为一个转折点。此前各方努力了20多年,力求使本世纪成为依靠化石燃料提供能源的最后一个世纪。German chancellor Angela Merkel said the deal was “the first time that the entire world community has obligated itself to act in the battle against global climate change”, while Pope Francis cautioned it would need the “concerted effort and generous dedication”. It was adopted by nearly 200 nations.德国总理安格拉默克尔(Angela Merkel)表示,该协议代表着“整个国际社会首次承担抗击全球气候变化的行动义务”,而教皇方济各(Pope Francis)告诫称,它需要“齐心协力和慷慨奉献”。这份协议已被近200个国家签署。But coal and oil industry executives shrugged off any suggestion the new agreement sealed in Paris on Saturday night would have any immediate impact on their businesses. The goals include driving down carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuels as soon as possible to limit global warming to “well below” 2°C from pre-industrial times and perhaps as little as 1.5°C, a target requiring much deeper emissions cuts than most countries are planning.但是,煤炭和石油业高管并不认为上周六晚在巴黎达成的协议会立即对他们的业务产生任何影响。协议中的目标包括,尽快减少源自化石燃料的二氧化碳排放,以求把相对于工业化时代以前的全球升温幅度限制在远低于2摄氏度的水平,或许低至1.5摄氏度,这个目标所要求的减排力度超出多数国家的现有规划。Amber Rudd, the UK energy and climate change secretary, described the 1.5°C goal as merely “aspirational” while defending the UK government’s decision last month to scrap 1bn in funding for carbon capture systems that could hold emissions down. “I don’t think it was a mistake,” she said.英国能源和气候变化大臣安布尔拉德(Amber Rudd)形容1.5摄氏度的升温上限目标只是“理想”而已,她还为英国政府上月决定放弃为碳捕获系统提供10亿英镑资金(此类系统有望减少排放)进行辩护。“我不认为那是一个错误,”她说。Benjamin Sporton, head of the World Coal Association, said he did not see the new agreement spurring a “massive change at the moment” for companies that produce coal because many developing nations plan to keep burning it.世界煤炭协会(World Coal Association)主席本杰明斯伯顿(Benjamin Sporton)表示,他看不出新协议马上就会刺激煤炭生产企业作出“巨大变化”,因为许多发展中国家计划继续燃烧煤炭。He said the pact was likely to force governments to focus more on carbon capture systems because they would be vital for meeting their goals.他说,该协议有可能迫使各国政府更加专注于碳捕获系统,因为它们对于达到减排目标将是至关重要的。The American Petroleum Institute said it was still reviewing the accord, but Amjad Bseisu, chief executive of EnQuest, a UK oil explorer , said the oil industry had more immediate concerns beyond the Paris Agreement.美国石油学会(API)表示,它仍在审议该协议,但英国石油勘探企业EnQuest的首席执行官Amjad Bseisu表示,石油业目前有着比巴黎协议更紧迫的关切。“This is a very slow process. We aly look at our carbon costs, but right now the industry has other challenges [with the falling oil price].”“这是一个非常缓慢的过程。我们已经研究了自己的碳排放成本,但(随着油价下跌)眼下行业还有其他挑战。”In the US, Mitch McConnell, the Republican Senate majority leader, questioned the Paris deal, saying that the US portion relied on measures championed by president Barck Obama that were being challenged in the courts.在美国,共和党参议院多数党领袖米奇麦康奈尔(Mitch McConnell)质疑巴黎协议,称涉及美国的部分依赖于巴拉克攠巴马(Barack Obama)持的措施,而这些措施正在法庭上受到质疑。But World Bank president Jim Yong Kim said the deal was “a game-changer” that should prompt companies to shift to low carbon business opportunities.但世界行长金墉(Jim Yong Kim)表示,该协议是“改变游戏规则的一件事”,应该促使企业转向低碳商机。Still, many scientists questioned the prospect of governments being able to reach either the 2°C or 1.5°C goal in the agreement.话虽如此,对于各国政府能不能达到协议中2摄氏度或1.5摄氏度的升温上限目标,许多科学家表示怀疑。 /201512/416225。

One of China’s leading property tycoons has warned of a grim outlook for retail landlords as overcapacity and the rapid growth of ecommerce hit shopping malls in the world’s second-biggest economy.中国领先的地产大亨之一警告称,零售物业的业主面临严峻前景,原因是供过于求和电子商务快速增长打击了世界第二大经济体的购物中心。Zhang Xin, the chief executive and majority owner of Soho China, said the commercial property developer focused on Beijing and Shanghai had “pretty much converted all of our retail space, with a very few exceptions, to offices”.SOHO中国首席执行官和多数股股东张欣表示,这家专注于北京和上海的商业地产开发商差不多已经把自己的所有零售空间都改造为办公室,只有极少数例外。“You have some really well run high-end retail that will do well,” she said. “But way too many badly run high-end [malls] that won’t do well. And the low end has been beaten by online, so they are quickly disappearing.”“有一些真正经营有方的高端零售商场会做得很好,”她表示。“但是,太多经营不善的高端商场的日子不会好过。而低端商场已被网上商场击败,所以它们在快速消失。”In the heady days of easy credit and rapid economic growth of the past decade, developers in China rushed to build malls. But many shops and department stores have closed in the past two years as sales have slowed and online commerce has accelerated, exacerbating overcapacity that has left ghost malls across the country.在过去10年宽松信贷和经济快速增长的激动人心的日子里,中国开发商竞相建造商场。但在过去两年里,随着实体商店销售放缓,而在线商务加快增长,许多商店和百货公司关门,不断加剧的供应过剩在全国各地导致了鬼城般的商场。Ms Zhang said Soho China, which she runs with her husband, was keen to tap into resilient demand for office space.张欣和丈夫一起执掌SOHO中国,她表示,该公司热衷于利用办公室空间的需求弹性。She cited Soho’s recently completed Guanghualu 2 project in central Beijing, where 30,000 square metres of retail space was converted into shared offices under the 3Q brand the company launched last year.她举了最近在北京市中心完工的光华路SOHO2项目的例子,该项目的3万平方米零售空间被改造成共享办公室,使用该公司去年推出的3Q品牌。“We have quite a nice shopping mall we designed but, having realised there was hardly any market, we turned this into our flagship 3Q with 3,300 seats,” she said on Thursday on a trip to Hong Kong to announce half-yearly results.“我们有自己设计的相当不错的购物中心,但在意识到几乎没有市场后,我们把这里变成了我们的旗舰3Q,提供3300个工位,”她在周四到香港宣布半年度业绩时表示。Ms Zhang, whose company is the biggest developer of offices in China’s top two cities, says the new serviced offices are popular with local and international internet companies such as Uber, Sina and Meituan Dianping that often need extra space at short notice.张欣的公司是北京和上海的最大办公空间开发商。她表示,新的务式办公室受到当地和国际互联网公司的欢迎,如优步(Uber)、新浪(Sina)和美团点评(Meituan Dianping),这些公司往往需要在短时间内获得额外办公空间。Soho China aims to have 16,000 seats across 16 centres this year and plans to expand to cities including Guangzhou, Shenzhen and Hangzhou.SOHO中国计划今年在16个中心提供1.6万个座位,并计划扩张至广州、深圳和杭州等城市。The move is part of a shift from an investment-heavy “build-and-sell” approach to a “build-and-hold” strategy to generate more stable rental income.此举是转变经营模式的一部分,即从投资较大的“建造和销售”模式,转向“建造和持有”战略,以产生更稳定的租金收入。Soho China’s revenue jumped by 85 per cent year-on-year to Rmb727m (0m) in the first half of the year because of an increase in rental income, and profit after tax quadrupled to Rmb595m, boosted by valuation gains.SOHO中国的营业收入在今年上半年同比跃升85%,至7.27亿元人民币(合1.1亿美元),原因是租金收入增长,同时税后利润增长三倍,至5.95亿元人民币,得益于估值攀升。But she said Soho China was still open to selling some non-core properties, particularly with many cash-rich Chinese insurers willing to pay high prices for assets with good rental yields.但张欣表示,SOHO中国仍有可能出售一些非核心地产,尤其是鉴于中国许多资金充裕的保险公司愿意出高价买下租金收益率较好的资产。After the sale of one property this year drew bids from many Chinese insurers, she decided to put three more buildings on the market to cash in on their demand for suitable assets.在今年出售一处地产吸引多家中国保险商竞价后,她决定出售另外三栋建筑物,借助保险公司对合适资产的需求获利。Investors were initially sceptical about Soho China’s change of model but after slumping last year, its Hong Kong-listed shares are up by 40 per cent.投资者最初对SOHO中国改变经营模式感到怀疑,但该公司在香港上市的股票在去年大跌后已反弹40%。Analysts at Credit Suisse say the asset sales should “unlock value” and support dividend payments as Soho works to boost its rental income.瑞信(Credit Suisse)分析师表示,上述资产出售应当能够“释放价值”,在SOHO中国努力提高其租金收入之际持派息。 /201608/462124。

When the new US embassy in London, just along the river Thames from Battersea power station, opens its doors in late 2016, it will be one of the most secure buildings in Britain.当位于伦敦的美国大使馆新楼于2016年末正式启用时——它位于泰晤士河畔的巴特西发电厂(Battersea Power Station)附近——将是英国保安最严密的建筑之一。Architects KieranTimberlake trumpet its high-spec, high-security features: “In contrast to high perimeter walls and fences, security requirements are achieved through landscape design — such as the large pond, low garden walls with bench seating, and differences in elevation that create natural, unobtrusive barriers.”建筑师事务所基兰#8226;廷伯雷克(Kieran Timberlake)夸耀其高规格、高度安全的特色:“保安要求是通过景观设计来实现的,而没有采用高围墙和栅栏——例如宽阔的池塘,低矮的花园围墙搭配长条座椅,以及通过高度差异创建的自然而不突兀的屏障。”The embassy’s own description of the building as “modern, welcoming, safe” sums up the challenge planners have in reconciling the conflicting desires for security and openness in contemporary urban environments.大使馆自身对这座建筑的描述是“现代、友好、安全”,这概括了设计师们在当代城市环境中调和安全与开放这对相互冲突的目的时面临的挑战。But while the embassy design is a far cry from the more obviously militarised current site in Grosvenor Square, critics say it is emblematic of a broader trend. 虽然新大使馆的设计与位于格罗夫纳广场(Grosvenor Square)风格明显更加军事化的美国大使馆现址相去甚远,但家们称其代表了一股更加广泛的潮流。The past decade, has seen highly defended spaces spring up across towns and cities, creating what some describe as a hostile “fortresslike” environment.过去10年来,高度戒备的建筑空间在各个城镇拔地而起,营造出了被某些人描述为“像堡垒一样的”带有敌意的环境。The new US embassy is “like a Norman castle,” says Stephen Graham, professor of cities and society at Newcastle University. “It even has a moat and is set back, with empty space to protect it from truck bombs or blast,” he adds. “This is the logic of what an antiterrorist city would look like.”美国大使馆新楼“看起来像一座诺曼式城堡”,英国纽卡斯尔大学(Newcastle University)研究城市与社会的教授斯蒂芬#8226;格雷厄姆(Stephen Graham)表示。“它甚至有一条护城河,并且布局靠后,留出了空荡荡的空间以防备卡车炸弹或者爆炸,”他补充称。“这种构思体现出了一座反恐城市会有的样子。”Such fortified buildings are one aspect of a trend that has introduced several forms of “defensible space” into the landscape. A public outcry greeted the “anti-homeless” spikes that were spotted fixed into the ground outside a private apartment block in south London’s Southwark Bridge Road last summer.这种加强防御的建筑是潮流的一个侧面,这股潮流将多种形式的“可防御空间”引入了城市景观。去年夏天,伦敦南部南华桥路(Southwark Bridge Road)一栋私人公寓楼外的地面被发现嵌入了“防范无家可归者的”尖钉,此事激起了强烈的公众抗议。Boris Johnson, London’s mayor, called them “ugly, self-defeating and stupid” and they were later removed.时任伦敦市长鲍里斯#8226;约翰逊(Boris Johnson)将这些尖钉称为是“丑陋、适得其反和愚蠢的”,随后这些尖钉被移除。Retailers have courted controversy by installing so-called “Mosquito” alarms, which emit a high-pitched sound heard only by young people and babies, to discourage loitering. 零售商们安装的所谓“蚊子”警报器也很容易招致争议,这种装置通过发出只有年轻人和婴幼儿听得到的高频声音来阻止他们在店内逗留。In New York, spiked coverings have been attached to fire hydrants to prevent people sitting on them. Other examples include sloped bus shelter seats, park benches you cannot lie down on and the Camden bench, designed to deter skateboarders.在纽约,消防栓上被安装了带有尖钉的覆盖物,以防止人们坐在消防栓上。其他例子还包括带有坡度的公车站座椅,让你无法平躺其上的公园长椅,以及坎姆登区(Camden)为了阻止滑板玩家而设计的水泥长凳。The term “defensible space” was coined by the US architect Oscar Newman in the 1970s. This spawned an industry based on the principles of Crime Prevention through Environmental Design (CPTED), ideas that journeyed across the Atlantic and have a far-reaching influence on urban policy through, for example, the UK police’s initiative, Secured by Design.“可防御空间”这个词是美国建筑师奥斯卡#8226;纽曼(Oscar Newman)在20世纪70年代发明的。这一理念催生了基于通过环境设计预防犯罪(Crime Prevention through Environmental Design,简称CPTED)原则的一个产业,相关创意传播至大西洋彼岸,对城市政策产生了深远影响,英国警方的安全设计(Secured by Design)倡议就是一例。Prof Graham comments: “We are redesigning the city so that anyone who doesn’t move is deemed a threat, which includes someone who is pregnant, who has young kids or a disability. 格雷厄姆教授称:“我们正在重新设计城市,使任何不在移动的人都被看成了威胁,这其中包括妇、带有年幼子女的人或者残疾人。I can’t deny there are attacks and dangers and vulnerabilities, but sometimes those are exaggerated and the terrorist threat becomes a massive obsession.”我不否认存在恐怖袭击、危险以及安全漏洞,但有些时候这些因素被夸大了,恐怖主义威胁变成了一种让人纠结的东西。”Phoebe Boulton Jaggi, a student at the London College of Communication who has researched antisocial street furniture says cities become “more liveable for consumers and less liveable for other people”. 菲比#8226;尔顿#8226;贾吉(Phoebe Boulton Jaggi)是伦敦传媒学院(London College of Communication)的一名学生,她曾研究反社会的街道公共设施。While architects may attract support for building defences into potential targets such as the US embassy, critics object to fortress security levels grafted on to other public buildings, including schools, hospitals and housing. 贾吉称,城市正变得“对消费者更加宜居,对其他人群不那么宜居”。尽管建筑师将防御设计融入潜在袭击目标(如美国大使馆)或许会获得持,但家们反对将堡垒级的保安设施移植到其他公共建筑上,例如学校、医院和住宅区。These often incorporate features such as high-perimeter fencing, barbed wire and CCTV cameras.这类保安设施准往往包括高耸的防护围栏、带刺铁丝网和闭路电视摄像头。“Secured by Design has become the template for all new development today,” says Anna Minton, author of Ground Control and er in architecture at the University of East London. 《地面控制》(Ground Control)一书作者、东伦敦大学(University of East London)建筑学准教授安娜#8226;敏顿(Anna Minton)表示:“安全设计已经成了当今所有新开发项目的基本模板。”The threat of terrorism has become the “justification for ever-increasing security” as part of the daily environment, she adds.她补充称,恐怖主义威胁成了“保安日益升级的理由”,这些设施成为了日常环境的一部分。Secured by Design, wholly-owned by the Association of Chief Police Officers, was formed in 1989. It supports the concept of “designing out crime”, with, for example, specially constructed doors and fencing, which, it says, can reduce burglary by 75 per cent.安全设计创立于1989年,由英国警察局长协会(British Association of Chief Police Officers)全资所有。该机构持“用设计预防犯罪”的理念,比如借助特别设计的门和围栏,能将盗窃案减少75%。“Security measures can be invisible,” says Jon Cole, Secured by Design’s national operations manager. “If you build in security at the outset, then the building will generally be far more aesthetically pleasing.”安全设计的全国运营经理乔恩#8226;科尔(Jon Cole)表示,“安保措施可以是无形的。如果你从一开始就在建筑中融入安保设计,那么这种建筑在外形上通常会更加美观。”There has been something of a reaction to hyper-securitised, exclusive city spaces. London’s Oxford Circus is an example of the European idea of “shared space”, which focuses on improving traffic safety through the removal of barriers, roundabouts and even traffic lights.安保措施过于严格而又排外的城市空间激起了某些反应。伦敦的牛津圆环(Oxford Circus)就是一个体现欧洲“共享空间”理念的例子。为了提高交通安全性,有关部门在这里移除障碍物、环形交叉口甚至交通信号灯。In the US, organisations such as San Francisco Rebar, a landscape design group, are influencing the debate on public space. Meanwhile, in Hamburg, designer Oliver Schau has used yellow drainage pipes to create impromptu “guerrilla seating” in urban areas.在美国,旧金山的景观设计机构Rebar等组织正在对有关公共空间的辩论产生影响。与此同时,在汉堡,设计师奥利弗#8226;绍(Oliver Schau)利用黄色排水管在城区即兴创造出了“游击座椅”。In Canada, RainCity Housing, an independent charity that helps the homeless, installed a roofed bench in the city to provide shelter to street sleepers, in contrast to the anti-homeless spikes that have made their appearance on London’s streets.在加拿大,旨在帮助无家可归者的独立慈善组织雨城住房(RainCity Housing)在市区安装了带有顶棚的长椅,为露宿街头者提供庇护。这与伦敦街头曾经出现的防备无家可归者的尖钉形成了鲜明对比。Prof Graham thinks the debate will intensify. “Raising awareness of what is going on is a challenge,” he says. “It is such a massive thing for people to get their heads round.”格雷厄姆教授认为,相关辩论将会变得更加激烈。“提高公众对当前状况的认识是一项挑战,”他表示。“这是一个需要人们大费脑筋才能理解的宏大问题。” /201608/462868。

A world-class airport cluster will be established in Beijing and its two neighboring areas - Tianjin municipality and Hebei province, promoting regional integrated development, China Securities Journal reported.据《中国券报》报道,为促进区域一体化发展,一个世界级机场集群将在北京及其两个邻近地区——天津市和河北省建立。A guideline, which aims to push forward coordinated development of civil aviation in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei area (or Jing-Jin-Ji in their abbreviations), was approved at a meeting presided by Feng Zhenglin, head of the Civil Aviation Administration, last Monday.上周一,在民用航空局冯正霖主持的一次会议上,一项旨在促进京津冀地区民用航空协调发展的指导方针得到了批准。Airspace integration and comprehensive transportation connectivity will be basically achieved in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region by 2030, building a more powerful policy guarantee system.到2030年,京津冀地区将基本实现空域整合和综合交通连接,形成更强大的政策保障体系。A total of 23 tasks were put forward to build a world-class airport cluster and aviation hub, serving the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei city cluster, according to the guideline.按照该指导方针,建设世界级机场集群和航空枢纽的23项任务,将务于京津冀城市群。In order to achieve this goal, the guideline also set up two timelines: structural adjustment period (2016-2019) and all-round upgrade period (2020-2030).为了实现这一目标,该指导方针还设置了两个时间表:结构调整期(2016-2019)和全面升级期(2020-2030)。Beijing#39;s two existing airports have reached their maximum handling capacities and so the capital city is building its third civil airport - the Daxing International Airport - which will be the second-largest airport in the city, following the Beijing Capital International Airport.北京现有的两个机场已达到最大处理能力,因此首都正在建设第三个民用机场——大兴国际机场,这将是北京首都国际机场之后的第二大机场。The facility, located adjacent to Daxing district in Beijing and Langfang in the neighboring Hebei province, will involve 79.98 billion yuan (.11 billion) of investment and take about five years to complete, according to the National Development and Reform Commission.根据国家发展和改革委员会的数据,该设施毗邻北京大兴区和邻近的河北省廊坊市,将涉及投资779.8亿元(约合131.1亿美元),需要约5年的时间。The airport is designed to handle 72 million passengers, 2 million tons of cargo, and 620,000 planes in 2025.机场设计在2025年接待7200万乘客、200万吨货物和620,000架飞机。Meanwhile, Tianjin Binhai International Airport and Shijiazhuang Zhengding International Airport have aly taken measures to diversify their services and facilitate journeys.同时,天津滨海国际机场和石家庄正定国际机场已经采取措施,使务多样化、使旅程更加便利。 /201612/485286。

Asian tycoon Li Ka-shing is assembling a bid for a majority stake in the gas distribution business of National Grid, the UK electricity network operator, bringing an experienced UK infrastructure investor to the auction that is expected to value the business at £11bn including debt.亚洲富豪李嘉诚(Li Ka-shing)正在筹划投标收购英国电力网络运营商——英国国家电网(National Grid)的天然气配送业务的多数股权,这意味着对英国基础设施经验丰富的一位投资者加入这场拍卖,预计这块业务的估值将达到110亿英镑(包括债务)。Cheung Kong Infrastructure, a part of Mr Li’s sprawling global business empire, is leading a group of investors that is likely to submit an initial consortium offer by the end of the week, people close to the talks said. 长江基建(CKI)是李嘉诚庞大全球商业帝国的一部分。知情人士称,该公司很可能在本周结束时带领一群投资者提交初步财团报价。CKI did not respond to requests for comment.长江基建没有回复记者的置评请求。The National Grid stake sale is set to be one of the largest infrastructure deals in the UK of recent years. 英国国家电网的股权出售势必将成为英国近年来最大的基础设施交易之一。It will also be a major test of the new conditions on foreign investment in UK infrastructure set by Theresa May’s government last week after it gave approval for the new £18bn Hinkley Point nuclear power station, which will be part-owned by a Chinese state-owned company.它也将意味着,特里萨#8226;梅(Theresa May)的政府对外资投资于英国基础设施设置的新条件将迎来一大考验;这些条件是英国政府上周批准新的180亿英镑欣克利角核电站项目之后宣布的,中国国有企业将拥有那个项目的部分股权。The UK prime minister will review the 2002 Enterprise Act to see whether infrastructure should be added to the sectors in which ministers can intervene. 英国首相将审阅2002年《企业法》(Enterprise Act),看看基础设施应不应该被添加到部长级官员们可以干预的行业名单。At present the government can only step in if a takeover could threaten financial stability, media plurality or national security.目前英国政府只能在收购可能危及金融稳定、媒体多样性或国家安全的情况下才能介入。First-round bids for the 51 per cent stake in the business, which distributes gas to nearly 11m customers around the UK, are due by Friday, these and other people involved in the process said.前述知情人士以及参与股权出售过程的其他人士表示,对英国国家电网天然气配送业务51%股权的第一轮出价最迟必须在本周五提交。这块业务向英国各地近1100万客户配送天然气。Analysts have said they expect a deal to value the entire gas distribution unit at around £10bn-£11bn including debt. 分析师们表示,他们预计这笔交易将使整个天然气配送业务的估值达到100亿至110亿英镑左右,包括债务。The process is expected to take at least several weeks and National Grid is being advised by Morgan Stanley, Barclays and Robey Warshaw.整个过程预计至少需要几个星期,英国国家电网的顾问是根士丹利(Morgan Stanley)、巴克莱(Barclays)和Robey Warshaw。The auction has aly attracted interest from other infrastructure investors and sovereign wealth funds.本次拍卖已经吸引了其他基础设施投资者和主权财富基金的兴趣。One consortium participating in the auction is led by Canada Pension Plan Investment Board, which has put together a group that includes sovereign wealth funds from Kuwait and Abu Dhabi. 参与竞拍的一个财团由加拿大退休金计划投资委员会(CPPIB)牵头,财团成员包括科威特和阿布扎比的主权财富基金。Another is led by Macquarie and includes backing from Allianz, the German insurer, Dalmore Capital and China Investment Corporation, China’s sovereign wealth fund.另一个财团由麦格理(Macquarie)牵头,财团成员包括德国保险公司安联(Allianz)、Dalmore Capital以及中国主权财富基金——中国投资公司(CIC)。Fosun, the privately-held Chinese conglomerate, has also been attempting to put together its own consortium bid that would feature a number of Chinese investors, people close to the process said. 知情人士称,私人控股的中国企业集团复星(Fosun)也一直在试图组织自己的财团竞标,该财团将包括多家中国投资者。Fosun declined to comment but one person close to the group said that it was planning to place a bid this week.复星拒绝置评,但接近该集团的一位人士表示,它确实计划在本周投标。However, at least one Chinese investor interested in participating in the auction has opted not to work with Fosun believing that a mainland Chinese-heavy consortium stands less of a chance of winning the auction.不过,至少有一家对本次拍卖感兴趣的中国投资者选择不与复星合作,相信一个中资含量较高的财团竞价胜出的几率较小。In another high-profile infrastructure auction this year - the sale of a controlling stake in London City Airport - the selling investors opted against a higher bid from China’s HNA Group in favour of a lower offer from a Canadian-led consortium. 在今年另一场令人瞩目的基础设施拍卖——出售伦敦城市机场(London City Airport)的控股权——期间,卖方投资者决定不要中国海航集团(HNA Group)的更高报价,而宁可接受加拿大投资者牵头的财团的较低报价。Despite the lower value, the sellers determined that consortium could close the deal faster and with less political uncertainty, people close to that auction said at the time.知情人士当时表示,尽管报价较低,但卖家确信选择加拿大财团能够更快完成交易,政治不确定性也会较小。A successful deal for Mr Li, who has been investing in the UK for over two decades, would add to a broad infrastructure portfolio in the country that spans everything from ports to water and telecoms. 李嘉诚在英国投资已有20余年。此次若能竞拍成功,将使他在英国的广泛基础设施资产组合——从港口、水务,到电信——更加充实。His Cheung Kong group bought the electricity distribution business from EDF in 2010 for £5.8bn. 他旗下的长江实业集团(Cheung Kong group)曾在2010年斥资58亿英镑买下法国电力(EDF)的英国配电业务。The company also provides gas in some parts of the country through its two distribution networks.该公司目前已通过两个配送网络在英国部分地区供应天然气。His CK Hutchinson conglomerate owns European mobile group 3, which earlier this year failed to gain approval from the EU competition authority for a planned £10bn takeover of O2, Telefónica’s UK arm.他旗下的长江和记实业(CK Hutchison)拥有欧洲移动运营商3,后者100亿英镑并购西班牙电信公司(Telefónica)英国业务O2的计划今年早些时候被欧盟竞争当局否决。Last week, National Grid raised £3bn as it sold the largest ever sterling-denominated corporate bond as part of a plan to refinance its existing debt. 上周,英国国家电网通过史上最大的英镑计价公司债券发行筹资30亿英镑,这是该公司对现有债务进行再融资的计划的一部分。National Grid plans to return as much of the proceeds from the stake to investors, while continuing to fund investment in network infrastructure.英国国家电网拟将大致等额的股权出售所得返还投资者,同时继续投资于网络基础设施。 /201609/468069。