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明星资讯腾讯娱乐2019年10月16日 22:14:23
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CUPERTINO, Calif. — Apple may well be the only tech company on the planet that would dare compare itself to Picasso.加州,库比蒂诺——苹果公司或许是这个星球上唯一一个敢把自己和毕加索(Picasso)相提并论的技术公司了。In a class at the company’s internal training program, the so-called Apple University, the instructor likened the 11 lithographs that make up Picasso’s “The Bull” to the way Apple builds its smartphones and other devices. The idea: Apple designers strive for simplicity just as Picasso eliminated details to create a great work of art.公司的内部培训计划被称为“苹果大学”,在其中一堂课上,导师将11张构成毕加索《公牛》(The Bull)的版画与苹果公司打造智能手机及其他产品的方式联系起来。他的意思是:苹果设计师像毕加索一样追求简洁,去掉繁琐的细节,创造出伟大的艺术品。Steven P. Jobs established Apple University as a way to inculcate employees into Apple’s business culture and educate them about its history, particularly as the company grew and the tech business changed. Courses are not required, only recommended, but getting new employees to enroll is rarely a problem.史蒂夫·P·乔布斯(Steven P. Jobs)创立苹果大学的目的是向员工灌输苹果的商业文化,并传授公司的历史,特别是公司的发展和技术经济的变革。课程并非必修,只作为推荐课程,但是吸引新雇员来听课从来就不成问题。Although many companies have such internal programs, sometimes referred to as indoctrination, Apple’s version is a topic of speculation and fascination in the tech world.许多公司也有类似的内部培训,有时会被视作“灌输”,而苹果公司培训的主题则是思考与技术世界的魅力。It is highly secretive and rarely written about, referred to briefly in the biography of Mr. Jobs by Walter Isaacson. Apple employees are discouraged from talking about the company in general, and the classes are no exception. No pictures of the classrooms have surfaced publicly. And a spokeswoman for Apple declined to make instructors available for interviews for this article.培训高度保密,几乎没有人写过相关的东西,只是在沃尔特·艾萨克森(Walter Isaacson)为乔布斯所做的传记中略有涉及。公司不鼓励雇员们公开谈论公司,这些课程自然也不例外。没有任何课堂上的照片公之于众。苹果公司的一位女发言人拒绝提供导师们的联系方式,供本文作者进行采访。But three employees who have taken classes agreed to speak to The New York Times on the condition that they not be identified. They described a program that is an especially vivid reflection of Apple and the image it presents to the world. Like an Apple product, it is meticulously planned, with polished presentations and a gleaming veneer that masks a great deal of effort.但是三位上过课的雇员同意接受《纽约时报》匿名采访。他们描述的课程特别能够鲜明地反映出苹果公司的状况,以及它呈现给世界的形象。和苹果公司的产品一样,苹果大学的课程也经过精心设计,有着精美的呈现和闪亮的装饰,其下掩藏着相关者付出的巨大劳动。“Even the toilet paper in the bathrooms is really nice,” one of the employees said.“就连卫生间的厕纸都很高级,”一位雇员说。Unlike many corporations, Apple runs its training in-house, year round. The full-time faculty — including instructors, writers and editors — create and teach the courses. Some faculty members come from universities like Yale; Harvard; the University of California, Berkeley; Stanford; and M.I.T., and some continue to hold positions at their schools while working for Apple.和其他许多公司不同,苹果公司的内部培训常年开课。设计和教授课程的教学人员都是全职,其中包括教师、作家和编辑。有些教学人员来自耶鲁、哈佛、加州大学伯克利分校、斯坦福和麻省理工等大学,有些人在自己的学校保留教职,同时又在苹果教课。The program was devised by Joel Podolny, then the dean of Yale School of Management. Mr. Jobs selected him when the program was founded, in 2008, and he remains head of the effort.该项目由乔伊·波多尔尼(Joel Podolny)设计,他当时是耶鲁大学管理学院的院长。培训计划于2008年开始创立时,乔布斯选择了他,如今他仍然领导着这项工作。On an internal website available only to Apple staff members, employees sign up for courses tailored to their positions and backgrounds. For example, one class taught founders of recently acquired companies how to smoothly blend resources and talents into Apple. The company may also offer a course tailored specifically to employees of Beats, perhaps including its founders, Dr. Dre and Jimmy Iovine. Neither Apple nor Beats would comment.在只对苹果公司员工开放的内部网站上,员工可以登记为自己的职务与背景量身定做的课程。比如其中有一门课专门向新近收购的公司的创始人们开放,教他们如何平稳地将原公司的资源和人才融入苹果。苹果公司恐怕也专门为Beats公司的雇员开设了一门课程,其创始人Dr. Dre和吉米·艾欧文(Jimmy lovine)可能也在学员之中。苹果公司与Beats公司拒绝对此作出。Some of the courses teach case studies about important business decisions that Apple made, one of the employees said, including the one to make the iPod and its iTunes software compatible with Microsoft’s Windows system. This was a topic of fierce debate among executives. Mr. Jobs hated the idea of sharing the iPod with Windows, but he eventually acquiesced to his lieutenants. It turned out that opening the iPod to Windows users led to explosive growth of the music player and the iTunes Store, an ecosystem that would later contribute to the success of the iPhone.一位雇员说,有些课程的内容是案例研究,就是苹果公司如何作出重大商务决定的事例,比如让iPod和它配套的iTunes软件与微软的Windows系统兼容的决策。当时这在管理层中曾激起很大的争论,乔布斯不喜欢iPod与Windows兼容的想法,但最终还是默许手下这样做。最后iPod向Windows用户开放的做法为这种音乐播放器与iTunes商店带来了爆炸式的增长,形成了一种生态系统,后来对iPhone的成功大有裨益。The classes are taught on Apple’s campus in a section of buildings called City Center and are as thoughtfully planned as an Apple product, the employees said. The rooms are well lit and built in a trapezoid shape; seats in the back rows are elevated so that everyone has a clear view of the instructor. Occasionally, classes are given in Apple’s overseas offices, like one in China, and the professors travel there to teach.雇员们说,授课地点是在苹果工业园内一个名叫“城市中心”的建筑群,这些建筑和苹果的产品一样,经过精心设计。房间照明良好,设计成梯形,后排的座椅是升高的,让所有人都能清楚地看到教师。偶尔也会在中国等海外办公室授课,教授们会出国讲课。Randy Nelson, who came from the animation studio Pixar, co-founded by Mr. Jobs, is one of the teachers of “Communicating at Apple.” This course, open to various levels of employees, focuses on clear communication, not just for making products intuitive, but also for sharing ideas with peers and marketing products.兰迪·尼尔森(Randy Nelson)是“苹果公司的沟通”课程的教师之一,他来自皮克斯动画工作室,乔布斯是该公司的创办人之一。这个课程向不同等级的雇员开放,主要内容是清晰的沟通技巧,不仅要凭直觉制作产品,也要与同伴们分享想法,为产品做市场推广。In a version of the class taught last year, Mr. Nelson showed a slide of “The Bull,” a series of 11 lithographs of a bull that Picasso created over about a month, starting in late 1945. In the early stages, the bull has a snout, shoulder shanks and hooves, but over the iterations, those details vanish. The last image is a curvy stick figure that is still unmistakably a bull.在去年的沟通课上,尼尔森放了毕加索“公牛”的幻灯片,那是毕加索在1945年底期间,于一个月内画出的11幅公牛图案。早期阶段的公牛有口鼻、肩膀和蹄子,但是随着一次次的再创作,这些细节渐渐消失了。最后的图像是曲线构成的形状,但仍让人能看出是一头公牛。“You go through more iterations until you can simply deliver your message in a very concise way, and that is true to the Apple brand and everything we do,” recalled one person who took the course.“经历一次次再创作,直到你能把信息以非常简洁的方式传达出来,苹果品牌,乃至我们所做的一切都是这样,”据一个参加过这门课程的人回忆。In “What Makes Apple, Apple,” another course that Mr. Nelson occasionally teaches, he showed a slide of the remote control for the Google TV, said an employee who took the class last year. The remote has 78 buttons. Then, the employee said, Mr. Nelson displayed a photo of the Apple TV remote, a thin piece of metal with just three buttons.尼尔森有时还会教另一门名叫“苹果何以成为苹果”的课程,一个去年上过这门课的雇员说,他会在课上放出谷歌电视遥控器的幻灯。这个遥控器上有78个按钮,然后尼尔森拿出了一张苹果电视遥控器的图,它是一个薄薄的金属片,上面只有三个按钮。How did Apple’s designers decide on three buttons? They started out with an idea, Mr. Nelson explained, and debated until they had just what was needed — a button to play and pause a , a button to select something to watch, and another to go to the main .苹果的设计师们是怎么决定只设三个按钮的?尼尔森解释说,他们一开始先有了一个创意,然后继续讨论,直到实现了他们所需要的东西——一个按钮用来播放和暂停视频,一个按钮作为选择键,另一个按钮用来回到主菜单。The Google TV remote serves as a counterexample; it had so many buttons, Mr. Nelson said, because the individual engineers and designers who worked on the project all got what they wanted. But, Apple’s designers concluded, only three were needed.谷歌电视的遥控器则是反例,它有太多按钮了,尼尔森说,这是因为参与项目的工程师和设计师们都实现了自己想要的东西。但是苹果的设计师们达成了一致:只有三个按钮是必需的。“The Best Things,” another course, takes its name from a ation by Mr. Jobs. Its purpose is to remind employees to surround themselves with the best things, like talented peers and high-quality materials, so that they can do their best work.还有一门课程叫做“最好的东西”,这个名字来自乔布斯的一句话。它的目标是提醒雇员们,要让最好的东西围绕在自己身边,比如有才华的同伴和高品质的材料,这样才能在工作中做到最好。One of the teachers for this course, Joshua Cohen, a Stanford professor, brought up Central Park in New York. The space for the park was originally a rocky swamp. But, Mr. Cohen said, its designers wanted to transform it into an area that gave urban residents the experience of nature.这门课的教师之一乔舒亚·科恩(Joshua Cohen)是斯坦福大学的教授,他在课上举纽约的中央公园为例。公园起先是一片岩石和沼泽,但设计师们想把它改造成一片供城市居民体验自然的地方。The comparison was to one of Mr. Jobs’s goals: to make complex computer technologies feel understandable and natural.这种对比正是乔布斯的目标之一:把复杂的电脑技术变得让人容易理解,变得非常自然。Ben Bajarin, a consumer technology analyst for Creative Strategies, said Apple University would take on more importance as Apple continued to grow.本·巴贾林(Ben Bajarin)是创意战略公司的消费者技术分析师,他说,随着苹果持续发展,苹果大学会变得更加重要。“When you do the case studies on Apple decades from now, the one thing that will keep coming out is this unique culture where people there believe they’re making the best products that change people’s lives,” Mr. Bajarin said. “That’s all cultural stuff they’re trying to ingrain. That becomes very difficult the bigger you get.”“研究苹果迄今几十年的案例,你会发现它们始终保有这样一种独特文化——相信自己在创造能够改变人们生活的最好产品,”巴贾林说。“他们想植入的完全是文化上的东西,公司越大,要做到这一点就越困难。” /201408/322982

Once upon a time, flip phones were the ultimate status symbol. Whipping out a Motorola StarTAC or a RAZR meant you had made it, that you were, as they said, a #39;playah.#39; Rappers plugged them in bling-laden lyrics. Fashion#39;s Domenico Dolce and Stefano Gabbana touted them in ad campaigns. During Hollywood awards season, savvy publicists tucked them into VIP swag bags.从前,翻盖手机是社会地位的终极象征。掏出一部托罗拉(Motorola) StarTAC或RAZR表示你很行,也就是说如大家所言,你是一个“大玩家”。说唱歌手纷纷把它们写进他们满是“布铃布铃”声音的歌词中。时尚界的多梅尼科#12539;多尔切(Domenico Dolce)与斯特凡诺#12539;嘉班纳(Stefano Gabbana)也在广告宣传中吹捧它们。在好莱坞的颁奖季,精明的公关人员则把它们塞进VIP礼包中。But ever since Motorola dropped the price of the once-luxury RAZR a year after its 2004 debut to make it affordable to a mass market, the luster of the flip has been fading. Warp ahead to the 21st century, and these gadgets now carry social stigmas in most circles. Open a clamshell and the perception is that you are elderly (in need of a giant keypad), poor (on a pay-as-you-go cellular plan) or a criminal (see #39;Sons of Anarchy,#39; #39;Breaking Bad#39;).然而,托罗拉在RAZR上市一年后下调了这款于2004年发布、曾属奢侈品的手机的价格,以便让普通大众也能买得起它,此后翻盖手机的吸引力便逐渐消退。进入21世纪后,现在这些设备在大多数圈子中都被贴上了社会污名标记。打开一部翻盖手机给人的感受是你年纪大(所以你需要一个大键盘),人穷(使用的是手机预充值计划),或者是个罪犯(参见《混乱之子》(Sons of Anarchy)和《绝命毒师》(Breaking Bad))。Yet there might be some battery life left in the flip phone after all. Mega-power players in the worlds of sports, fashion, film and finance still pledge allegiance. Indianapolis Colts quarterback Andrew Luck, 24, sports a five-year-old Samsung, while actress Kate Beckinsale, a star of the future-forward #39;Total Recall#39; remake, has professed her love for an LG. Vogue editor in chief Anna Wintour carries a rudimentary Pantech (in addition to an iPhone). Warren Buffett showed off his Nokia flip to Piers Morgan on CNN (#39;This is the one Alexander Graham Bell gave me,#39; Mr. Buffett joked). And Jerry Jones, billionaire owner of the Dallas Cowboys, created a media frenzy when he was #39;outed#39; for brandishing a clamshell. #39;I don#39;t have any butt-dialing with that thing,#39; he explained on #39;CBS This Morning.#39;尽管如此,翻盖手机或许最终还留存了一些生命力。体育界、时尚界、影视界和金融界的一些超级巨头依然是这种手机的忠实粉丝。印第安纳波利斯小马队(Indianapolis Colts)24岁的四分卫安德鲁#12539;拉克(Andrew Luck)使用的是一部用了五年的三星(Samsung)翻盖手机。翻拍版科幻影片《全面回忆》(Total Recall)的女星凯特#12539;贝金赛尔(Kate Beckinsale)也宣称自己喜欢一部LG的翻盖手机。美国版《Vogue》主编安娜#12539;温图尔(Anna Wintour)也手拿一部基本款Pantech(另一部是iPhone)。沃伦#12539;巴菲特(Warren Buffett)在CNN上节目时向皮尔斯#12539;根(Piers Morgan)展示了他的诺基亚(Nokia)翻盖手机(他还开玩笑说:“这是亚历山大#12539;格雷厄姆#12539;贝尔(Alexander Graham Bell)给我的”。)达拉斯牛仔队的亿万富翁老板杰里#12539;琼斯(Jerry Jones)因夸耀一部翻盖手机 “被指过时”,还因此引发了媒体的狂热报道。他在《CBS今早》(CBS This Morning)栏目解释道:“使用这种手机的话,我就不会因为坐到它而拨出电话了。”In many cases, these cellular stalwarts aren#39;t opting for clamshells out of irony or nostalgia. The choice is utilitarian. #39;The flip phone design was created to address many concerns of the consumer at that time: protection, pocketability, voice quality and performance,#39; said Motorola Mobility Senior Vice President Jim Wicks, who designed the RAZR. #39;What is nice about the flip is that it protects the screen, which was and continues to be a top issue for consumers.#39;在许多情况下,这些翻盖手机的坚定持者并不是出于反讽或怀旧心理而选择它们,而是出于对实用性的注重。托罗拉移动业务高级副总裁、RAZR的设计者吉姆#12539;威克斯(Jim Wicks)说:“我们设计翻盖手机是为了解决消费者当时众多关心的问题:(屏幕)保护、便携性、音质及性能。翻盖手机的好处是它能保护屏幕,这以前是而且会继续是消费者最关心的问题。”By certain measures, basic flip phones outperform their smarter brethren. The retro models tend to be more likely to survive exposure to dust and moisture. Battery life is often better (up to 14 days of standby time for the Pantech Breeze III, for example, compared with 10 days for the iPhone 5c, according to their manufacturers). Big-button keypads are easier to dial on than glass. And their microphones sit closer to the mouth, which can result in more intelligible speech.按某些标准衡量,基础款翻盖手机的表现还超过了智能手机。这些怀旧机型往往更能抵抗住灰尘和潮湿环境。它们的电池续航时间往往也更长(例如,据它们各自的制造商称,Pantech Breeze III的待机时间长达14天,而iPhone 5c只有10天)。带大按钮的键盘也比玻璃屏更容易拨号,而且它们的麦克风距嘴更近,会使通话声音更加清晰。Carter Hooper, a New Orleans-based advertising agency creative director and self-described cellphone aficionado, holds the original RAZR in especially high regard. #39;At long last I could have something that was even remotely like the communicators on #39;Star Trek,#39; #39; he said, recalling his initial reaction to the phone. Similarly, Sean Hollister, a senior reporter for the online magazine the Verge, waxed nostalgic for these devices#39; trappings. #39;There is nothing quite like the physical satisfaction of flipping open a phone,#39; he said. #39;There#39;s also the lack of distractions when your phone is dumb rather than smart, so that it doesn#39;t annoy you all the time.#39;新奥尔良广告公司创意总监、自称手机迷的卡特#12539;胡珀(Carter Hooper)就对最早的RAZR推崇备至。他回忆说自己对这款手机的第一反应是:“我终于能有一点点像《星际迷航》(Star Trek)中的发报机的东西了。”同样地,在线杂志《The Verge》的高级记者肖恩#12539;霍利斯特(Sean Hollister)对这些设备的一些小机关也很是怀念。他说:“打开翻盖手机给身体带来的满足感是其他所有事情所做不到的。如果你的手机不是智能机,你也就少了让你分心的东西,所以它不会一直烦你。”For the fashion conscious, clamshells also have a certain cachet. Despite the seemingly constant rollout of slightly updated iPhones and Android models, novelty, thy name isn#39;t smartphone. It#39;s a flip that makes you a renegade, an iconoclast.对于注重时尚的人,翻盖手机也有令人喜爱的特定品质。尽管iPhone和安卓(Android)似乎在不断推出略有升级的机型,但是新奇,你的名字不是智能手机,而是让你成为反叛者、反主流之人的翻盖手机。Committing to one these days doesn#39;t require swearing off the Internet. Even the most rudimentary clamshell models -- such as the Samsung Rugby III, the Pantech Breeze III and the LG Revere 2 -- offer basic Web connectivity. For those who want it all, there are promising signs of a clamshell smartphone movement. Samsung recently launched its Android-powered Hennessy (featuring dual touch-screens on the inside and out) and W2014 flip phones.现如今,专注使用翻盖手机并非就要你放弃互联网。即使是最基础的翻盖手机――如三星Rugby III、Pantech的 Breeze III和LG的Revere 2――都能提供基础的联网功能。对于所有功能都想要的人,有充满希望的迹象表明翻盖手机会出现智能化趋势。前不久三星发布了搭载安卓系统的Hennessy手机(配备内外双触屏)和W2014手机。These Android models are currently aimed at the Chinese market, but there are rumblings of a Stateside launch. #39;There will be a place for flip phones in today#39;s world for the foreseeable future,#39; said Brad Molen, senior mobile editor at the technology website Engadget. #39;Flip phones aren#39;t going away -- they#39;re just taking different forms.#39;这些安卓机型目前都针对中国市场,但有传言称它们会在美国发布。科技网站Engadget的高级移动资讯编辑布拉德#12539;莫伦(Brad Molen)认为:“在当今世界,翻盖手机在可预见的未来会有一席之地。翻盖手机不会消失――它们只是换上了不同的形式而已。” /201312/270581

At Carnegie Mellon University, robotics professor David Bourne and some of his students are working on software that enables a robot to cope with uncertainty over where a part will be on the assembly table, and to experiment with ways to put things together until they find the optimum methods. Using this learning method, a robot at CMU is able to pick up a battery from various angles and, sometimes, snap it into a Blackberry-a job most people can do intuitively. As the software improves, robots will learn faster, Prof. Bourne says. 卡内基梅隆大学(Carnegie Mellon University)的机器人学教授戴维#8226;伯恩(David Bourne)正带领学生研发一款软件,以便让机器人有能力判断应该把零部件放到什么位置,并能够探索不同的装配方式以确定最优途径。通过这种学习模式,卡内基梅隆大学研发的机器人可以从多个角度拾起一块电池,有时候甚至能把电池装到黑莓手机上。这项工作如果由人来做的话,应该是举手之劳,但机器人若能完成实属不易。伯恩教授表示,随着软件的不断完善,机器人的学习能力还会加快。 Will robots be able to bring production of such things as the iPhone to America? ;That#39;s what we#39;re working towards,; Prof. Bourne said. ;It#39;s not going to happen instantly.; 机器人的应用能够促使iPhone这类电子产品的制造回流到美国本土吗?伯恩教授表示,;这正是我们的目标,但短期之内还无法实现。; In another part of his lab, Prof. Bourne#39;s students are working on sensors that allow a robot to show a human colleague where to place parts so the robot can assemble them. 在伯恩教授实验室的另一处,他的学生们还在研究传感器技术,以便让机器人能在人类的指点下学会将一个零部件装配到特定位置。 Rodney Brooks, a former Massachusetts Institute of Technology robotics professor who helped launch the Roomba home-vacuuming robot a decade ago as a founder of iRobot Corp., believes industrial robots need to be updated to not only be smaller and nimbler, but also easier to control. 罗德尼#8226;布鲁克斯(Rodney Brooks)以前是麻省理工学院(Massachusetts Institute of Technology)的机器人学教授,协助推出了Roomba家用清洁机器人,他在10年前创立了iRobot Corp.公司。布鲁克斯认为,工业机器人需要进一步的升级换代,不但要更小巧灵活,还要更易于控制。 His Boston-based start-up, Heartland Robotics Inc., plans to introduce its first robots later this year. Dr. Brooks says they will be affordable for small manufacturers and include controls more akin to an iPhone than a mainframe computer. 布鲁克斯在波士顿新创的Heartland Robotics Inc.公司计划于今年推出第一款机器人。他说这款机器人的价格将能为小型制造商所接受,其控制界面不像大型计算机那样复杂,而是接近iPhone式的简洁方式。 Dr. Brooks refuses to say much about the machines but the goal is ;to introduce robots into places that have not been automated before, making manufacturers more efficient, their workers more productive and keeping jobs from migrating to low-cost regions.; He plans to make the robots in the U.S. 布鲁克斯不愿透露太多关于这款机器人的信息,但其目标是;让机器人进入从未涉及过的领域,让制造过程更有效率,提高工人产能,避免生产过程和就业岗位流向低成本国家。;布鲁克斯打算在美国国内生产这款机器人。 One of Dr. Brooks#39;s former students, Aaron Edsinger, has become a potential rival. When Mr. Edsinger was a doctoral student at MIT six years ago, he programmed a robot to help make a margarita. The point wasn#39;t to replace bartenders but to show that a robot could deal with a somewhat unpredictable environment. Now Mr. Edsinger heads a San Francisco-based company, Redwood Robotics, trying to develop low-cost robot arms for manufacturing and other applications. 阿隆#8226;艾幸格(Aaron Edsinger)曾是布鲁克斯的学生,现在则成了布鲁克斯的潜在竞争对手。六年前他在麻省理工学院攻读士学位时,曾给机器人编程,让其调制一杯玛格丽特鸡尾酒(margarita)。这样做的目的并非要让机器人取代酒吧调酒师,而是显示机器人能够应付一些难以预测的复杂工作环境。如今,艾幸格是旧金山Redwood Robotics公司的负责人,公司正在研究低成本的机器人手臂,用于产品制造和其他一些应用领域。 In work partly funded by Boeing Co. (BA), Julie Shah, an assistant professor in the aeronautics department at MIT, is researching ways for robots to adapt to the differing work habits of human colleagues so they can jointly assemble airplane parts. 朱丽叶#8226;莎(Julie Shah)是麻省理工学院的助教,她在从事一项由波音公司(Boeing Co.)资助的研究工作,寻找方法让机器人适应人类同事的各种工作习惯,以便与人类协同,共同装配飞机零部件。 The idea of people working hand in metal fist with robots ;is becoming less like science fiction every year,; Ms. Shah says. By James R. Hagerty and Miho Inada, The Wall Street Journal;莎表示,人类和机器人协同作业的理念;正在远离科幻小说的范畴,一年比一年变得更为现实。; /201207/189526

  

  Apple increased its profits on improved iPhone sales in its recently-ended third quarter, but the company’s reported revenue fell short of Wall Street’s expectations.在刚刚结束的第三财季,凭借iPhone手机销量的上涨,苹果公司(Apple)利润增加,但收入却未达到华尔街的预期。Releasing its latest quarterly results on Tuesday, Apple reported a 12.2% year-over-year increase in profits to .7 billion, or .28 per share. Analysts had predicted .23 per share, according to information compiled by Bloomberg. Apple’s earnings per share (EPS) grew by 19.6% over last year’s numbers when the company’s June 7-to-1 share split is taken into account.据本周二苹果发布的最新季度财报显示,公司利润同比上涨12.2%,达到77亿美元,合每股1.28美元。彭社(Bloomberg)综合消息称,分析师此前预测摊平后的每股利润为1.23美元。如果将苹果6月份的一比七拆股计划考虑在内,公司每股收益率比去年同期提高了19.6%。Apple’s third-quarter revenue grew 6% to .4 billion, falling just short of Wall Street’s prediction of billion. Apple had expected revenues to land between billion and billion for the third quarter after sales hit .3 billion during the same period last year. Compared with this year’s second quarter, Apple’s revenue was down nearly 18%.苹果第三财季收入增长了6%,达到374亿美元,略低于华尔街380亿美元的预期。去年同期,苹果公司销售额达到353亿美元,因此苹果曾预测,公司第三季度的收入将在360亿美元至380亿美元之间。与今年第二季度相比,苹果第三季度的收入减少了约18%。In announcing the results, CEO Tim Cook attributed areas of growth to strong product sales. “Our record June quarter revenue was fueled by strong sales of iPhone and Mac and the continued growth of revenue from the Apple ecosystem, driving our highest EPS growth rate in seven quarters,” Cook said in a statement.在公布结果时,苹果CEO蒂姆o库克将增长归因于产品销量的强势增长。库克表示:“苹果第三财季创纪录的收入,得益于iPhone手机和Mac电脑的强势表现,以及苹果生态系统营收的持续增长,从而推动每股收益率达到七个季度以来的最高水平。”The company sold 35.2 million iPhones last quarter, 12.6% more than the same quarter in 2013, while the number of iPads sold declined 9% to 13.2 million. Meanwhile, sales totals for both products were down 19% each compared with the previous quarter.苹果上一个财季的iPhone手机销量为3,520万部,比2013年同期增长了12.6%,iPad销量减少了9%,下降至1,320万台。而与上一个季度相比,两款产品的销量均下滑了19%。Apple’s product sales often drop off to some degree during the summer as customers wait for new products to be announced in the fall. The announcement of Apple’s next smartphone, the iPhone 6, has been eagerly awaited as rumors have swirled over everything from the kind of glass that could be used on the phone to whether or not the company will release multiple larger-sized versions of the phone.而由于消费者正等待秋季的新产品发布,因此苹果产品销量在夏季往往会出现类似程度的下滑。消费者对苹果下一代智能手机iPhone 6翘首以盼,现在出现了各种传言,比如手机所使用的玻璃,以及公司是否会推出多款大尺寸手机等等。Apple sold 4.4 million Macs last quarter, good for an 18% increase over last year and up 7% over the previous quarter.苹果Mac电脑第三财季的销量为440万台,比去年同期增长了18%,比第二财季增长了7%。The company also announced a cash dividend of 47 cents that will go to shareholders on August 14.此外,公司宣布将于8月14日向股东派发每股47美分的现金分红。For the fourth quarter, Apple expects revenue between billion and billion. The company’s stock closed Tuesday up 0.8%, but dropped slightly in after-hours trading.对于第四季度,苹果公司预计收入将在370亿美元至400亿美元之间。周二收盘时,苹果股票上涨了0.8%,但在盘后交易中有小幅下跌。 /201407/314521。

  Marks amp; Spencer has agreed to make the packaging of all of its toys gender neutral by spring 2014, after customers complained that it was marketing items according to stereotypes.据英国《卫报》报道,玛莎百货同意在2014年春季之前为所有的玩具换上性别中立的包装。此前顾客抱怨玛莎百货根据性别成见进行市场营销。Customers contacted Mamp;S to complain at a range of toys called ;Boy#39;s Stuff;, which included planes, cars, dinosaurs, racing cars, cat toys, a marble run and a pop-up fire station.顾客联系玛莎百货,投诉该商场将一系列商品归类为“男孩玩具”,包括玩具飞机、小汽车、恐龙、赛车、猫、单子和弹出式消防站。The description on the latter said: ;This pop up fire station is perfect for little fire men everywhere;, while the description of a watch in the same range : ;The perfect wrist accessory no boy should be without,; and a joke book : ;Boys know the best jokes and here are 500 crackers to keep you ahead of the girls.;其中,弹出式消防站玩具的说明上写道:“这个弹出式消防站非常适合各地的小消防员”。这一系列中的一款玩具手表也有这样的说明:“最完美的腕部配件,所有的男孩都不应错过”。还有一本笑话书上则写道:“男孩子们知道最厉害的笑话,这本书里有500则帮助你领先女孩儿的爆笑秘籍”。The Boy#39;s Stuff range will be rebranded to use a simple graphic logo, while the ;Little Miss Arty; range will become ;Poppy and Blue;, using character-based branding.“男孩玩具”区域已经重新挂牌,换成一个简单的图形标志,而“女孩艺术”区域被重命名为“波比和布鲁”并使用人物形象的标牌。Mamp;S told the Guardian it was aly in the process of updating its policy but this became public when it responded to a specific criticism on Twitter by Labour MP Stella Creasy. It Tweeted back: ;Hi Stella, we#39;ve listened to customer feedback and by spring next year all of our toys will be gender neutral. Thanks.;玛莎百货向《卫报》表示,正在进行政策修订流程,但是在回答工党议员史黛拉?克里希发布在推特上的批评时被公开。玛莎百货在推特上回应称:“史黛拉您好,我们已经听取顾客的反馈,会在明年春季前将所有玩具换成中性的包装。非常感谢”。Mamp;S said in a statement: ;We offer a wide range of fun and educational toys, which are designed to appeal to children regardless of gender. We have listened carefully to feedback from our customers and by spring next year all of our toys will be gender neutral.;玛莎百货发表声明:“我们提供大量有趣而富有教育意义的玩具,为所有儿童的需求而设计而不针对性别。我们已经认真听取顾客们的反馈,将在明年春季前将所有玩具换成中性的包装”。Meanwhile, the number of shops organising their toy departments into separate sections for boys and girls has fallen by 60% in the past year, following pressure on retailers from shoppers and campaigners, it has been claimed.同时,玛莎百货表示,在顾客和社会活动者对零售商的压力下,将男孩与女孩的玩具分在不同区域的商店数量在去年下降了60%。Campaign group Let Toys be Toys said reports from the high street suggested that a fifth of stores were still organising their toy sections by gender rather than genre, compared to half in the runup to Christmas 2012.“让玩具成为玩具”活动小组说,来自主要街道的调查报告显示,五分之一的店铺仍然以性别而不是风格为标准对玩具分类,而这一数据在2012年圣诞到来之际曾高达50%。The group, which started in November 2012, has been calling on retailers to end gender-stereotyping in toy departments which has seen some display play kitchens and colouring sets under ;girls; signs and science sets and doctor#39;s costumers under ;boys; signs.“让玩具成为玩具”成立于2012年十一月,旨在呼吁零售商停止玩具部门的性别成见,诸如在“女孩”的标示下摆上玩具厨房和涂色集,而科学装置和医生装则被归在“男孩”的标示下。 /201312/270374

  “你们中有多少人想要去外星球?”导演詹姆士·卡梅隆周二在6,500影迷面前发表演讲。为喜剧迷、电影迷、超人迷、科幻迷、游戏迷们举办这一年一度大型盛会,已成为好莱坞日程表中的重大事件。该动漫节举办四十周年,第一次尝试全天播映3D电影,收尾节目25分钟预告片的《神之化身》(Avatar)会让科幻迷们提前一饱眼福,卡梅隆和20世纪福克斯公司表示具体上映当期会排在12月份。影片讲述的是一个人身体换成了外星人,冒险来到另一个星球Pandora。场景中描绘极其逼真,飞翔着的昆虫、摆动的蕨类植物似乎都在观众的额头上掠过,让Comic-Con动漫展上的影迷们都呼喊赞叹起来。SAN DIEGO(圣地亚哥) — “How many of you have ever wanted to go to another planet?” shouted the filmmaker(电影制作人) James Cameron, addressing 6,500 fans here on Thursday.With those words, the future came to Comic-Con — and it was wearing funny glasses.For the first time, the giant annual convention for fans of comics, movies, superheroes(超级英雄), science fiction and games that has become a major event on Hollywood’s calendar — now in its 40th year — devoted almost an entire day to presenting films in 3-D, culminating with a 25-minute glimpse of “Avatar,”(收尾节目25分钟预告片的《神之化身》) the eagerly anticipated science-fiction thriller due in December from Mr. Cameron and 20th Century Fox.“I’m not going to waste your time, because I know you’re here to see stuff(看片子),” said Mr. Cameron, who spoke only a few words before showing pieces of his film.The scenes portrayed the adventures of a human experiencing a new world, the planet Pandora, through the body of an alien. And they were delivered with a startling verisimilitude(令人震惊的逼真) that seemed to plant flying insects (飞翔着的昆虫)and waving ferns(摆动着的蕨类植物) on the heads of people in the next row — and had Comic-Con fans roaring with approval.The “Avatar” presentation cleared a crucial test for Fox, which has invested more than 0 million in the movie, the most conspicuous (显眼的)example of a recent spate of expensive 3-D efforts from the major studios that will roll out over the next few years. Mr. Cameron’s devotion to next-generation 3-D methods has raised enormous expectations around a film made with technology that some people predict could have an impact on movies comparable to the introduction of sound. It was a measure of the movie’s importance that Tom Rothman, co-chief of Fox Filmed Entertainment(福克斯电影公司), personally introduced Mr. Cameron.“Moments like these are rare in the life of a movie company,” Mr. Rothman said. Mr. Cameron’s last feature film was the box-office juggernaut “Titanic,” well over a decade ago.Actually, it had been Disney executives who led the push to use 3-D promotions at Comic-Con, where projection technology(3D技术) had previously been unequal to such large-scale presentations(远远比不上现在).No small problem was the distribution of Dolby 3-D glasses by the thousands, with repeated pleas that they eventually be returned, though many were left broken on the floor.Even as the first trailers were screened, hours before Mr. Cameron’s presentation, doubts lingered about whether the big 3-D day would work.“Some of the 3-D effects aren’t going to look absolutely perfect,” said Patton Oswalt, the comedian and voice actor who moderated a presentation of Disney’s forthcoming “A Christmas Carol(《圣诞颂歌》),” “Alice in Wonderland(《爱丽丝梦游仙境》)” and “Tron: Legacy(《电子世界争霸战2》).” Mr. Oswalt asked attendees not to blog about effects being “quite subpar(不够标准的).”But the fans “oohed” and “aaahed” over the displays of technical virtuosity(精湛), starting with motion-capture film from Robert Zemeckis’s “A Christmas Carol,” featuring Jim Carrey. Sony Pictures followed with its “Cloudy with a Chance of Meatballs,” and New Line weighed in with a 3-D sequel to the horror film “Final Destination(《死神来了4》).” But if technology ruled the day, it took flesh-and-blood movie stars to bring down the house. A surprise appearance by Johnny Depp(强尼·戴普) — who showed up beside the director Tim Burton in support of his Mad Hatter’s role in “Alice”(因出演“爱丽丝”中的“疯帽匠”现身此活动) — caused a near riot, with fans rushing the stage for pictures.A couple of hours later, the cast of Summit Entertainment’s “The Twilight Saga: New Moon(《暮色2》)” provided the day’s emotional pop. Teenage girls started lining up on the street to see snippets (小段)from the second movie in the series. Many wore cardboard(小纸板) Burger King crowns emblazoned with(印有) “Team Edward,” referring to Edward, the nonbloodsucking vampire(不嗜血的嗜血鬼) at the franchise’s center.Media attention on the Summit Entertainment franchise(顶峰专区) is so enormous that the studio opted to hold a news conference at the nearby Hilton Hotel on Thursday in place of the normal press panels after the big Hall H presentation. (“It is for the personal safety of our stars,” said a Summit staff member.)The “New Moon(《暮色2》)” trio — Robert Pattinson(罗伯特·帕丁森), Kristen Stewart(克里斯汀·斯图尔特) and Taylor Lautner(泰勒·洛特) — took the stage in the Hilton ballroom looking as if the intense scrutiny was starting to wear on them. A disheveled-looking (凌乱装扮的)Ms. Stewart nervously took questions in front of about 30 television and cameras. She described the greatly anticipated film as “seriously emotional” and coming from an “empty, completely dark place.”In a lighter moment, a television news reporter asked the young stars what questions they were tired of being asked, and Mr. Lautner said, “Fans ask me to growl for them and I really don’t enjoy doing that.” Ms. Stewart said people could ask her anything they liked. But a Summit executive cut off a question about off-screen chemistry between cast members.The trade-show(内部预映) floor and the streets surrounding the convention center presented the usual array of Comic-Con curiosities. Two men in “Star Wars(星球大战)” Stormtrooper uniforms mingled with women dressed as Alice in Wonderland. Vampires and grim reapers were in abundance. The cable network Aamp;E staged a mock funeral to promote “Chris Angel Mindfreak” — complete with coffins carried by men wearing black lipstick — in the middle of a main walkway. Women on roller skates zigzagged through the crowds, apparently to promote Drew Barrymore’s roller-derby movie, “Whip It.” Only a couple of months ago, those who run the convention said they doubted that 3-D could be properly displayed in the huge hall where Hollywood studios have become accustomed to introducing prospective blockbusters (重磅炸弹)like “Watchmen(《守望者》).” and “X-Men Origins: Wolverine(《X战警前传·金刚狼》)“We’re about to find out,” David Glanzer, the convention’s director of marketing, said just before the day’s session began.Two years ago, Paramount Pictures screened a piece of “Beowulf” in 3-D here. But that occurred only in a small, preconvention preview.This time, 3-D was the main event. Asked if he intended ever again to make a conventional, two-dimensional live action film, Mr. Zemeckis could only muster a maybe.“Never say never,” he said.But, he added: “Right now, I’m dedicated to sending these forms into the world. I love the control these art forms give the director.” Keke View:James Cameron主要奖项  1998年第70届奥斯卡最佳导演奖  1998年第70届奥斯卡最佳电影剪辑奖  1998年第55届金球奖 最佳导演奖  1998年堪萨斯城影评人协会最佳导演奖  1998年影评人协会最佳导演奖 /200907/79222

  1. The continents look entirely different than you think they do.大陆板块的形状与你想象中的完全不同。The map you#39;re used to is more Western-focused and stretches out the size of continents near the poles. Africa and South America are actually way bigger. Here#39;s a more accurate representation of the world, according to the The Gall-Peters Projection map, created in 1885.你熟知的地球板块形状是以欧洲为中心的,而且夸大了靠近极地的板块的面积。非洲和南美洲实际上比你想象中大得多。上图是1885年、由专业板块绘制机构制作的盖尔-皮特斯投影地图,这张图片更准确的展示了地球的板块形状。2. If you believe that you#39;re truly one in a million, there are still approximately 7,184 more people just like you.别相信你真是独一无二的,世界上大约有7184个人和你长得很像。You aren#39;t that special! There are over 7 billion people on the planet right now. Each and every one of them should be treated with respect.你并不那么特别!现在地球上已经有超过70亿人口了,每个人都应该受到尊重。3. There are castles and even lighthouses that are less expensive than NYC apartments.有些城堡甚至灯塔比纽约市的公寓还便宜。With New York City rent rising over an average ,000 a month even in Brooklyn this year, it#39;s becoming more and more appealing to perhaps move somewhere else. If you#39;re one of the lucky ones who has a bit of money to burn, might as well spend it on a real-life castle or lighthouse, right?今年纽约市房租渐长,就连布鲁克林区的房租都涨到平均3000美元一个月了。越来越多的人想搬去别处。如果你也是那些有点存款的幸运儿,还不如把钱花在租一个货真价实的城堡或灯塔上,不是吗?4. 10 percent of the entire world population is still illiterate.全球总人口中还有10%从未接受过教育。Unfortunately certain countries are also skewing the data upwards on this statistic. Nations such as Afghanistan only have a 28 percent literacy rate for the total population.不幸的是在一些国家这个数据可能更为严重。例如阿富汗,阿富汗全国人口中只有28%接受过教育。5. You thoroughly enjoy celebrating some pretty dark holidays.你喜欢过的节日中许多相当暗黑。Labor Day was created as a bandaid to coverup multiple massacres of American workers. Columbus Day is named after a brutal tyrant whose history is largely a fraud. Thanksgiving is a sham celebration of Pilgrims and Native Americans coming together.劳动节是一个为了抹饰美国劳工大屠杀的历史而设立的节日。哥伦布日是以一个残酷暴君的名字来命名的,此人在历史上完全是一个骗子。感恩节是初到北美洲的朝圣者们兴起的,为了庆祝朝圣者们和美洲原住民欢聚一堂的鸿门宴。6. A whole ecosystem lives in your belly button.你的肚脐眼里有一整个生态系统。Scientists found 2,368 different species of bacteria living in belly buttons after swabbing the navels of just 60 people. In that study, 1,458 might have been entirely new to the scientific record.科学家们在60名志愿者的肚脐上提取样品,发现我们的肚脐眼里可以找到2386种不同的细菌。研究发现的细菌种类中,有1458种是科学家们从未遇到过的。7. You#39;ll also never see all the beautiful colors of a rainbow.你永远不会看到虹上所有美丽的颜色。Everyday you are missing out on aspects of the universe simply because our bodies cannot process their wonders.How can we be supreme rulers of the world and have full domain over all other living beings when chickens can see more colors than we can?每天我们都在错过宇宙中的某些奇景,因为我们的身体无法处理这些景观。既然鸡都能比我们看到更多的颜色,我们又怎能自诩为世界的掌控者,万物的灵长呢?We need to rethink our place. Also rainbows are actually made up of more than 1 million colors, many of which we can#39;t see either. We are missing out!我们需要重新思考自己在宇宙中的位置。不仅如此,实际上虹中有超过一百万种颜色,而这些颜色中也有很多我们看不见。我们错过的太多了!8. We haven#39;t figured out the secret to immortality, but this jellyfish has.我们还没有揭开长生不死之谜,而这种水母却做到了。The Turritopsis nutricula can live forever by reverting back to its early stage of life after becoming sexually mature. Although immortality may not be a real possibility for humans just yet, it is good to know that the basic idea isn#39;t just science fiction.灯塔水母能够在性成熟之后返回到生命的早期阶段,因而能够长生不死。也许长生不死对人类来说还是一种不具有现实可能性的事情,但是现在我们知道这种想法并非只存在于科幻小说里,这已经很好了。 /201310/260383

  Could Alibaba be China#39;s next 0 billion stock market listing? The Hangzhou-based e-commerce giant continues to be coy over when it will take the plunge. But sooner or later founder Jack Ma will need to offer some kind of exit for his backers, not to mention employees, and an initial public offering is the most likely solution. Now is a good time to start asking how the company should be valued.阿里巴巴(Alibaba)能否成为中国下一家千亿美元级别的上市公司?何时迈出这关键的一步?这家位于杭州的电子商务巨头对这个问题依然含糊其辞。但公司创始人马云迟早需要为投资者提供退路,更不用提公司的员工了。因此,首次公开募股将是最有可能的解决方案。公司应该获得怎样的估值?目前应该是开始思考这个问题的时候了。Alibaba#39;s main business is selling. Its Tmall online stores provide a shop front for brands like Nike (NKE) and Unilever (UL), while Taobao is focused on consumer-to-consumer trade. The closest U.S. peers might be Amazon (AMZN) and eBay (EBAY). Sadly for valuation purposes, there#39;s no perfect match: unlike Amazon, Alibaba doesn#39;t hold inventory or manage warehouses, and unlike eBay, it gets most of its revenue from advertising, not charging users.阿里巴巴的主营业务是销售。它的在线商城天猫(Tmall)为耐克(Nike)和联合利华(Unilever)等品牌提供了一个网络店面,而淘宝则主要用于C2C交易。和它最为接近的同行应该是亚马逊(Amazon)和eBay。可惜的是,在估值方面,并没有一家与阿里巴巴完美匹配的公司:与亚马逊不同,阿里巴巴并未持有库存或管理仓库;而与eBay不同,阿里巴巴公司的大多数收入都来自广告,而不是用户收费。Meanwhile, its range of services gets ever wider, and potentially harder to value. As well as accounting for the majority of China#39;s e-commerce, a market worth 4 billion last year according to the China Internet Network Information Centre, Alibaba now has a mobile operating system, offers trade financing to vendors and may even start offering consumer loans. The company#39;s chief strategist says it aims to be ;the world#39;s biggest data sharing platform.;与此同时,它的业务范围却变得日益广泛,这也可能使估值变得更加困难。阿里巴巴占据着中国电子商务市场的大部分份额。而据中国互联网信息中心(China Internet Network Information Centre)统计,去年中国电子商务市值为2,040亿美元。如今,阿里巴巴有一个移动操作系统,为供应商提供贸易融资,甚至可能开始提供消费贷款。公司首席策略师称,公司的目的是打造“全球最大的数据共享平台”。Fortunately, there are two numbers that really matter. One is how much Alibaba can sell. The other is its ;take,; or what percentage it gets from each transaction on its sites. That take might come through advertising or through transaction fees, or a mixture of both. But ultimately, it represents the cash the company can squeeze out of its sellers. Other services like lending may create revenue, but for now they are mainly ways to lock in users and maintain market share.好在有两个数据非常重要。一个是阿里巴巴能卖多少钱。另外一个则是公司的“提成”,即公司通过在它网站上完成的每笔交易中抽取的百分比。提成可能通过广告或交易手续费的形式,也可能综合两种方式。但最终,它代表了公司能够从卖家手中抽取的现金。其他务,例如借贷等也可能带来收入。但在目前,它们主要只是留住用户、维持市场份额的主要手段而已。Consider a back-of-envelope valuation exercise. The first question is how big the overall market can get. Say e-commerce in China grows 35% a year for the next two years, and that Alibaba can keep its current market share of around 80%. That would give it just under 0 billion of transactions in 2014 - over four times what eBay#39;s marketplaces handled in 2012.我们来粗略估算一下它的市值。第一个问题是,总体市场能够变得多大。假设未来两年,中国电子商务以35%的速度增长,而阿里巴巴仍能够保持目前约80%的市场份额。这将使它在2014年获得价值接近3,000亿美元的交易——超过2012年eBay市场份额的四倍。In reality, many more factors will affect Alibaba#39;s magic number. Ma will need to time the stock market cycle, but also the tech cycle. With many foreign backers, Alibaba will most likely need to list on foreign markets, where stock buyers will be influenced by what they think of China#39;s regulation, economy and accounting practices. Valuations for companies like Baidu, Renren and Sina show gyrations not always explained by the performance of their underlying businesses.现实情况下,会有更多因素影响阿里巴巴的市值。马云必须抓住股市周期与技术周期的时机。阿里巴巴有许多外国投资者,因此,它最有可能在海外市场上市。而在外国市场,股票投资者往往会受到自身对中国的法规、经济与会计实务看法的影响。百度(Baidu)、人人(Renren)和新浪(Sina)等公司的估值所表现出的摇摆不定通常很难用各公司基本业务的表现来解释。Valuations change quickly. Facebook#39;s went from billion in its fundraising at the end of 2010 to 4 billion at its IPO in 2012; the company now trades at just two-thirds that value. When Yahoo (YHOO) recently sold half its Alibaba stake back to the company, the deal valued the company at just billion. But a bilateral negotiation by with a troubled U.S. company is very different than a stock market listing.估值变化很快。2010年底,Facebook在融资时的估值为500亿美元,而在2012年IPO时则达到了1,040亿美元;但目前,它的股价仅有当初估值的三分之二。最近,雅虎(Yahoo)将手头持有的阿里巴巴股份中的一半出售给了阿里巴巴公司,交易对公司市值的认定是400亿美元。然而,与一家陷入困境的美国公司进行双边谈判跟上市比起来完全是两码事。Besides, internet companies are inherently volatile. Super profitability attracts super competition, and disruptive technologies can take even established models by surprise. Netscape and Microsoft both showed how supposedly unassailable market positions can be lost as well as won. If a twelve-digit valuation is within reach, it makes sense for Alibaba to open the cave sooner rather than later.此外,互联网公司的性质决定了它内在的不稳定性。超强的盈利能力也会吸引超强的竞争对手,而且颠覆性技术可能在突然之间就取代了业已成熟的模式。当年的网景(Netscape)和微软(Microsoft)就充分明,想象中不可动摇的市场地位可能瞬间就会易手。如果公司估值能够达到十二位数,上市就宜早不宜迟。 /201305/237653

  

  

  A California-based flight firm says its jet can take you from the Big Apple to the Orient in half the amount of time it would take to watch Titanic.位于加州的XCOR宇航公司表示,他们研发的最新小型航天飞机从纽约到东京只需90分钟,仅相当于观看《泰坦尼克号》电影一半的时间。XCOR Aerospace claims its Lynx spacecraft can travel at a speed of more than 2,500 mph - and dozens of miles above the earth - before safely landing at an airport.XCOR宇航公司表示,“山猫”号航天飞机时速可超过2500英里,在安全在机场降落前飞行高度也将达到几十英里。It would be the fastest commercial flight since the days of the Concorde.这将成为协和式超音速客机后速度最快的商业飞机。Business Insider reported that work continues on a prototype of the jet, but portions of the aircraft have been released to the public, including testing of Lynx#39;s supersonic engine last week.据商业内幕网站报道,这种飞机的原型机仍在建造当中,但部分情况已对外公布,包括上周公布的“山猫”号超音速引擎测试。When finished and successfully tested, the company will begin marketing the world’s quickest flights on a jet that takes off and lands like the 747s of today.在建造完成并测试成功后,该公司将开始运营全球最快的喷气式客机航班,起飞和降落就和现今的波音747客机一样。XCOR COO Andrew Nelson told the reporters that flights between Tokyo and New York are likely to be available within the next 20 years.XCOR公司的首席运营官安德鲁-纳尔逊告诉记者,东京到纽约的航线有望于20年内实现。XCOR is one of several companies developing suborbital vehicles for commercial space tourist flights.XCOR是开发亚轨道飞行器、用于商业太空飞行的几家公司之一。Lynx, a two-seater craft, will be able to take off and land at standard airports and unlike other spacecraft it will be a reusable space plane, capable of making up to four trips per day.“山猫”号设有两个座位,将可在普通机场起降,而且和其他航天器不同,这种航天飞机可以重复使用,每天最多能够飞行四次。It will take a pilot and passenger to the edge of space for a few minutes of microgravity and the ultimate view of the Earth.“山猫”号可搭载一名驾驶员和一名游客升空,进入太空边缘,体验几分钟太空微重力,俯瞰地球。XCOR anticipates beginning space tourist flights on the new plane in 2013, with tickets selling for ,000 per person.XCOR公司预计将于2013年使用新式航天飞机开展太空游项目,票价为每人9.5万美元。 /201210/206120

  Science and technology.科技。The search for alien life寻找外星生物Twinkle, twinkle, little planet闪烁吧,小行星An undervalued optical trick may help to find life in other solar systems一个不被人重视的光学方法可能能帮助寻找其他太阳系的生命MOST astronomical telescopes employ reflection to focus starlight. A concave mirror creates an image from this light using a design pioneered in the 17th century, by Sir Isaac Newton. Those telescopes that do not employ reflection use refraction. They have a system of lenses, an idea first used to look at the stars by Galileo.大部分天文望远镜都是运用的焦点星光的反射原理。早在17世纪,艾萨克.牛顿就开创性的利用这个光,让凹透镜产生了一个图像。那些不利用反射的望远镜利用的是折射。他们有透镜系统。利用透镜系统的想法最早是伽利略用来观测星星的。But there is a third way to focus light. A century and a half after Newton, and more than two after Galileo, a Frenchman called Augustin-Jean Fresnel worked out that you can do it using diffraction. A set of concentric rings, alternately transparent and opaque, will scatter and sp light waves in a manner that causes them to reinforce each other some distance away, and thus form an image. The rings are known as a zone plate. And Fresnel#39;s countryman, Laurent Koechlin, of the Midi-Pyrenees observatory, thinks zone plates are the way to find out if there is life on other planets.但还存在第三种聚焦光源的方法。在牛顿利用星光的150年后,伽利略的透镜系统的两百多年后,一个名叫奥古斯丁.让.菲涅尔的法国人想到也可以利用衍射来达到目的。一组兼有透明和不透明的同轴环可以分散和传播光波,并且在稍远的地方可以再使他们重新聚焦,由此形成一个图像。这些环被称作波带片。法国南比利牛斯天文台劳伦.凯什兰认为波带片可以用来寻找其他星球上是否存在生命。Seeing oxygen in another planet#39;s atmosphere would be a giveaway of biological activity because the gas is so reactive that it needs to be continuously renewed. That would almost certainly mean something akin to photosynthesis was going on, for no known non-biological process can produce oxygen from common materials in sufficient quantity. Looking at such an atmosphere, though, is tricky. Stars are so much brighter than the planets which orbit them that their light overwhelms the small amount reflected from a planet#39;s surface. And this is where Fresnel comes in.在其他星球的大气层发现氧气则表明这个星球上有生物活动,因为氧气是一种非常活跃的气体,所以他需要不停的更新。而这也就基本上意味着星球上进行着某些类似于光合作用的活动,因为在我们已知的非生物学过程中,没有一种过程可以在普通材料供应充足的情况下产生氧气。然而,观测到这样的大气层也是非常难的。恒星比以他们为轨道运行的行星亮得多。他们的光盖过了从行星表面上反射过来的少量光。而这也就是菲涅尔的突破口。Fresnel telescopes have not been developed in the past because the image formed by one that was large enough to rival a useful-sized reflecting telescope would be several kilometres from the zone plate. But Dr Koechlin does not worry about that, because his Fresnel telescope will be in space. Free of the confounding effects of the Earth#39;s own atmosphere, it will be able to isolate images of alien planets, make spectra of the light from their air, and examine those spectra for the characteristic dark lines that are caused by part of the light being absorbed by particular gases-oxygen among them.过去,菲涅尔设计的望远镜还制造不出来,因为要想使衍射望远镜的大小和正常使用的反射望远镜大小相同,它所产生的图像就会距离波带片数千米远。然而,凯什兰士并不为此担心,因为他的菲涅尔望远镜将会在太空中。脱离了地球大气层的混淆效应,望远镜将能够分离外星生物的图像,在他们的大气中制作出来光谱,并且为这些有特点的暗线检查光谱。这些暗线部分是由特殊气体——大气中的氧气——所吸收的光产生的。Plate tectonics行星构造地质学Space telescopes are nothing new, of course, and several more are in the works (see article). But existing plans to photograph extrasolar planets in this way involve orbiting arrays of reflecting telescopes all pointing in exactly the same direction. An array is needed because a single mirror big enough to do the job of separating star from planet would be too large to launch. The problem is the word ;exactly;. It means just that. The formation would have to fly with a precision of a few billionths of a metre.当然,太空望远镜并不是什么新事物,并且已经有几个已经在使用中了(见文章)。但是在现在的计划中,利用这种方法给太阳系以外的行星拍照就需要让多组的反射望远镜在轨道运行的时候全部精准的朝向同一个方向。由于一个体积足够大到能够将恒星与行星分开的单一镜面将会由于体积太庞大而无法发射,因此一组反射望远镜就是必须的。而问题就出在;精准;上。它就如字面意思一样,要精准到十亿分之一米。Using a zone plate instead of a mirror gets around this. Because the plate is flat, it can be made of plastic and folded up for launch. Size thus ceases to be an issue. And although a second satellite containing the ;eyepiece; (a special lens that also uses Fresnel optics, and a camera to record the image) must fly at the focus, the accuracy required is only hundredths of a metre, not billionths. That, Dr Koechlin reckons, gives Fresnel optics a big advantage over Newtonian ones.用波带片代替镜面在轨道运行。因为波带片表面是平的,他可以用塑料制作而成,然后折叠起来发射。而尺寸大小就不再是问题。并且,尽管还必须有一个含有;目镜;(也是一种运用菲涅尔视觉的特殊透镜,也是一种记录图像的相机)的卫星在焦点上运行,所需要的精准度也只是百分之一米。凯什兰士认为,这将是菲涅尔视觉超越牛顿的设计的一大优点。To test the idea, he and an international consortium of his colleagues have built a ground-based prototype. This is a piece of copper foil 20cm square that has 696 rings, a portion of which is reproduced above. Because it is this small, its focal length is only 18 metres. In order that the foil does not fall apart, each transparent ring is actually a series of curved slots in the copper rather than a continuous gap. This, though, does not affect the system#39;s optical properties and it can, indeed, see small, faint objects that are near large, bright ones.为了检测这一想法,他和他各国的同事建立了一个陆基的雏形。这是一片20平方厘米的铜箔,它有696个环。铜箔的一部分是再生的。因为它体积偏小,所以它的聚焦只有18米。为了不让铜箔散开,每一个透明的环实际上都是铜箔里的一系列的曲线轮槽,而不是连续的空隙。尽管如此,这并不影响整个系统的视觉特性,并且,它也确实能够看见巨大且明亮的恒星旁边那些小型且微弱的物体。When Dr Koechlin and his team pointed it at Mars they could distinguish that planet#39;s two tiny moons-a task which would require a Newtonian telescope with a mirror at least 30cm across. And when they aimed at Sirius they could see the dim white-dwarf which orbits what is the brightest star in the night sky. Extrapolating from these results, they think that an orbiting zone plate measuring somewhere between 15 metres and 40 metres across will be enough to distinguish the spectrum of an Earthlike planet at a distance of 30 light-years. With that, they should be able to find out if mankind really does have any next-door neighbours, and Fresnel will have come into his own at last.当凯什兰士和他的团队观测火星时,他们可以分辨火星的两个微小卫星——这样的任务如果是利用牛顿的望远镜则需要一个直径最少长达30厘米的镜面。并且,当他们观测天王星时,他们能够看见暗淡的白矮星。它围绕着夜空中最亮的那颗星运行。从这些结果推测,他们认为,一个直径在15到40米、并且在轨道上运行的波带片足够在30光年以外的距离分辨一个与地球相似的行星的光谱。如此一来,他们就应该能够找到人类是否还有其他邻居,而菲涅尔也最终能实现自己的想法。 /201208/194545

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