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咸阳市看肠胃病好吗好典范榆林市市中心医院胃肠科网上咨询

2019年06月27日 04:04:45    日报  参与评论()人

西安市第四医院胃肠科要预约吗西安市第四医院肠糜烂肠囊肿肠套叠肠梗阻肠扭转肠溃疡In 1977, a University of Oxford statistician named Richard Peto pointed out a simple yet puzzling biological fact: We humans should have a lot more cancer than mice, but we don’t.1977年,牛津大学(University of Oxford)的统计学家理查德·皮托(Richard Peto)指出了一个简单却令人费解的生物学现象:照理说,我们人类应该远比小鼠更容易患癌症才对,可事实却并非如此。Dr. Peto’s argument was beguilingly simple. Every time a cell divides, there’s a small chance it will gain a mutation that speeds its growth. Cells that accumulate several of these mutations may become cancerous. The bigger an animal is, the more cells it has, and the longer an animal lives, the more times its cells divide. We humans undergo about 10,000 times as many cell divisions as mice — and thus should be far more likely to get cancer.皮托士的理论依据乍一看似乎很简单。细胞每次分裂时都有极小的几率会产生可以加速其生长的突变。如果此类突变累积到一定程度,细胞就可能癌变。动物的体型越大,它身上的细胞就越多;动物的寿命越长,其细胞分裂次数也就越多。我们人类一生中要经历的细胞分裂次数约为小鼠的1万倍,因此患癌症的风险也应比小鼠高得多。Yet humans and mice have roughly the same lifetime risk of cancer, a circumstance that has come to be known as Peto’s paradox.然而,事实上,人类与小鼠的癌症终生风险却大致相同,这一现象被称为“皮托悖论(Peto’s paradox)”。A number of scientists have speculated that large, long-lived animals must evolve extra cancer-fighting weapons. And if that’s true, they reason, then the biggest, longest-lived animals should have an especially big arsenal. Otherwise, these species would go extinct.许多科学家推测,体型较大、寿命较长的动物必定是演化出了其他的武器来抗击癌症。如果事实果真如此,那么,体型最大、寿命最长的动物就应该拥有一个超大号的抗癌军火库,要不然这些物种早就该灭绝了。“Every baby elephant should be dropping dead of colon cancer at age 3,” said Dr. Joshua D. Schiffman, a pediatric oncologist at the Huntsman Cancer Institute at the University of Utah.拿大象这个物种来说,如若没有这样一种机制,“小象们在3岁前就会因为结肠癌而夭折殆尽。”犹他大学(University of Utah)亨斯迈癌症研究所(Huntsman Cancer Institute)的小儿肿瘤学家乔舒亚·D·希夫曼(Joshua D. Schiffman)如是说。Writing Thursday in The Journal of the American Medical Association, Dr. Schiffman and his colleagues report that elephants appear to be exceptional cancer fighters, using a special set of proteins to kill off damaged cells.希夫曼士及其同事在10月8日的《美国医学协会杂志》(Journal of the American Medical Association)上报告,大象是杰出的抗癌斗士,它们可以利用一组特殊的蛋白质杀死受损的细胞。Working independently, Vincent J. Lynch, an evolutionary biologist at the University of Chicago, and his colleagues have come to the same conclusion. Those researchers posted a draft of their paper on Wednesday on the bioRxiv server. It is currently in review at the journal eLife.独立工作的另一组科学家——芝加哥大学(University of Chicago)的演化生物学家文森特·J·林奇(Vincent J. Lynch)及其同事也得出了相同的结论。这些研究人员10月6日在生物学预印网站bioRxiv的务器上发布了他们的论文草稿,《eLife》期刊正在对该论文进行审稿。Dr. Schiffman and his colleagues found in their research that elephants have a remarkably low rate of cancer. They reviewed zoo records on the deaths of 644 elephants and found that less than 5 percent died of cancer. By contrast, 11 percent to 25 percent of humans die of cancer — despite the fact that elephants can weigh a hundred times as much as we do.希夫曼士和他的同事们在研究中发现,大象中的癌症发生率非常低。他们审查了644头动物园大象的死亡报告,发现其癌症死亡率还不到5%。相比之下,尽管人类的体重只有大象的百分之一,却有11%至25%因癌症丧命。To understand the elephants’ defenses, the scientists investigated a gene that is crucial for preventing cancer, called p53. The protein encoded by the gene monitors cells for damage to the DNA they contain. In some cases, it triggers the cells to repair the genes. In other cases, p53 stops cells from dividing further. And in still other cases, it even causes the cells to commit suicide.为了了解大象的癌症防御机制,科学家们研究了一个对预防癌症非常关键的基因——p53。由该基因编码的蛋白质可监视细胞内的DNA损伤。某些情况下,它会促使细胞修复受损的基因;另外一些情况下,p53会阻止细胞进一步分裂;还有一些情况下,它甚至会引起细胞自杀。One sign of how important p53 is for fighting cancer is what happens to people born with a defective copy of the gene. This condition, known as Li-Fraumeni syndrome, creates a lifetime risk of cancer of more than 90 percent. Many people with Li-Fraumeni syndrome get cancers as children and can have several types of cancer over their lifetimes.下面我们通过一个实例来阐释p53对于抵御癌症的重要意义:如果人生来p53基因就有一个拷贝存在缺陷,就会患上李-佛美尼综合征(Li-Fraumeni syndrome),患者的癌症终生风险高达90%以上。许多李-佛美尼综合征患者在童年时就开始患癌症,而且一生中还可能患有多种不同类型的癌症。Dr. Schiffman and his colleagues found that elephants have evolved new copies of the p53 gene. While humans have only one pair of p53 genes, the scientists identified 20 pairs in elephants.希夫曼士和同事们发现,大象的p53基因演化出了数对新的拷贝——人类只有一对p53基因,在大象的细胞内,科学家们却发现了20对这种基因!Dr. Lynch and his colleagues also found these extra genes. To trace their evolution, the researchers made a large-scale comparison of elephants to other mammal species — including extinct relatives like woolly mammoths and mastodons whose DNA remains in their fossils.林奇士及其同事也发现了这些额外的p53基因。为了追溯它们的演化过程,研究人员对大象和其他哺乳动物(包括猛犸象和乳齿象等虽然已经灭绝,但DNA在化石中得到保存的现代象的“亲戚们”)的基因组进行了大规模的比对。The small ancestors of elephants, Dr. Lynch and his colleagues found, had only one pair of functional p53, like other mammals. But as they evolved to bigger sizes, they steadily evolved extra copies of p53.林奇士和同事们发现,大象的体型较小的祖先们与其他哺乳动物一样,只有一对有功能的p53基因。然而,当它们随着演化体型不断增大后,就开始不断地出现额外的p53基因拷贝。“Whatever’s going on is special to the elephant lineage,” Dr. Lynch said.林奇士说:“这些都是大象这个谱系所特有的。”To see whether these extra copies of p53 made a difference in fighting cancer, both teams ran experiments on elephant cells. Dr. Schiffman and his colleagues bombarded elephant cells with radiation and DNA-damaging chemicals, while Dr. Lynch’s team used chemicals and ultraviolet rays.研究人员们想知道这些多出来的p53基因拷贝是否在抗癌方面发挥了什么作用,于是两个研究团队都对大象的细胞进行了实验。希夫曼士及其同事使用辐射和可造成DNA损伤的化学物质来处理大象的细胞,而林奇士的团队使用的是化学品和紫外线。In all these cases, the elephant cells responded in the same way: Instead of trying to repair the damage, they simply committed suicide. Dr. Schiffman saw this response as a unique — and very effective — way to block cancer. “It’s almost as if they said, ‘We’re elephants — we’ve got plenty more cells where those came from,’ ” Dr. Schiffman said.虽然处理方法各有不同,大象的细胞做出的应对却完全相同:它们并未尝试修复损伤,而是直接就自杀了。希夫曼士认为这种反应是一种独特而且非常有效的阻断癌症的方式。他说:“这基本上就像是在宣称:‘我们大象才不怕这点损失——还有很多很多细胞可以补充上来呢。’ ”Patricia Muller, an oncologist at the MRC Toxicology at the University of Leicester who was not involved in the studies, said the results, though compelling, didn’t firmly establish exactly how elephants use p53 to fight cancer. One possibility is that the extra copies don’t actually cause cells to commit suicide. Instead, they may act as decoys for enzymes that destroy p53 proteins. As a result, elephants can have higher levels of p53 than other animals. “All in all, it’s interesting, but the mechanism needs to be properly investigated,” she said.未参与上述任一研究的莱斯特大学(University of Leicester)英国医学研究委员会毒理学部(MRC Toxicology )肿瘤学家帕特里夏·马勒(Patricia Muller)表示,这些研究结果非常吸引人,但她也指出,它们并没有明确阐释大象是如何利用p53来对抗癌症的。一种可能性是额外的基因拷贝其实并不会导致细胞自杀。相反,它们只是充当了诱饵,消耗掉了破坏p53蛋白的酶,结果,大象体内的p53水平就会高于其他的动物。“总而言之,”她说,“这很有趣,但仍需要对个中机制进行适当的研究。”Dr. Muller said it was especially important to understand precisely how elephants fight cancer before trying to mimic their strategies with drugs for humans. Experiments in which mice get extra amounts of p53 have shown that the molecule has a downside: It can accelerate aging. “It has to be kept under tight control,” Dr. Muller said.马勒士指出,在试图用药物模仿大象的抗癌策略并应用于人类之前,准确地认识其中的原理尤其重要。在小鼠实验中,额外的p53显示出该分子具有一个缺点:它会加速衰老。“它必须受到严格的控制,”马勒士说。Dr. Schiffman is now investigating how to translate the new findings on elephants into cancer treatments for people. But he said it would be useful to look at other big or long-lived animals as well. Naked mole rats, for example, live up to 30 years without ever getting cancer. One weapon they use is a protein that arrests the growth of fast-dividing cells. It senses when these cells bump into other cells and brings their division to a halt.希夫曼士目前正在研究如何将从大象身上得到的新发现转化为可造福于人类的癌症新疗法。但他也表示,考察下其他大型或长寿的动物应该也会很有用。例如,裸鼹鼠可以活到30岁而从不患癌症。它们使用的抗癌武器是一种蛋白质,可以遏止快速分裂的细胞的生长,这些细胞碰上其他细胞就会让它们停止分裂。That is an entirely different solution from the one elephants appear to have evolved. And elephants are the only animals yet found that fight cancer with extra p53 genes. So Dr. Schiffman speculates that parrots, tortoises and whales may all have special longevity tactics of their own.这是对大象的演化历程的一个截然不同的解释。而且,鉴于大象是迄今为止发现的唯一一种通过额外的p53基因拷贝来抵御癌症的动物,希夫曼士推测,鹦鹉、乌龟和鲸鱼很可能都有各自独特的长寿策略。“The war on cancer was going on long before there were humans,” he said. “So let’s look at nature’s strategies.”“对抗癌症的战争早在人类诞生之前就久已打响了,”希夫曼士说。“那么,就让我们来看看大自然的战术吧。” /201510/404902宝鸡市第一人民医院胃肠科好不好 Wang Chong (27~97), whose courtesy name was Zhongren, was born at Shangyu (now Shangyu County, Zhejiang Province), but his ancestral home town was Yuancheng at the Wei prefecture (present-day Darning, Hebei Province).王充(27~97),字仲任,祖籍魏郡元城(今河北大名),生在上虞(今浙江上虞)。He led a reclusive life in the countryside most of his life, teaching and writing books.他一生大部分时间都隐居乡里,以教书为生,以著书为业。A prolific writer, Wang Chong summarized his thoughts into Lun Heng (Discourses Weighed in Balance), a book that included 85 chapters (84 of them survived) and took him over 30 years to finish.著作颇多,代表作《论衡》共85篇(实存84篇),历时30多年写成,集中反映了王充的思想。At the beginning of the Eastern Han Dynasty, superstitious ideas were rampant.东汉前期,迷信思想泛滥。Wang Chong was so outraged by the chaos in the academic community that in Lun Heng, he criticized such practices as the idolization of Confucius and his thoughts. Under his attack were Confucius, Mencius and other key figures of Confucianism as well as their scriptures. He further pointed out that these “deities” and their scriptures were not without flaws.王充对思想界的黑暗混乱十分气愤,在《论衡》中,他针对神化孔子和儒家经传、经学神学化的现象展开批判,把批判锋刃直接指向孔子、孟子和五经,指出被神化的人物和经典本身并非完美无瑕,并不“神”。Wang Chong analyzed and vigorously attacked what the theological teleologists claimed as the interaction between Heaven and humanity. Heaven, he claimed, is natural so that it is not will-driven and emotional.王充对天人感应的神学目的论进行了有力的揭露和批判,指出天是一种物质实体,没有意志和情感,天是自然之天。Furthermore, Wang Chong criticized the prevailing superstitious ideas and practices, especially the belief of life after death. He held that human beings are born with original vigor and human beings are unique only because they have physical bodies and consciousness.他批判了当时流行的各种迷信思想和迷信活动,特别是对“人死为鬼”之说的批判最为彻底,他认为人禀元气而生,人之所以为人,是因为人有形体,有知觉,是形体和精神的结合体。After death, their physical condition changes conversely: ;Their bloods will exhaust; the exhaustion results in the extinction of vigor; the extinction causes the decay of the physical body, which will turn to ashes at last.”人死以后,自身状况发生了相反的变化,“人死血脉竭,竭而精气灭,灭而形体朽,朽而成灰土。”The illusion of ghosts and spirits are just hallucinations caused by frustration, illness and madness.同时指出人之所以产生鬼的观念,是由于人处在困、病、狂三种状态下容易产生见鬼的幻觉。Wang Chong also attacked the pursuit of immortality through practicing alchemy as well as other superstitious practice such as sacrifice offering and soothsaying. By exploring the root of superstition, Wang Chong helped to push the Chinese atheism to a higher level.另外,王充还批判了“度世不死”、“修炼成仙”的思想以及祭祀、占卜等迷信活动,探讨了迷信存在的根源,批判了形形色色的方士,将无神论思想发展到更高的水平。 /201510/404719西安妇幼保健院胃肠科

三门峡市中心医院胃病胃肠专家咨询A small Slovenian town is pressing ahead with plans to build a fountain which spouts beer instead of water, despite opposition from some councillors.尽管遭到一些地方议员反对,但斯洛文尼亚的一个小镇仍在极力推行一项计划:建造一座啤酒喷泉——该喷泉喷出的将是啤酒,而不是水。The project in Zalec, which is known for its hop plantations, is being described as the first beer fountain in Europe, and has made headlines in neighbouring Croatia and further afield in Serbia. The fountain doesn#39;t yet have a completion date, but future visitors will find a variety of Slovenian beers on offer, and pay six euros for three 30cl helpings served in a commemorative mug, Slovenia#39;s Dnevnik news website reports.小镇名为扎来茨,因啤酒花种植而闻名,有望成为欧洲首个建造啤酒喷泉的地方。它要建造啤酒喷泉的消息已在邻国克罗地亚、甚至更远的塞尔维亚引发轰动。据斯洛文尼亚的邓尼维克新闻网报道,目前这座喷泉还未确定建成日期,不过等它竣工后,游客可以品尝到斯洛文尼亚出售的各种啤酒。每个纪念马克杯可以盛三份啤酒,每份啤酒30厘升。每杯啤酒售价6欧元。It#39;s set to cost the council about 170,000 euros—half of the total bill for construction, the website says. The town#39;s mayor, Janko Kos, says the remainder will come from private donations. ;It#39;s true the fountain won#39;t be cheap. But it#39;s a development project, a tourism product,; he told the website.报道称,建造总费用的一半将由镇议会付,即17万欧元。镇长扬科·科斯表示,剩下的费用将来自民间捐助。他接受采访时称:“建造这个喷泉确实耗资巨大,但这是一个发展项目,一个旅游产品。”But the course of the beer fountain has not run smoothly—some opposition councillors aren#39;t happy about the amount being spent, saying it could be put to better use in the community. They attempted to scupper the plans at an extraordinary council meeting last week, but were ultimately outvoted by two-thirds of their colleagues.然而建造啤酒喷泉的提议也收到不少阻力,一些持反对意见的地方议员认为项目太费钱。他们表示,这些钱本可以投入到社区中,发挥更大的作用。在上周举行的镇议会特别会议中,反对者试图否决这一计划,但最终,有三分之二的议员投了赞成票。Zalec sits in a valley of hop plantations in central Slovenia, known locally as the ;valley of green gold;. Even the town#39;s green and yellow crest pays tribute to its main activity, simply featuring the outline of a hop plant.扎来茨位于斯洛文尼亚中部,是一个满是啤酒花种植园的山谷。当地人称之为“绿金山谷”。甚至当地黄绿相间的山峰波谷也来配合它的宣传——勾勒出一幅啤酒花植株的样子。 /201602/426429延安第一人民医院消化病专家预约 Former Secretary of State Hillary Clinton opened up about her marriage in an interview with actress and activist Lena Dunham published Tuesday.前国务卿希拉里·克林顿于9月29日接受采访,向演员兼政治活跃分子莉娜·杜汉姆敞开心扉,畅谈自己的婚姻生活。;I was terrified about losing my identity and getting lost in the wake of Bill#39;s force-of-nature personality,; she said of the former president. ;I actually turned him down twice when he asked me to marry him.;提到她丈夫,希拉里说:;比尔有种与生俱来的魅力,我一开始害怕在他面前迷失自我。事实上,前两次他向我求婚,我都拒绝了。;;That was a large part of the ambivalence and the worry that I wouldn#39;t necessarily know who I was or what I could do if I got married to someone who was going to chart a path that he was incredibly clear about. My ideas were much more inchoate. I wasn#39;t sure how to best harness my energies. So I was searching,; she added.;那时候我左右为难,又焦虑万分,主要是因为找不到个人定位,对未来也毫无头绪。毕竟,比尔早已有了清晰的规划,可我还一头雾水。我不知道如何才能最好地发挥我的力量,所以一直在寻找方向,;她补充道。Bill Clinton often recalls how he proposed twice, and how he initially felt that his future wife, who is again running for president, would be more suited for a life of public service.比尔·克林顿谈及两度求婚遭拒的往事时则常说,一开始便预感希拉里这一生都会奉献给公共事业。如今,希拉里卷土重来,宣布再次竞选总统。;I once told her, #39;I do want you to marry me, but you shouldn#39;t do it,#39; and she said #39;that#39;s not a very good way to make a sale, what do you mean?#39;; he said in an interview with E! News. ;I said well, #39;I love you and you#39;re endlessly interesting to me and we#39;ll have a good life, but I think you#39;re the most talented person of our generation for public service and what you should really do is go home to Illinois and run for office, or go to New York and practice law and run for office.#39;;比尔·克林顿在接受E!新闻采访时表示:;我告诉希拉里,#39;我希望你嫁给我,但你不该这么做。#39;她说,#39;这种求婚招数也太烂了吧。你到底想说什么呢?#39;于是我说,#39;我爱你,你让我无限着迷,我们生活在一起会幸福的。不过,我觉得你是咱们这代人的政治天才。因此,你现在当务之急应是回到老家伊利诺伊州去竞选公职,或是去纽约闯一闯,当律师,竞选公职。#39;;In her interview with Dunham, Hillary Clinton explained that she was worried how marriage would affect her teaching or her work at a legal-aid clinic.在接受莉娜·杜汉姆的采访时,希拉里也表示,自己当时有教学任务,并在一家法律援助事务所工作,害怕婚姻对自己的事业带来影响。;I loved doing that. And I wasn#39;t quite sure how everything I cared about might fit into a marriage with him. So eventually, I said yes. It was a big leap of faith, and I think most marriages are,; she said. ;You really do just sort of say, #39;Okay, I think I know what it#39;s gonna be like, but I don#39;t know for sure. Let#39;s find out.#39;;她说:;我很爱自己的工作,当时对事业与婚姻如何兼容也没想太多,但最后还是答应了比尔的求婚。结婚是放手一搏,不过我想大部分婚姻都这样。你会对另一半说,#39;唔,我想我大概知道以后过日子是个什么样,但还不确定。那就让我们边走边看吧。#39;; /201510/402561陕西省妇幼保健院胃肠科价格

运城市中心医院肠炎十二指肠溃疡十二指肠炎All Coca-Cola wanted to do was to wish consumers a happy new year, but instead it ended up stirring anger in two markets, Russia and Ukraine, over the disputed territory of Crimea. The Ukrainian Black Sea peninsula was annexed by Moscow in March 2014 and remains a trigger issue in the Russian-Ukrainian crisis today.可口可乐希望将新年快乐传达给消费者,但是却在俄罗斯和乌克兰这两个市场引起愤怒,这一切都是因为克里米亚这片争议领土。乌克兰黑海半岛于2014年3月并入俄罗斯,至今仍是俄罗斯乌克兰危机中的一个一触即发的问题。In a new year#39;s message on VK, the most popular Russian social media network, Coca-Cola published a map of Russia that did not include Crimea.俄罗斯最受欢迎的社交媒体网络VK传达了一条新年广告,可口可乐发布了一张不包括克里米亚在内的俄罗斯地图。Faced with barrage of criticism from Russian users of VK, it published the map again on Tuesday, this time including Crimea, and apologised. The new map also included the Kuril Islands, the western Pacific archipelago that Moscow seized in 1945 from Japan.面对VK上俄罗斯网民排山倒海的指责,可口可乐昨日重新发布了一张地图,这次包括了克里米亚,并进行了道歉。新地图还包括莫斯科于1945年从日本夺取的西太平洋群岛的千岛群岛。But by including Crimea, Coca-Cola unleashed a firestorm in Ukraine, where demands for a boycott of the soft drink got under way. On Tuesday, the corporation threw in the towel and simply dropped the New Year#39;s message. ;Dear friends! Thank you for your attention. It has been decided to delete the item which caused the upset,; Coca-Cola#39;s Ukrainian subsidiary said on Facebook.但是加入克里米亚的行为又惹怒了乌克兰,该国抵制可口可乐的要求已经开始进行。周二,可口可乐自认倒霉并撤下这则新年广告。可口可乐乌克兰子公司在脸书上写道:;亲爱的朋友们,感谢你们的关注,我们决定删除这条引发混乱的广告。;Late Tuesday Coca-Cola#39;s headquarters in Atlanta, Georgia issued a statement apologizing for the issue but blaming an outside agency. ;The Coca-Cola Russia team had a stylized map of Russia created as part of its Christmas campaign. The agency that created the map later made changes without our knowledge or approval,; the company said. ;We, as a company, do not take political positions unrelated to our business, and we apologize for the post, which we have removed.;上周二,可口可乐位于佐治亚州亚特兰大市的总部,对此事件发表了声明进行道歉,但是同时却责怪了一个局外者。该公司称:;可口可乐俄罗斯团队有一张固定的俄罗斯地图,作为圣诞节活动的一部分,绘制这个地图的机构没有告知我们,也没有经过我们的同意进行了修改。我们作为一家公司,在对于与我们业务无关的问题上,不持政治立场,我们为这条广告道歉,并且已经删除。; /201601/420882 西安市老年病医院胃病胃肠官网专家在线咨询西安胃泰消化病医院治疗效果好吗

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