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吉水县脸部激光美白多少钱吉安妇幼保健院祛痣多少钱泰和县妇幼保健人民医院祛眼袋手术多少钱 Abortion and Breast Cancer流产和乳腺癌When it comes to certain hot topics, claims about what science has or hasnt proven tend to be thrown around more in the service of one position or another than anything else.当谈到某些热点问题时,有关科学已实的或未实的那些断言,往往更多的围绕着它务于哪个岗位而进行。Somebody may tell you that global warming is absolutely real, for example, and then someone else says it absolutely isnt. Often its hard to know what the real scoop is.比如,也许有人会告诉你全球变暖是真的在发生,然后另一些人又会说绝对不可能。通常我们很难弄清楚实情是什么。Take abortion, for example. Now, we here at Moment of Science arent taking a position on abortion one way or another. What we can do, though, is set the record straight on a particular notion that has been floating around recently: namely, the idea that having an abortion increases a womans risk for breast cancer. Is this true?用“流产”举个例子吧。现在,我们“科学一刻”关于“流产”没有任何立场。然而,我们能做的就是弄清最近流传的一观念的真相,即流产会增加女性患乳腺癌风险。真的吗?No, it isnt. This is the latest word from the National Cancer Institute in Bethesda, Maryland, where in February of 2003 a meeting of researchers, clinicians, and epidemiologists was convened at the behest of Congress to answer this and other questions.不,不是真的。这个观点来自马里兰州贝塞斯达国家癌症研究所。2003年2月,为了解决该疑问,国会召集了研究员,临床医生和流行病学家在此召开了会议。Some initial studies had suggested a link, but more comprehensive studies disagreed. Congress wanted to set the record straight. The NCI looked at all the data and announced: no link.一些最初的研究表明两者有关联。但是更全面的研究否认了这一观点。国会想弄清真相。国家癌症研究所研究了所有数据后宣布:没有联系。However, they also announced, having a baby reduces a womans risk of breast cancer. Why is that? It isnt yet known, but the data strongly support a link there—young women who have full term pregnancies are at lower risk.然而,他们也宣称,生孩子会减少女性患乳腺癌的风险。为什么呢?虽然还不是很清楚,但数据大力持这种关联——有足月妊娠的年轻女性换乳腺癌的风险较低。So lets say it again. Having an abortion doesnt increase your cancer risk, but having a baby does decrease it. People on either side of a controversial topic like this probably would like the facts to be a little simpler, but then, mother nature isnt taking sides.所以让我们再说一遍吧。流产并不会增加患乳腺癌的风险,但生孩子却会降低风险。像这种有争议的话题,任何一方的人可能都希望事实变得简单些。但大自然并不偏向某一方。 /201210/204152吉安哪里打美白针便宜

吉安去胎记哪里好Books and Arts; Book Review;The English gentry;Happy landings;文艺;书评;英国乡绅;一路顺风;The gentry: story of the English. By Adam Nicolson.《乡绅:英国的故事》,亚当·尼克森著。Adam Nicolson has written many books on history and the countryside, including two about his familys properties at opposite ends of the British Isles, Sissinghurst Castle in Kent and the Shiant Isles in the Outer Hebrides. Now he has turned his attention to the class to which his family can be said to belong. His grandmother, Vita Sackville-West, was unashamedly a member of the aristocracy but Mr Nicolson states that the gentry has always been composed of “Gentle Ungentles”, younger sons and daughters of old families who have declined into the gentry, and “Ungentle Gentles”, people of more humble origin who through their ability and achievements have advanced up the social ladder.亚当·尼克森写过很多以历史和农村为题材的著作,其中包括介绍他家位于不列颠群岛两端的两处房产:肯特州的悉心赫斯特城堡和外赫布里斯群岛的西恩特群岛。现在他已经将注意力转向他家族所在的阶层。他的祖母,维塔·萨克维尔·维斯特,是一位生活无所顾忌贵族。 但是尼克森指出乡绅阶层是由两种人组成的:“出身绅士的平民”,他们出身于已退变为乡绅阶层的旧式家族的年轻一代;“出身平民的绅士”,也就是那些出身卑微,但是凭借自己的能力和成就挤入上层社会的人。Today the term “gentry” in Britain evokes “the introductory chat at an upper-middle-class dinner party—how did you get here, who do you know, how is Aletheia?” It suggests a cosy, genteel, exclusive and somewhat smug world in which background and family are deemed more important than individual qualities. It is also often preceded by the word “landed”. The launch of “Burkes Landed Gentry”, an encyclopedic tome first published in 1826, is partly responsible for this (though the ownership of land ceased to be a requirement for a family to appear in the book as long ago as the 1920s). But the principal reason is that the story of the gentry is all “about Land”.如今在英国“乡绅”这个词让人想到的就是“在一个上流社会的晚宴上开始闲聊的前奏——你怎么过来的啊?你认识谁呢?阿莱西娅最近可好呀?”这表明在这个亲切、高雅、排外,甚至几分自鸣得意的阶层里,一个人的背景和出身比他的品性更为重要。;乡绅;的前面也经常会加上“有土地的”这个词。这个词(即 landed gentry)的普及有一部份原因归功于1826年初版的百科全书式大本书《伯克乡绅名录》。(尽管早在上世纪二十年代,拥有土地便不再是一个家庭载入史册的必要条件)。但其主要原因在于所有关于乡绅的故事都和“土地”密不可分。Mr Nicolson has taken 12 families who are scattered all over England (strictly speaking, one is in Wales), and, using letters, diaries and legal documents, told their stories at a particular date and crisis in their existence. He has produced a wonderful portrait of England and the families that were its bedrock. The tale begins 600 years ago with the Plumptons, caught up in the Wars of the Roses, and concludes with the Cliffords, who have owned and farmed the same corner of Gloucestershire for almost 1,000 years. Whereas the core values of grace, enterprise and chivalry were crucial to the gentrys idea of themselves, Mr Nicolson makes it clear that money and conflict were as important as blood and family. The gentry were a flexible class and lived a life of struggle and competition. There was no certainty. Survival was what mattered and there was much hedging of bets.尼克森从分布在英格兰各个地方(严格说,有一个在威尔士)的十二个家族着手,并利用相关的信件、日记、和法律文书,讲述他们某段时间里的故事和生活中的危机。他描绘英国壮丽的景象,而这些家庭则构成了英国的牢固基础。故事从在600年前玫瑰战争中没落的Plumpton家族说起,到在格洛斯特郡拥有同一处土地并耕作1000年之久的Clifford家族结束。虽然乡绅阶级自认一些例如优雅,进取和骑士风度这样的核心价值是他们的重要特点,尼克森明确指出钱、斗争同血缘、家庭一样重要。乡绅阶层善于适应新的环境,他们的生活中无处不乏竞争和奋斗。生活没有确定性。生存下来才是关键,他们擅于骑墙,确保自己不吃亏。At its best the gentrys idea of goodness and civilisation was attached to a particular place and an “interfolding of people, land, animals, food, housing and hospitality”. A sense of order, sociability and well-being was expressed through landscape. Everything depended on an underpinning of money and a connection with London and Westminster was generally essential to prosperity. Many of the gentry were members of the House of Commons. Survival was often contingent on being on the “right” side during the Wars of the Roses, at the time of the Reformation, through the upheavals of the 17th century. In the 1940s Sir Richard Acland, a Christian socialist, made over the bulk of his large estate in Devon to the National Trust, but he was an exception. Not everyone was as ruthless as Henry Lascelles, who in the 1700s amassed a fortune through sugar plantations in Barbados and the exploitation of African slaves; but in general the story is of “the political and economic dominance of a…cannily self-renewing class”.只有依托于某个特定的氛围中,在土地,房屋,客人,动物,食物,宴会交相辉映的背景下,才能看到绅士文明高贵的一面。绅士阶层的秩序感、社会感和幸福感也是通过对自然景观的描述来表现。一切以钱为基础,同伦敦、威斯敏斯特(伦敦议会所在地)有关的事情通常对繁荣发展都至关重要。许多乡绅都是下议院的议员。在玫瑰战争、宗教改革、以及十七世纪动荡期,生存往往取决于站对立场。上世纪四十年代,基督教社会主义党人Richard Acland将自己大部分土地转让给国民信托组织,这在当时独一无二。十八世纪,Henry Lascelles靠在巴巴多斯的蔗糖种植园和剥削非奴积累大量财富,但并不是每个人都像他一样冷酷无情。但总体来说,这是关于这样一个精明谨慎、自我革新的阶层如何影响政治和经济的故事。In tracing the rise and fall of this ruling class, Mr Nicolson has some fascinating stories to tell, and he tells them well, not least that of the Capels, who were forced by penury to live abroad and found themselves in Brussels on the eve of the battle of Waterloo. He concludes that competition, unkindness and dominance always underlay the beautiful sense of community which the gentry world embodied. But that is life: it is “a struggle and community is political”.随着统治阶层的兴亡更迭,尼克森讲述了一些引人入胜的故事,而且他说得恰到好处,尤其是说到Capel家族因为贫穷被迫流亡海外,最终在滑铁卢战争前夕到达布鲁塞尔。乡绅所象征的优雅阶级表面之下是由激烈竞争、不近人情、恃强凌弱这些特质所撑的。但这就是人生,是一次努力奋斗,人聚集在一起就是政治。 /201303/229873吉安激光嫩肤一般多少钱 安福县人民中医院脱毛多少钱

吉安保仕柏丽医院治疗鲜红斑痣效果怎样Beyond the Stinger大自然最杰出的建造师Unless youre an entomologist or a beekeeper, bees typically inspire one thing: fear. But most bees are non-aggressive, and only sting when provoked. In fact, once you get beyond the stinger, bees are pretty fascinating. For example, honeybees are great builders.一提到蜜蜂,大家能联想到的可能是“可怕”,昆虫学者或养蜂人当然例外啦。但是,大多数的蜜蜂是没有攻击性的,蜜蜂蜇人那是万不得已的!事实上,蜜蜂是伟大的建筑师,而绝非仅仅是蜇人。Beehive construction begins with finding a suitable site. Scout bees seek hollow spaces in trees and human-made structures. Such spaces must be able to hold at least six and a half gallons, and have a small entrance that faces south for warmth.蜂巢建造的第一步:侦察蜂寻觅合适的搭建处。侦察蜂在树林间或人造建筑物中寻找至少6.5加仑的空间,并且有面朝温暖南方的入口。Once theyve found the perfect spot, the scouts prepare the site by clearing away loose wood or other rubbish and coat the space with a dried tree resin called propolis.一旦侦察蜂找到绝佳的建造蜂巢点,它们会做好准备工作:清理掉松动的木材或其它杂物,在表层涂上叫蜂胶的干树脂。Worker bees then take over, secreting wax to build the hive. Starting from the top and working down, they build combs–layers of hexagonally shaped cells with passageways along the walls to allow bees to move between combs. Each layer of cells has a specialized purpose.下一步轮到工蜂了,工蜂用蜂蜡建造蜂巢。先搭建巢基,逐层往下,每个蜂房都是六边形的。The uppermost cells store honey, followed by pollen-storage cells. The bottom layers are designated for infant-rearing. Just beneath the pollen cells are brood cells where larvae become worker bees, and off to the side are cells housing drone bee larvae. Last, but certainly not least, special cells are set aside to shelter infant queen bees.蜂房与蜂房间要留有空隙以便蜜蜂出入。每个蜂房都有特殊的作用。最上面的蜂房是储存蜂蜜的,下面一层是储存花粉的,再下层是幼虫变成工蜂的孵化室,最下层是育婴室,两侧居住的是雄蜂幼虫。当然,特殊的蜂房是留给有着尊贵地位的蜂王的。A typical nest has about 100,000 cells with a total surface area of about twenty-seven square feet. Most of the cells are used to store the more than forty pounds of honey required to feed a bee colony during the winter.标准的蜂巢有100,000个蜂房,连上表层大概有27平方英尺。大多数蜂巢储存了40多英镑的蜂蜜足够整个蜜蜂家族度过整个冬天了。They may not win any awards, but bees are clearly some of natures most accomplishedarchitects.虽然,蜜蜂从未因此获奖。但是,它们无疑是大自然最杰出的建造师。 /201212/217627 Books and Arts; Book Review;The constant gardener;The future of wilderness文艺;书评;永恒的守护者;荒野的未来;Rambunctious Garden: Saving Nature in a Post-Wild World. By Emma Marris.书名:《喧闹的花园:在人类统领的世界里保护自然》 作者:艾玛·马里斯。When the Scottish-born American naturalist, John Muir, encountered a pristine wilderness where the soaring mountains touched the open sky, birds sang in the pine trees and fish spawned in the free-flowing rivers, he was determined to protect it from over-exploitation by the settlers who succeeded the native American presence. Muir fought to ensure that the Yosemite Valley in California became a national park, and he succeeded in 1890. The concept of preserving nature from mans interference proved both powerful and enduring: almost a century later the Wilderness Act of 1964 empowered states to designate protected land. In “Rambunctious Garden” Emma Marris outlines why the concept of wilderness is flawed.当年,苏格兰裔的美国自然主义者约翰·缪尔邂逅了一片原生态荒原。那里的山峰高高耸立,直入云霄,松林间鸟儿浅唱低吟,溪流里鱼儿繁衍生息,见此美好景象,他下定决心要保护那片土地,以免其遭到继原住民之后占据此地的移民过度开发。为了让它——加利福利亚优胜美地山谷成为国家公园,他不懈努力,终于在1890年申请成功。保护自然免受人类行为干扰这一观念影响深远:几乎一个世纪以后的1964年,荒野法案面世,授权美国各州指定土地加以保护。在《喧闹的花园》一书中,艾玛·马里斯却阐述了为什么这个关于荒野的观点是有缺陷的。The journey begins in Hawaii, where biologists are toiling to remove species that have been introduced to the islands over the centuries since James Cooks party landed there in 1778. Invaders such as purple-flowered Asian melastome and strawberry guava threaten to overrun delicate Hawaiian natives such as thornless roses and delicate tree ferns. Yet even if all the invaders were removed, it would only return the islands to the state into which the Polynesians, who inhabited them for at least 1,000 years before Cooks arrival, had shaped them.作者从夏威夷下笔,1778年詹姆斯·库克带领的探险队登上夏威夷群岛,此后数百年间外来物种被移植到了此岛,生物学家们为移除它们费尽了心思。包括亚洲紫色野牡丹和草莓番石榴在内的外来物种肆意繁殖,威胁了脆弱的本地物种,如无刺玫瑰和树厥的生长。然而即使将这些外来物种清除殆尽,夏威夷群岛也只能退回到波利维亚人定居时期,库克船长到来之前,他们已在此地生存了上千年。Even theoretically, returning Hawaii to a prehuman existence would be impossible. Ecosystems change over time, with or without the involvement of mankind, so no one can tell what Hawaii “should” look like. And mankinds influence on his environment is now such that he has changed the composition of the atmosphere over the past few centuries, so the effects of humanity can never be completely removed.即使是从理论上来说,将夏威夷岛还原成有人类居住之前的状态也是不可能的。不管有没有人类的影响,生态系统都会随时间演变,因此没有人可以说出夏威夷“应该”是什么样的。人类对其所处环境的影响是如此巨大,几个世纪以来连大气层的构成都发生了改变,因此人类的影响永远也无法消除。Ms Marris traces the emergence of a “wilderness cult” that she believes affects efforts to restore habitats to a previous form. She argues that early American environmentalists, such as Ralph Waldo Emerson and Henry David Thoreau, have been mis as its champions. Although Emerson described “essences unchanged by man; space, the air, the river, the leaf”, he also wrote of the “perfect exhilaration” of “crossing a bare common, in snow puddles at twilight, under a clouded sky”. And when Thoreau became determined to get away from it all in 1845, he retired to Walden Pond, a mere mile-and-a-half away from the nearest village. Preserving nature, Ms Marris writes, is a relatively recent preoccupation.马里斯女士在书中追溯了“荒野崇拜”的起源,并称正是这种崇拜激发了复原居住地的行动。她认为,拉尔夫·瓦尔多·爱默生和亨利·大卫·梭罗等早期美国环境保护论者都被误读为了荒野崇拜的信奉者。虽然爱默生曾描绘过“不受人类纷扰的自然精髓:空间、大气、河流、树叶”,他也刻画过“黄昏时分,在缀满云朵的天空下,行走于坑洼的雪地上,穿越一片荒原”的“无上欣喜”。而当1845年梭罗坚决要离世隐居时,他选择了瓦尔登湖,一个离周边最近的村落仅有一英里半的地方。马里斯女士写道,保护自然,相对而言是近代的紧急要务。Perhaps, but it has a longer history than the author fully acknowledges. A struggle between those who would remove man from a landscape and those who think we should actively manage the environment has existed since at least the 1930s. When the first global environmental organisation was established in 1948, it was called the International Union for the Protection of Nature: the organisation renamed itself in 1956, replacing “protection” with “conservation” in its title, because its members had grasped that people play an important role in shaping the natural world.也许保护自然这一观念的产生比作者所认识到的还要早。早在上世纪三十年代或者更早时,就有人争辩应该对风景区进行隔离保护还是采取积极措施规划保护这个问题。1948年全球第一个环境组织成立了,当时名为国际自然保卫联盟(International Union for the Protection of Nature),1956年该组织更名,将名字中的“保卫”替换成了“保护”,因为联盟成员领会到了人类在自然世界的发展中所扮演角色的重要性。Ms Marriss book is an insightful analysis of the thinking that informs nature conservation. The author outlines the concepts of “re-wilding” habitats by introducing species that have been lost, of the “assisted migration” carried out by foresters who prepare for climate change by planting trees at the current limits of their ranges (and, indeed, the gardeners who transplant cuttings and seedlings from one part of the planet to another). She describes how ecosystems can be designed: nesting birds can be encouraged to breed on a site by manipulating it to suit them, for example. And nature can flourish in areas that are not wild, such as city roof-gardens.马里斯这本著作为保护自然背后的思考提供了一份卓有见地的分析。作者通过介绍那些已经灭绝的物种引出了“原始化”栖息地的观念,还提到了“辅助性迁移”的观念,比如林务员为应对气候变化栽种树木以促进当地林木多样性(当然,还有园艺家们做出的努力,他们通过扦插移植和幼苗移植将一处的植物带向地球另一端的某处)。她还描述了设计生态系统的方法:比如改造一块地方的环境,使之能吸引筑巢的鸟儿在那里孵化幼鸟。还有,非原生态的环境中也可以充满勃勃生机,比如城市里的屋顶花园。There are many reasons to value the natural world. Some people want to prevent certain species from becoming extinct, others to ensure the diversity of an ecosystem, to make use of clean air and water or to revel in the beauty of a landscape. Happily for both mankind and the natural world, Ms Marris concludes, many such causes can be aligned.珍惜自然环境的动因有很多。有些人是为了防止某个物种灭亡,还有些人是为了确保生态系统的多样性,或者为了能呼吸到清洁空气,喝到清洁水,抑或是为了充分享受自然美景。马里斯女士总结道,令人高兴的是,不管是对人类还是对自然环境,许多此类的动因是殊途同归的。 /201210/205405吉安保仕柏丽整形美容医院祛眼袋手术好吗吉安县妇幼保健人民医院光子嫩肤多少钱

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