2019年09月16日 16:15:41|来源:国际在线|编辑:好医诊疗
Gay marriage同性婚姻Be my rock in Little Rock在小岩城成为我坚固的磐石The gay-marriage juggernaut rolls on同性婚姻势不可挡WHAT do Arkansas and Idaho have in common? Both have rural charm—Idahos licence plates even boast of its “Famous Potatoes”. Both vote Republican in presidential elections. And both have just legalised gay marriage.美国阿肯色州和爱达荷州有什么相同之处?他们都拥有迷人的田园风光—爱达荷州的汽车牌照甚至还炫耀自己“有名的土豆”。他们都在总统大选中投了共和党人的票,而且都把同性婚姻合法化了。In both states, the decision was made by a judge rather than voters, and could be reversed. But it is getting harder to see same-sex nuptials as an odd new custom confined to coastal liberal bastions. If the new rules in Arkansas and Idaho stand, that would make it 19 states plus Washington, DC that now recognise marriage equality. Over 70 lawsuits, in nearly every state that does not yet allow gay marriage, are working their way through the courts, encouraged by a Supreme-Court ruling last year striking down the federal Defence of Marriage Act.在这两个州,这个决定都是由法官下的,而不是选举人,而且决定可以被撤销。现在同性恋婚姻已经越来越难以被认为仅仅是局限在沿海自由堡垒的风俗了。如果阿肯色州和爱达荷州的新条例成立的话,这将会使十九个州包括华盛顿承认婚姻平等。如今共有超过七十起分布在几乎所有尚未允许同性婚姻的州的法律诉讼正在通过法庭努力,它们受到了去年最高法院裁决的鼓励,该裁决驳回了“联邦婚姻保护法案”—一项禁止联邦政府承认同性婚姻的法案。It has all happened faster than campaigners dared to hope. In Arkansas, a state constitutional amendment banning same-sex marriage passed ten years ago with 75% of the vote. Social conservatives were elated, expecting the law to stand indefinitely. But on May 9th Chris Piazza, a circuit judge in Pulaski County, ruled the ban unconstitutional.事情变化如此之快,而这甚至超过了同性婚姻呼吁者的预期。在阿肯色州,一个禁止同性婚姻的州宪法修正案于十年前获得75%的选票通过。社会保守派人士对此欢欣鼓舞,期待该法案无限期有效。但在5月9号一名普瓦斯基郡的巡回法官克里斯·皮亚萨裁决这个禁令违宪。Religious conservatives were shocked. Mike Huckabee, an ex-governor of Arkansas, called for Judge Piazza to be impeached. Jerry Cox, president of the Arkansas Family Council, said: “The marriage of one man to one woman has been a cornerstone of western civilisation for thousands of years... once people start redefining marriage, there seems to be no place to stop.”宗教保守派都非常震惊。阿肯色州的一名前州政府官员麦克·赫卡比呼吁控告皮亚萨法官。阿肯色州家族委员会的主席杰里·考克斯说:“男人与女人之间的婚姻几千年来都是西方文明的基石…一旦人们开始重新给婚姻下定义,看起来就不会再停止了。”Mr Piazzas ruling opened the door for all 75 counties in the state to issue marriage licences to gay couples. Most county clerks opted not to, noting that the ruling, confusingly, failed to address another state law that banned issuing such licences. But some 450 same-sex couples queued up in Pulaski and four other counties to get their precious pieces of paper. “We were hopeful that the law would be overturned some day, but we were completely stunned...that it came when it did,” says Barbara Hall, who married her long-time partner on May 12th in the courthouse rotunda. “We aly had plans to marry in New York this summer after a ceremony here in Little Rock, never imagining a day when we could marry here.”皮亚萨的裁决为该州75个郡打开了给同性情侣颁发婚姻许可的大门。大部分郡书记官都选择了拒绝听从,指出该裁决令人困惑,未能处理其他禁止颁发此类婚姻许可的州法律的问题。但有450对同性情侣在普瓦斯基和其它四个郡排队等候以获得那张宝贵的书。“我们满怀希望,希望有一天州法律可以彻底改变,但是我们非常震惊…在这件事确实发生的时候,”芭芭拉·霍尔说,她于5月12号和她的长期伴侣在法院的圆形大厅中结婚了。“我们已经计划在小岩城的仪式之后就于今年夏天去纽约结婚,我们从未想过还能在这里结婚。” 201406/304439

Books and Arts; The Istanbul Biennial;Vintage is the new vanguard;文艺;书评;伊斯坦布尔的艺术双年展;怀旧也是一种潮流;Most art biennials are incoherent and exhausting. Istanbuls is an exception;艺术双年展大多离破碎江郎才尽。唯有伊斯坦布尔的双年展是个例外;Virtually every day of the year sees another art biennial opening somewhere in the world. The role of these exhibitions is to showcase contemporary art, attract affluent tourists and stimulate local culture. Most biennials are a sprawling mess—and the worst look like commercial art fairs studded with brand-name trophies. However, those that succeed in making sense of some aspect of global culture can be both enlightening and memorable. This years Istanbul Biennial, which opened on September 17th and runs for almost two months, is a case in point. Poignant, relevant and intellectually engaging, it has managed to create a coherent exhibition out of works by 130 artists from 41 countries—a rare achievement.实际上,在一年中的每一天,在世界上的某个地方,都有一场艺术双年展会举办。这些展览的作用是展出当代艺术,吸引大量游客,并促进当地文化发展。大多数双年展不过是一团糟——最糟糕的看起来就像商业性质的艺术集会,到处充斥着品牌的战利品。不过,那些成功诠释了全球文化中某个方面的双年展倒是十分具有启发性,值得纪念。今年,于9月17日开幕,为期将近两个月的伊斯坦布尔艺术双年展就是这样一个双年展。动人,切题,十分具有知性吸引力,通过展出来自41个国家的130个艺术家的作品,它成功的创造出一场融会贯通的展览——取得了罕见的成功。The Istanbul Biennial is held in two huge former warehouses on the banks of the Bosporus. Untamed, the buildings would force viewers into a monotonous marathon of spectatorship. But the biennials curators, Adriano Pedrosa (a Brazilian) and Jens Hoffmann (a Costa Rican), enlisted the help of a master of exhibition design, a Japanese architect called Ryue Nishizawa, who has introduced new energy into the space by creating rooms of different sizes and marking off “exterior” spaces with corrugated-steel walls.伊斯坦布尔双年展在斯普鲁斯海峡岸边的两座巨大的老旧库房里举行。如果不加修饰的话,这种建筑很容易让观众陷入一种单调冗长的观赏过程之中。但是展馆馆长阿德里亚诺佩德罗萨(巴西人)和吉斯霍夫曼(哥斯达黎加人)得到了一个展馆设计大师的帮助,他是一位名叫西沢立卫的日本建筑师,他建造了几个大小不同的房间,并用波纹钢板墙将外部空间区分开来,通过以上方式为整个空间注入了活力。As curators, Mr Pedrosa and Mr Hoffmann have also adopted an effective premise. Rather than using a theory or theme as a unifying rubric, the biennial has a muse—Félix González-Torres, an artist who died in 1996 and who was selected posthumously to be the official American representative at the 2007 Venice Biennale.做为馆长,佩德罗萨和霍夫曼也采用了令人印象深刻的方式开幕。并没有用千遍一律的红字标注展览主题,这次的双年展自己的缪斯——菲利克斯冈萨雷斯托雷斯,这位艺术家1996就英年早逝,死后在2007年的维纳斯双年展上被选为正式的美国代表。Born in Cuba and educated in Puerto Rico, González-Torres made minimalist conceptual works that were aesthetically innovative and politically sophisticated. Like its muse, the Istanbul Biennial is thoughtful rather than aggressive or sensationalist. “Activists spoon-feed messages but artists create works with layered meanings,” explains Mr Pedrosa.冈萨雷斯托雷斯出生于古巴,求学于波多黎各,他创造的抽象主义作品兼具美学的创新性和政治的复杂性。就像它的缪斯一样,伊斯坦布尔双年展的风格是沉思的,而不是咄咄逼人或是多愁善感的。“政治活动家向人们强制性的灌输信息,然而艺术家创造意义层次分明的作品”,佩德罗萨如是解释道。The biennial also has an intelligent structure. There are five group shows around the main themes that inspired González-Torress work—love, death, abstraction, contested histories and territories. Each group show occupies a large grey room and acts as a hub for a cluster of solo shows featuring 50 artists, all in smaller white rooms. The elegant solution to the spaces stands in contrast to the names of the group shows, which repeat “Untitled” in an awkward manner. Nevertheless, it is moving to walk through the room called “ ‘Untitled (Ross)” named after the artists longtime lover, Ross Laycock, who died in 1991 of Aids-related causes, like González-Torres himself.双年展的空间安排也十分讨喜。有五组展出冈萨雷斯托雷斯的作品主题——爱,死亡,抽象,历史纷争以及领土纷争。每一组展出都占据了一间灰色的大屋子,这些展出也是50个风格各异的艺术家的独展中心,所有的独展在一间小一点的白屋子里进行。和空间的完美分布形成对比的是展出的名字,这些展出都是清一色用一种尴尬的方式强调着“无题”这个名字。不过,你还是情不自禁的想去逛一逛这件名叫“无名(罗斯)”的房间,“无名(罗斯)”以冈萨雷斯托雷斯的最爱,罗斯雷科克命名,像冈萨雷斯一样,他也于1991年死于艾滋病。Another of the group shows, “ ‘Untitled (Passport # II)”, displays 20 works about maps and national identity. Hank Willis Thomass “A Place to Call Home” depicts North America and Africa as big black continents joined by an isthmus. Jorge Macchis “Seascape” covers all the landmasses below the equator with cut-outs of the northern seas. Displayed as a commentary to Mr Macchis drowned hemisphere is a by Kutlug Ataman, one of Turkeys most critically acclaimed artists, which depicts bands of choppy sunlit water.另一组展出名叫“无题(护照#II)”,展出了20幅关于地图和国籍的作品。汉克威利斯托马斯的作品“一个名叫家的地方”将北美洲和非洲刻画成了两个由地峡连接起来的黑色大洲。乔治马奇的《海景画》将北边的海洋剪掉,描绘了赤道以南的所有陆地形态。卡特拉格奥特曼制作了一个视频,算是对马奇将整个半球浸在水里的做法的,卡特拉格是土耳其最后非议的一位艺术家,他在视频里刻画了一排排波光里里的海浪。In a series of vitrines in the same room, Baha Boukhari, a Ramallah-based cartoonist, shows the passports issued to his father under the British mandate in Palestine. Many of the artworks incorporate objects and documents found in historical archives. Contemporary art in 2011 has a distinctly vintage feel.在同一间房子里还摆放着一系列的玻璃橱窗,拉马拉籍卡托画家巴哈布克汗展示了英国在巴勒斯坦发行给父亲的护照。许多艺术作品都把就档案里找到的物品和文件组合在一起。2011年的当代艺术别有一番怀旧风味。The curators are right not to let themselves be overly distracted by the latest thing; work made yesterday is not always the art that is most relevant to the present. They have chosen to include a range of historical artworks by women who they believe deserve greater recognition. For example, they have installed photo collages from Martha Roslers “Bringing the War Home” series (pictured above), which were made during the Vietnam war between 1967 and 1972, but which still resonate because of Americas continuing presence in Iraq and Afghanistan.这两个馆长十分明智,没有过分受到潮流的影响;但是过去创造的作品并不总是和现在密切相关。于是他们选择了一系列由女艺术家创作的老作品,因为他们认为女性艺术家更应该受到公众认同。比如他们安插了一系列由玛莎罗丝拍摄的名为“把战争带回家”照片(见上图),这些照片摄于1967年到1972年越战时期,因为美国发动了伊拉克战争和阿富汗战争,所以它们在今天仍然能引起广泛共鸣The Istanbul Biennial also gives solo shows to a number of exciting emerging artists. Many visitors were impressed with “Cabaret Crusades: The Horror Show File”, a by Wael Shawky, an Egyptian artist, in which marionettes act out the story of the crusades from an Arab point of view. Also much discussed were “Tin Soldiers” by Ala Younis, a Jordanian, and “Historical Record Archive” by Dani Gal, an Israeli artist.伊斯坦布尔双年展还给许多令人振奋的艺术新星举办了独展。由希腊艺术家威尔夏科拍摄的视频——“卡巴来改革:恐怖展览档案”给许多参观者留下了深刻的印象,在这段视频里,他从阿拉伯视角,用各种木偶演绎了改革的故事。约旦艺术家阿拉又斯的“小锡兵”和以色列艺术家丹尼盖尔的“历史档案记录”也掀起了一场热议。It is interesting to view these works against the background of the recent political upheavals in the Middle East and to see the unexpected interaction between Arab artists and those from South America. Both areas are on the periphery of European modernity and the biennials artists have found much common ground over urban decay, disenfranchisement and the arbitrariness of national borders. Mr Pedrosa and Mr Hoffmann have played to their strengths, choosing more artists from South America than any other continent. It is a testament to the Turkish philanthropists who underwrite the biennial, particularly the Koc and Eczacibasi families, that the curators came under no pressure to include more local artists. Indeed, the stylish internationalism of the Istanbul Biennial feels entirely natural.在近期中东政治动荡的大背景下审视这些作品是件很有意思的事情,还能乎意料的看到来自阿拉伯和南美的艺术家之间的互动。这两个地方都深受欧洲现代性影响,来参加双年展的艺术家们在城市堕落,民权丧失以及国界犯罪猖獗等方面找到了共同话题。佩德罗萨和霍夫曼凭借一定便利请到了许多南美艺术家,要多于来自其他大洲的艺术家。这次双年展也见了赞助方土耳其的慈善精神,尤其是科克和伊扎斯巴斯两大家族,两位馆长以及许多当地的艺术家都来自这两大家族。毋庸置疑的是,伊斯坦布尔双年展的国际风格毫不做作,给人感觉十分自然。 /201304/233712

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