时间:2019年09月23日 06:34:14

So this is work from a colleague in Toronto.这个工作是我们一个多伦多的同事完成的。What they showed is that, initially,他们发现一开始参加实验的人的表现you know, subjects perform where they are expected to perform given their age.和他们那个年龄段应有的差不多。After two weeks of training on action games,玩了两个星期的动作以后,they actually perform better,他们的表现变得更好了。and the improvement is still there five months after having done the training.这个提高在训练后的五个月后仍然有体现。Thats really, really important.这一点非常非常重要。Why? Because I told you we want to use these games for education or for rehabilitation.为什么?因为就像我说的我们想要把这些游戏用在教育和医疗康复上。We need to have effects that are going to be long-lasting.这需要效果能够持久存在。Now, at this point, a number of you are probably wondering现在,你们中的不少人大概在想:well, what are you waiting for, to put on the market a game;你们还在等什么?为什么不快点发行一款that would be good for the attention of my grandmother and that she would actually enjoy,像是对我祖母的注意力有帮助而且让她喜欢的游戏,or a game that would be great to rehabilitate the vision或者是一款能使眼睛弱视的of my grandson who has amblyopia, for example?孙子视力复原的游戏?;Well, were working on it, but here is a challenge.我们在努力,但是有一个挑战。There are brain scientists like me that are beginning to understand有一些像我一样的脑科学家开始了解what are the good ingredients in games to promote positive effects,游戏中能带来积极效果的成分,and thats what Im going to call the broccoli side of the equation.我把这叫做等式的花椰菜侧。There is an entertainment software industry而软件产业which is extremely deft at coming up with appealing products that you cant resist.总能敏锐地开发出让人无法抗拒地产品。Thats the chocolate side of the equation.这是等式的巧克力侧。The issue is we need to put the two together,问题是我们怎么把这两者结合起来,and its a little bit like with food.这个过程有点像是各种食材的搭配。Who really wants to eat chocolate-covered broccoli?有谁会想吃沾着巧克力的花椰菜吗?None of you.And you probably have had that feeling,没有人。你们可能有过这种感受,right, picking up an education game and sort of feeling, hmm,当你们开始玩一个教育游戏,然后感觉到,you know, its not really fun, its not really engaging.怎么说呢,它并不好玩也没那么引人入胜。So what we need is really a new brand of chocolate,所以我们真正需要的是一种新牌子的巧克力,a brand of chocolate that is irresistible, that you really want to play,一种让人无法抗拒的巧克力。让你想吃的同时but that has all the ingredients,包含了所有应该有的成分,the good ingredients that are extracted from the broccoli that you cant recognize那些从花椰菜中提取出来已经尝不出来but are still working on your brains.但仍然对大脑有作用的有益成分。And were working on it,我们正在朝这个方向努力,but it takes to come and to get together,但是这需要脑科学家,brain scientists people that work in the entertainment software industry, and publishers,软件界的人们和发行商的合作。so these are not people that usually meet every day, but its actually doable,这些人一般不怎么聚到一起,但这样的合作是能做到的,and we are on the right track.而我们的工作已经上了轨道。Id like to leave you with that thought, and thank you for your attention.今天我就以这个想法结束,谢谢大家关注。201512/417096

Thank you. (Applause.) Thank you very much. Thank you, thank you, thank you. I think Winston Churchill said the only reason people give a standing ovation is they desperately seek an excuse to shift their underwear. (Laughter.) So certainly before I’ve opened my mouth, that’s true. (Laughter.)Anyway, President Salovey and faculty members, parents, siblings who came here under the false impression there would be free food (laughter); Handsome Dan, wherever you are, probably at some fire hydrant somewhere (laughter); members of the 2013 NCAA champion men’s ice hockey team (cheers and applause); distinguished guests and graduates, graduates of the Class of 2014, I really am privileged to be able to be here and share the celebration of this day with you, especially 48 years after standing up right here as a very intimidated senior wondering what I was going to say.You are graduating today as the most diverse class in Yale’s long history. Or as they call it in the NBA, Donald Sterling’s worst nightmare. (Laughter and applause.)Nia and Josh: Thank you for such a generous introduction. What Josh didn’t mention is that he interned for me at the State Department last summer. (Cheers and applause.) Well, hold on a minute now. (Laughter.) I learned that he’s not afraid to talk truth to power, or semi-truth. (Laughter.) On his last day he walked up to me at the State Department and he was brutally honest. He said, “Mr. Secretary, JE sucks.” (Laughter and cheers.)No, actually, on the last day at the State Department, he asked if I would come here today and deliver a message his classmates really needed to hear. So here it goes: Jarred Phillips, you still owe Josh money from that road trip last fall. (Laughter and applause.)I have to tell you, it is really fun for me to be back here on the Old Campus. I’m accompanied by a classmate of mine. We were on the soccer team together. We had a lot of fun. He served as ambassador to Italy recently, David Thorne. And my daughter Vanessa graduated in the Class of 1999, so I know what a proud moment this is for your parents. But my friends, the test will be if they still feel this way next May if you live at home. (Laughter.)Now, I’m really happy you made it back from Myrtle Beach. (Cheers and applause.) As if you hadn’t aly logged enough keg time at “Woads”. (Cheers.) Just remember, just remember: 4.0 is a really good GPA, but it’s a lousy blood-alcohol level. (Laughter.)I love the hats. We didn’t have the hats when I was here. I love the hats. They are outrageous. They’re spectacular. This may well be the only event that Pharrell could crash and go unnoticed. (Laughter and applause.)I’ve been looking around. I’ve seen a couple of Red Sox, a few Red Sox hats out there. (Cheers.) I’ve also seen a few of those ded interlocking N’s and Y’s. (Cheers.) But that’s okay: I said diversity is important. (Laughter.) It’s also an easy way for me to tell who roots for the Yankees and who’s graduating with distinction. (Laughter and cheers.)So here’s the deal, here’s the deal: I went online and I learned in the Yale Daily comments that I wasn’t everyone’s first choice to be up here. (Laughter.)When Yale announced that I’d be speaking, someone actually wrote, “I hope they give out Five-Hour Energy to help everyone stay awake.” (Laughter.) Well don’t worry folks: I promise not to be one minute over four hours. (Laughter.)Someone else wrote I haven’t “screwed up badly as Secretary of State ... yet.” (Laughter.) Well, all I can say is, stay tuned. (Laughter.)But my favorite comment was this: “I’m really proud that a Yalie is Secretary of State.” I should have stopped ing right there because he or she went on to write, “but he is butt ugly.” (Laughter.) So there go my dreams of being on “Yale’s 50 most beautiful” list. (Cheers and applause.)It really is a privilege for me to share this celebration with you, though I’m forewarned that no one remembers who delivers their graduation speech. All I really remember about our speaker in 1966 is that he was eloquent, insightful, really good looking. (Laughter.) Anyway, one thing I promise you, one thing I promise you: I will stay away from the tired cliches of commencement, things like “be yourself,” “do what makes you happy,” “don’t use the laundry room in Saybrook”. (Cheers and applause.) That’s about all I’ll say about that. (Laughter.)So right after we graduated, Time Magazine came out with its famous “Man of the Year” issue. But for 1966, Timedidn’t pick one man or one woman. They picked our entire generation.And Time expressed a lot of high hopes for us. It not only predicted that we’d cure the common cold, but that we’d cure cancer, too. It predicted that we’d build smog-free cities and that we’d end poverty and war once and for all. I know what you’re thinking – we really crushed it. (Laughter.)So fair question: Did my generation get lost? Well, that’s actually a conversation for another time. But let me put one theory to rest: It’s not true that everyone in my generation experimented with drugs. Although between Flomax, Lipitor and Viagra, now we do. (Laughter and applause.)Now, I did have some pretty creative classmates back then. One of my good friends, very close friends in JE – (cheers) – I’m going to set it right for you guys right now. (Laughter.) One of my good friends in JE had at least two hair-brained ideas. The first was a little start-up built on the notion that if people had a choice, they’d pay a little more to mail a package and have it arrive the very next day. Crazy, right? Today that start-up is called FedEx. And by the way, it was created in JE, which therefore means JE rules. (Cheers and applause.)Now, his other nutty idea was to restart something called the Yale Flying Club. And admittedly, this was more of a scheme to get us out of class and off the campus. So I basically spent my senior year majoring in flying, practicing take-offs and landings out at Tweed Airport. Responsible? No. But I wouldn’t have missed it.And one of the best lessons I learned here is that Mark Twain was absolutely right: Never let school get in the way of an education.201503/367260

Im sorry. Its true.我很抱歉,不过这是事实The human, some of you will be happy to hear,你们有些人可能比较喜欢听到这个has the largest, thickest penis of any primate.人类有灵长类中最大最厚的阴茎Now, this evidence goes way beyond anatomy.据其实还不止于解剖学It goes into anthropology as well.我们还有人类学据Historical records are full of accounts of people有很多历史记录都显示around the world who have sexual practices that should be impossible世界各地存在各种不可思议的性做法given what we have assumed about human sexual evolution.基于对人类性进化的传统假设,这些是不可想象的These women are the Mosuo from southwestern China.这两位是来自中国西南部的梭族女性In their society, everyone, men and women, are completely sexually autonomous.在她们的社会中,每个男人和女人都是完全性自主的Theres no shame associated with sexual behavior.没有人会对性行为感到害羞Women have hundreds of partners.女性可以有数以百计的伴侣It doesnt matter. Nobody cares. Nobody gossips. Its not an issue.这没关系,没人会说闲话,这不是问题When the woman becomes pregnant,女性怀时the child is cared for by her, her sisters, and her brothers.孩子会由她和她的兄弟照料The biological father is a nonissue.生物意义上的父亲根本就无关紧要On the other side of the planet, in the Amazon, weve got many tribes which practice在地球另一侧的亚马逊地区,还有很多部落在践行what anthropologists call partible paternity.人类学家所说的可分父权These people actually believe 这些人相信…and they have no contact among them,而且他们之间没有接触no common language or anything, so its not an idea that sp,没有共同语言,等等,因此这不是一个扩散的观念its an idea thats arisen around the world 而是一个在其世界中自然产生的观念they believe that a fetus is literally made of accumulated semen.他们相信胚胎是由积累形成的So a woman who wants to have a child whos smart and funny and strong因此,一个想要聪明,活泼,强壮子女的女人makes sure she has lots of sex with the smart guy, the funny guy and the strong guy,会同很多聪明,活泼,强壮的男人交配to get the essence of each of these men into the baby, and then when the child is born,期待将这些男人的特质融入到孩子身上,孩子出生后these different men will come forward and acknowledge their paternity of the child.这些男性都会过来承认和孩子的父子关系So paternity is actually sort of a team endeavor in this society.在这个社会中,父权是一种团队协作So there are all sorts of examples like this that we go through in the book.我们在书中介绍了很多这样的例子Now, why does this matter?为什么说这很重要呢Edward Wilson says we need to understand爱德华·威尔逊说我们需要理解that human sexuality is first a bonding device and only secondarily procreation.人类的性首先是一种纽带机制,其次才是生殖作用I think thats true. This matters because我认为他说得很对,这很重要our evolved sexuality is in direct conflict with many aspects of the modern world.因为性的进化同现代世界的诸多方面都存在直接矛盾The contradictions between what were told观念中我们应当如何感受we should feel and what we actually do feel和我们的实际感受之间存在很大的矛盾generates a huge amount of unnecessary suffering.这导致了大量不必要的痛苦My hope is that我的希望是a more accurate, updated understanding of human sexuality通过对人类的性的更准确,更现代的理解will lead us to have greater tolerance for ourselves, for each other,能够让我们对彼此有更大的宽容greater respect for unconventional relationship configurations对非传统的关系结构更加尊重like samesex marriage or polyamorous unions,例如同性婚姻,多元性关系and that well finally put to rest the idea此外,我们也不应当再认为that men have some innate, instinctive right男性具有与生俱来的权利to monitor and control womens sexual behavior.来监管和控制女性的性行为Thank you.谢谢大家And well see that its not only gay people that have to come out of the closet.其实不只是同性恋者需要出柜We all have closets we have to come out of. Right?我们所有人都有需要跳出的柜And when we do come out of those closets,从这些柜中跳出后well recognize that our fight is not with each other,我们就会意识到,我们要斗争的并不是彼此our fight is with an outdated, Victorian sense of human sexuality而是维多利亚时代遗留下来的过时性观念that conflates desire with property rights,这种老旧保守观念只会让欲望同所有权混淆不清generates shame and confusion导致羞耻和疑惑in place of understanding and empathy.让理解和同情无处落脚201506/379261

They have not been trained.他们没接受过训练。So do you need 50,000 hours of meditation? No, you dont.你需要五万小时的冥想吗?不,不需要的。Four weeks, 20 minutes a day, of caring, mindfulness meditation aly brings a structural change in the brain compared to a control group.与对照组相比,每天20分钟,持续4周的关爱、正念冥想训练会使大脑结构发生改变。Thats only 20 minutes a day for four weeks.只需每天20分钟,持续四周。Even with preschoolers -- Richard Davidson did that in Madison.甚至幼儿园的孩子也能发生这样的改变, 理查德?戴维森在麦迪逊市做过实验。An eight-week program: gratitude, loving- kindness, cooperation, mindful breathing.八星期长的项目:感恩、关爱、合作与呼吸训练。You would say, Oh, theyre just preschoolers.你会说,他们只是幼儿园的孩子啊。Look after eight weeks,the pro-social behavior, thats the blue line.八星期之后,亲社会的行为,是这根蓝色线。And then comes the ultimate scientific test, the stickers test.然后是终极的科学实验,贴纸测试。Before, you determine for each child who is their best friend in the class,their least favorite child, an unknown child, and the sick child,and they have to give stickers away.在训练前,确定每个孩子在班里最好的朋友,最不喜欢的伙伴,不认识的小孩, 还有生病的小孩,每个孩子都要把手中的贴纸分发出去。So before the intervention, they give most of it to their best friend.在训练介入之前,孩子手中的贴纸 大部分都给了最好的朋友。Four, five years old, 20 minutes three times a week.四五岁的孩子,一周三次, 一次20分钟的训练。After the intervention, no more discrimination:训练之后,不再有区别对待:the same amount of stickers to their best friend and the least favorite child.孩子手中的贴纸等同地分给了 他们最好的朋友和最不喜欢的朋友。Thats something we should do in all the schools in the world.我们需要把这个培训带给全世界的学校。Now where do we go from there?我们接下来要怎么做?When the Dalai Lama heard that, he told Richard Davidson,You go to 10 schools, 100 schools, the U.N., the whole world. 当达赖喇嘛听到了我的想法,他告诉理查德戴维森,从1个学校到10个,再到100个, 到联合国,到全世界。So now where do we go from there?我们接下来要怎么做?Individual change is possible.个人的变化是可能的。Now do we have to wait for an altruistic gene to be in the human race?我们还要等人类基因中出现利他基因吗?That will take 50,000 years, too much for the environment.这还需要五万年,环境等不了这么久。Fortunately, there is the evolution of culture.幸运的是,文化也可以进化。Cultures, as specialists have shown, change faster than genes.文化,正如学者们指出的, 要比基因变化快得多。Thats the good news.这是好消息。Look, attitude towards war has dramatically changed over the years.你们看,相比过去, 人们对于战争的态度已发生了天翻地覆的变化。So now individual change and cultural change mutually fashion each other,and yes, we can achieve a more altruistic society. 个人的变化与文化的变化相辅相成,没错,我们能实现利他社会。So where do we go from there?接下来要怎么做?Myself, I will go back to the East.我要回到东边,Now we treat 100,000 patients a year in our projects.目前我们的一个行动每年救助十万个患者。We have 25,000 kids in school, four percent overhead.我们的学校里有两万五千个孩子。Some people say, Well, your stuff works in practice,but does it work in theory? 有些人说,你所做的一切在实践中可行,但有理论持吗?Theres always positive deviance.总是会有些偏差,So I will also go back to my hermitage to find the inner resources to better serve others.因此我常常独自一人思索,追寻我的内心,来更好的帮助他人。But on the more global level, what can we do?在全球范围内,我们能做些什么?We need three things.我们需要做好三件事。Enhancing cooperation:加强合作:Cooperative learning in the school instead of competitive learning,在学校里倡导合作式学习,而不是竞争式学习;Unconditional cooperation within corporations there can be some competition between corporations, but not within.在企业里鼓励无条件的合作,企业间可以有竞争,但不是企业内部。We need sustainable harmony. I love this term.我们需要持续的和谐,我喜欢这个词。Not sustainable growth anymore.不是持续的发展。Sustainable harmony means now we will reduce inequality.持续的和谐意味着消除不平等。In the future, we do more with less,未来,我们要以少及多,and we continue to grow qualitatively, not quantitatively.追求高质的发展,而不是高量的发展。We need caring economics.我们需要充满关爱的经济。The Homo economicus cannot deal with poverty in the midst of plenty,守旧的人无法解决贫富不均的问题,cannot deal with the problem of the common goods of the atmosphere, of the oceans.无法解决公共福利的问题,无法解决大气和海洋的问题。We need a caring economics.我们需要充满关爱的经济。If you say economics should be compassionate,如果你说经济应该充满关怀,they say, Thats not our job.他们会说,这不关我的事。But if you say they dont care, that looks bad.你要告诉他们,如果他们不在乎, 看起来很糟。We need local commitment, global responsibility.我们不但要对周边履行承诺和责任, 还要着眼整个世界。We need to extend altruism to the other 1.6 million species.我们需要把利他精神 传播给其他一百六十万种生物。Sentient beings are co-citizens in this world.我们都是一家人。and we need to dare altruism.我们要敢于弘扬利他精神。So, long live the altruistic revolution.愿利他精神得以恩泽天下。Viva la revoluci贸n de altruismo.愿利他精神得以恩泽天下。Thank you.谢谢。201503/365560

Mr. Secretary-General, thank you for bringing us together today to address an urgent threat to the people of West Africa, but also a potential threat to the world. Dr. Chan, heads of state and government, especially our African partners, ladies and gentlemen: As we gather here today, the people of Liberia and Sierra Leone and Guinea are in crisis. As Secretary-General Ban and Dr. Chan have aly indicated, the Ebola virus is sping at alarming speed. Thousands of men, women and children have died. Thousands more are infected. If unchecked, this epidemic could kill hundreds of thousands of people in the coming months. Hundreds of thousands. Ebola is a horrific disease. It’s wiping out entire families. It has turned simple acts of love and comfort and kindness -- like holding a sick friend’s hand, or embracing a dying child -- into potentially fatal acts. If ever there were a public health emergency deserving an urgent, strong and coordinated international response, this is it.But this is also more than a health crisis. This is a growing threat to regional and global security. In Liberia, in Guinea, in Sierra Leone, public health systems have collapsed. Economic growth is slowing dramatically. If this epidemic is not stopped, this disease could cause a humanitarian catastrophe across the region. And in an era where regional crises can quickly become global threats, stopping Ebola is in the interest of all of us.The courageous men and women fighting on the front lines of this disease have told us what they need. They need more beds, they need more supplies, they need more health workers, and they need all of this as fast as possible. Right now, patients are being left to die in the streets because there’s nowhere to put them and there’s nobody to help them. One health worker in Sierra Leone compared fighting this outbreak to “fighting a forest fire with spray bottles.” But with our help, they can put out the blaze.Last week, I visited the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, which is mounting the largest international response in its history. I said that the world could count on America to lead, and that we will provide the capabilities that only we have, and mobilize the world the way we have done in the past in crises of similar magnitude. And I announced that, in addition to the civilian response, the ed States would establish a military command in Liberia to support civilian efforts across the region.Today, that command is up and it is running. Our commander is on the ground in Monrovia, and our teams are working as fast as they can to move in personnel, equipment and supplies. We’re working with Senegal to stand up an air bridge to get health workers and medical supplies into West Africa faster. We’re setting up a field hospital, which will be staffed by personnel from the U.S. Public Health Service, and a training facility, where we’re getting y to train thousands of health workers from around the world. We’re distributing supplies and information kits to hundreds of thousands of families so they can better protect themselves. And together with our partners, we’ll quickly build new treatment units across Liberia, Guinea and Sierra Leone, where thousands will be able to receive care.Meanwhile, in just the past week, more countries and organizations have stepped up their efforts -- and so has the ed Nations. Mr. Secretary-General, the new UN Mission for Ebola Emergency Response that you announced last week will bring all of the U.N.’s resources to bear in fighting the epidemic. We thank you for your leadership.So this is all progress, and it is encouraging. But I want us to be clear: We are not moving fast enough. We are not doing enough. Right now, everybody has the best of intentions, but people are not putting in the kinds of resources that are necessary to put a stop to this epidemic. There is still a significant gap between where we are and where we need to be. We know from experience that the response to an outbreak of this magnitude has to be fast and it has to be sustained. It’s a marathon, but you have to run it like a sprint. And that’s only possible if everybody chips in, if every nation and every organization takes this seriously. Everybody here has to do more.International organizations have to move faster, and cut through red tape and mobilize partners on the ground as only they can. More nations need to contribute critical assets and capabilities -- whether it is air transport, or medical evacuation, or health care workers, or equipment, or treatment. More foundations can tap into the networks of support that they have, to raise funds and awareness. More businesses, especially those who aly have a presence in the region, can quickly provide their own expertise and resources, from access to critical supply chains to telecommunications. And more citizens -- of all nations -- can educate themselves on this crisis, contribute to relief efforts, and call on their leaders to act. So everybody can do something. That’s why we’re here today.And even as we meet the urgent threat of Ebola, it’s clear that our nations have to do more to prevent, detect and respond to future biological threats -- before they erupt into full-blown crises. Tomorrow, in Washington, I’ll host 44 nations to advance our Global Health Security Agenda, and we are interested in working with any country that shares this commitment.Just to emphasize this issue of speed again. When I was down at the CDC -- and perhaps this has aly been discussed, but I want to emphasize this -- the outbreak is such where at this point more people will die. But the slope of the curve, how fast we can arrest the sp of this disease, how quickly we can contain it is within our control. And if we move fast, even if imperfectly, then that could mean the difference between 10,000, 20,000, 30,000 deaths versus hundreds of thousands or even a million deaths. So this is not one where there should be a lot of wrangling and people waiting to see who else is doing what. Everybody has got to move fast in order for us to make a difference. And if we do, we’ll save hundreds of thousands of lives.Stopping Ebola is a priority for the ed States. I’ve said that this is as important a national security priority for my team as anything else that’s out there. We’ll do our part. We will continue to lead, but this has to be a priority for everybody else. We cannot do this alone. We don’t have the capacity to do all of this by ourselves. We don’t have enough health workers by ourselves. We can build the infrastructure and the architecture to get help in, but we’re going to need others to contribute.To my fellow leaders from Liberia, Sierra Leone and Guinea, to the people of West Africa, to the heroic health workers who are on the ground as we speak, in some cases, putting themselves at risk -- I want you to know that you are not alone. We’re working urgently to get you the help you need. And we will not stop, we will not relent until we halt this epidemic once and for all. So I want to thank all of you for the efforts that are made. But I hope that I’m properly communicating a sense of urgency here. Do not stand by, thinking that somehow, because of what we’ve done, that it’s taken care of. It’s not. And if we don’t take care of this now we are going to see fallout effects and secondary effects from this that will have ramifications for a long time, above and beyond the lives that will have been lost.I urge all of you, particularly those who have direct access to your heads of state, to make sure that they are making this a top priority in the next several weeks and months.Thank you very much. (Applause.)201505/374234

文章编辑: 天涯卫生