井冈山隆胸多少钱普及报

来源:搜狐娱乐
原标题: 井冈山隆胸多少钱快问卫生
Concerns grew over the potential economic impact of the Ebola outbreak in west Africa after the World Bank warned that the region faced a .6bn economic hit if the disease were not contained.世界(World Bank)警告,如果埃拉疫情得不到遏制,爆发疫情的西非地区将面临326亿美元的经济代价冲击,这加剧了人们对疫情潜在经济影响的关注。This was the grimmest estimate yet of the economic cost of an outbreak that has left 3,400 people dead in west Africa and this week saw a nurse in Madrid catch the virus, the first case to originate outside Africa.对于埃拉带来的经济代价,这是迄今最严峻的估测。这场疫情已造成西非地区3400人死亡,本周马德里的一名护士感染了埃拉病毒,成为首个在非洲以外感染的病例。The warning came as doctors in Texas said a 42-year-old man who contracted Ebola in Liberia last month died at a Dallas hospital. In Spain, Mariano Rajoy, prime minister, appealed for calm after another nurse who was in contact with Ebola patients at a hospital in Madrid became the sixth person to be held under close medical surveillance there.世行发出警告的同时,德克萨斯州的医生宣布一名上月在利比里亚感染了埃拉病毒的42岁男子在达拉斯的医院死亡。在西班牙,另一名曾在马德里的医院接触过埃拉病患的护士成为第6名接受严密医学监控的人,西班牙首相马里亚诺#8226;拉霍伊(Mariano Rajoy)呼吁人们保持冷静。US officials plan to increase health screenings of passengers from west Africa and investors are concerned at the potential for a broader travel impact as people choose to stay at home rather than expose themselves to the risk of infection.美国官员计划加强对来自西非的旅客的健康筛查。投资者担心,随着人们选择待在家里,而不是将自己暴露于受感染的风险,可能给旅游业带来整体冲击。According to the World Bank’s estimates in a “Low Ebola” scenario, which would see the outbreak contained to Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone by the end of this year, the impact on gross domestic product would amount to .8bn by the end of 2015.根据世行的预估,在“低危埃拉”情景下,埃拉疫情将在今年底被控制在几内亚、利比里亚和塞拉利昂以内,到2015年底,疫情对国内生产总值(GDP)的影响将达到38亿美元。Under a “High Ebola” scenario, in which the outbreak sps to neighbouring countries, the region’s economy would lose .4bn this year and a further .2bn in 2015, or the equivalent of 3.3 per cent of regional gross domestic product. Despite the dire forecasts, the IMF still believes Sierra Leone will this year and next be one of the world’s top-10 fastest growing economies.而在“高危埃拉”的情景下,疫情将扩散到邻近国家,该地区的经济将在今年内损失74亿美元,并在2015年再损失252亿美元,相当于该地区GDP的3.3%。尽管世行作出可怕的前景预测,但国际货币基金组织(IMF)仍认为,塞拉利昂在今年和明年都将是世界上增长最快的10个经济体之一。 /201410/333801

I should be sympathetic to people’s need for golden visas, and even more so for second passports. Before I became a British citizen (because I live and work in London), I spent a good part of my life travelling on a Lebanese passport – which was a nightmare when it came to obtaining visas, and even raised red flags at airports. My most chilling moment was in Rome, where I was once accompanied by a security guard from check-in to boarding and made to feel I was a menace to other passengers.对人们获取“黄金居留许可”(golden visa)的需求,我本应很有共鸣,至于获取第二本护照,我就更应心有戚戚。在成为英国公民(因为我生活和工作的地方在伦敦)之前,我人生中一段不短的时间里,一直用一本黎巴嫩护照旅行,用黎巴嫩护照申请签的过程简直像是噩梦一场,甚至曾导致机场的安保人员如临大敌。最可怕的一次是在罗马,一名安保人员在我从办理登机手续到登上飞机的过程中全程陪同,让我觉得自己好像对其他乘客的安全是个威胁。I doubt my parents would have invested in a residency permit or a second nationality even if they’d been able to afford it. It wasn’t an easy option, in any case. These days it is much more common to shop for golden visas, permanent residency and even citizenship. The critical ingredient is cash. As financially strained governments have discovered a quick way to boost investment, demand for immigration options has skyrocketed, especially from wealthy Chinese and Russians.我怀疑就算我的父母有足够的钱,他们也不会花在用投资换取居留许可或第二国籍上。无论如何,这都不是一个能轻易做出的选择。近来,“购买”黄金居留许可、永久居留权,乃至国籍的行为变得普遍多了。其中的关键因素是钱。财政紧张的政府找到了一条促进投资的捷径,人们对移民方案的需求不断高涨,其中富有的中国人和俄罗斯人对这类项目的需求最为强劲。Websites help you pick the best golden visas, quite a few of them European. A growing number of banks, law firms and consultancies are dedicating staff to advising on the most efficient programmes for temporary or permanent residency and a new nationality. Some countries, meanwhile, are openly advertising citizenship.一些网站会帮助你挑选最好的黄金居留许可,其中不少是欧洲国家签发的。越来越多的、律师事务所和咨询公司指派专员,就获取暂时或永久居留权以及国籍的最高效项目提供建议。同时,一些国家则公开打出出售国籍的广告。In the past two years Portugal’s golden visa has been among the most successful. A minimum property investment of 500,000 allows you to live in the country for five years, travel to 25 others in Europe and apply for permanent residency.过去两年中,葡萄牙的黄金居留许可项目是此类项目中最成功的之一。最低只需投资50万欧元购置该国房产,就能获得该国5年的居留权,在此期间还可自由出入欧洲其他25个国家、并申请永久居留权。This week the glitter came off the Portuguese scheme when a police investigation led to a string of detentions, including the head of the border agency and a senior justice ministry official. Part of the investment, the police suspect, might have been lining officials’ pockets.最近,这一项目光鲜不再,在警方进行调查后,包括移民局局长和登记与公处主席在内的多人遭逮捕。警方怀疑,部分投资款项可能流入了这些官员自己的腰包。Sometimes scandals are useful, if only to remind us of the side effects of a rapidly expanding financial arrangement. Portugal’s investigation will increase scrutiny of these programmes, though it probably won’t stop abuses. There are plenty of reputable business people who need flexibility of travel and an insurance policy for the future. But dodgy clients, too, are attracted to the schemes.有时候,丑闻是有用的,即便这用处只是提醒我们注意一个快速发展的财务安排存在的负面效应。葡萄牙警方的调查会促使此类项目受到更严格的审查,尽管很可能还是无法消灭滥用职权现象。有许多有身份的商界人士,需要能够灵活地旅行、并对未来投保。但这些项目同样也引来了一些劣质的客户。Still, the Portuguese debacle could put a damper on a fast-growing industry. According to Christian Kalin of Henley amp; Partners, Switzerland, residence-by-investment programmes attract about bn a year in foreign direct investment; and citizenship by investment another bn. Both figures are increasing at 20 per cent a year.不过,葡萄牙的投资换居留项目丑闻,可能还是会给这个正在快速发展的产业浇一盆冷水。从事投资换居留权和国籍相关咨询业务的咨询公司Henley amp; Partners瑞士分部的克里斯蒂安#8226;卡林(Christian Kalin)表示,投资换居留权项目每年吸引50亿美元的外国直接投资(FDI),投资换国籍项目每年另外吸引20亿美元的投资。这两项数据均每年增长20%。There’s been so much interest in immigration alternatives that experts have established the Investment Migration Council, whose mandate is to promote the industry and set standards of transparency.人们对移民方案的兴趣如此浓厚,以至于业内专家们已经建立了投资移民理事会(Investment Migration Council),旨在推动行业发展,设立透明度标准。Dimitry Kochenov, who runs the IMC, was an adviser on the Malta citizenship programme, which I’m told is the one most favoured by industry specialists. Malta’s residency requirement is only one year, and the total price is less than 1.2m, part of it in an non-refundable contribution to the National Development and Social Fund. There are quicker options: a passport from the tiny Caribbean islands of St Kitts and Nevis, for example, can be acquired for a 0,000 property investment or just 0,000 in contribution to the sugar industry fund – and it doesn’t require recipients to spend any time in the country. Indeed, in May a US Treasury department alert warned financial institutions that some Iranians had been using St Kitts citizenship to circumvent sanctions.投资移民理事会主席季米特里#8226;科切诺夫(Dimitry Kochenov)是一名马耳他国籍项目顾问。据我所知,马耳他的国籍项目是最受业内专家们推崇的项目。马耳他只要求申请入籍者至少在该国住满1年,办理过程总花费不到120万欧元,其中包括给马耳他国家发展及社会基金(National Development and Social Fund)的捐款,部分捐款过后不可退还。还有更快的方案:比如,要想获得加勒比海岛国圣基茨和尼维斯(St Kitts and Nevis)的护照,你只需花40万美元投资该国房产,或者向糖业基金捐赠25万美元,并且完全无需在该国居住。事实上,5月份美国财政部的一个部门曾向金融机构发出警报,称有一些伊朗人在利用圣基茨的公民身份规避制裁。Professor Kochenov says he is promoting a concept, not the sale of citizenship. His argument is that there is no straightforward connection between citizenship and feelings towards a country. “There are of plenty of sceptics around the world#8201;.#8201;.#8201;.#8201;People say you can’t sell citizenship,” he says. “But there is a misunderstanding about citizenship. People think of it as a sentiment, not as a legal status.”科切诺夫教授表示,他推销的是理念,而不是国籍本身。他的观点是,国籍和对一个国家的情感没有直接联系。“世界各地有很多持怀疑态度的人……他们说你不能出售国籍,”他说,“但是对于国籍,人们存在误解。人们认为国籍代表一种情感,而不是一种法律地位。”Having spoken to the professor, I am still sceptical. Maybe I’m sentimental. A golden visa I might just about understand. But trading cash for citizenship in a country where you don’t intend to live, or even visit, is a step too far.在与这位教授谈话之后,我还是持怀疑态度。或许我太感性了。黄金居留许可我或许还差不多能理解。但用金钱换取一个你不打算去居住、甚至压根儿就不打算踏足的国家的国籍,在我看来就有点儿过头了。 /201412/346539(Reuters) - Ukraine#39;s protest leaders namedthe ministers they want to form a new government following the overthrow ofPresident Viktor Yanukovich, as an angry Russia put 150,000 troops on highalert in a show of strength.(路透社)——在推翻总统亚努科维奇后,乌克兰抗议领袖们任命新的部长来组成他们所想要的新政府,而愤怒的俄罗斯为了展示自己的实力而让15万军人处于警戒状态。*President Vladimir Putin#39;s order onWednesday for soldiers to be y for war games near Ukraine was the Kremlin#39;sboldest gesture yet after days of sabre rattling since its ally Yanukovich wasousted at the weekend.普京周三发布命令,要求士兵们做好在乌克兰附近进行战争的准备,这是其盟友亚努科维奇于周末被驱逐后,克林姆林宫所做出的最大胆举动。Moscow denied that the previouslyunannounced drill in its western military district was linked to events in itsneighbor but it came amid a series of increasingly strident statements aboutthe fate of Russian citizens and interests.莫斯科否认在其西部军事地区突然举行的军事演习与乌克兰发生的事件有关,但是在这期间,俄罗斯就在乌克兰的俄公民以及俄国家利益问题发表了一系列越来越刺耳的声明。U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry warnedMoscow that ;any kind of military intervention that would violate thesovereign territorial integrity of Ukraine would be a huge - a gravemistake;.美国国务卿克里警告莫斯科“任何违反乌克兰主权完整的军事介入都将是一个巨大且严重的错误”。 /201402/277817

Can China innovate its way out of a prolonged economic growth slowdown? Shaun Rein, managing director of the China Market Research Group, believes so. In his new book, “The End of Copycat China – The Rise of Creativity, Innovation and Individualism in Asia”, he argues that China will start innovating now because it has to – and that it didn’t before simply because it didn’t need to. That’s an interesting theory, but is he right?中国能否通过创新走出长期经济增长放缓的困境?中国市场研究集团(China Market Research)的董事总经理雷小山(Shaun Rein)相信可以。在他的新书《山寨中国的终结:亚洲创造力、创新力和个人主义的崛起》(The End of Copycat China – The Rise of Creativity, Innovation and Individualism in Asia)中,雷小山认为,中国如今将开启创新之路,因为它不得不如此,而过去之所以没这么做,也仅仅是因为还不需要。这是种有趣的理论,但他说得对吗?Rein first does battle with common perceptions that the Chinese political system or culture limits its ability to innovate. It’s not because China is a communist-led country with limited individual freedom, that it does not come up with corporate inventions, he says.It’s also wrong, he says, to think that Chinese are simply unable to innovate because of some perceived “Confucian conformity”, as academic Panos Mourdoukoutas argued in Forbes in 2012. For Rein, such an argument is historically incorrect, as even at the height of Confucianian influence, the country brought about huge innovations such as “gunpowder, multi-stage rockets and the compass”.雷小山先是反驳了中国政治体制或文化限制其创新能力的普遍看法。他称,中国企业没有创造力,并非因为中国是共产党领导、个人自由有限的国家。他表示,像学者普诺斯#8226;莫杜库塔斯(Panos Mourdoukoutas) 2012年在《福布斯》(Forbes)上的主张一样,认为中国无法创新只是因为一些人眼中的“尊孔”,也是不对的。对雷小山来说,如此说法从历史的角度来看是错误的,因为哪怕在孔子影响最盛之时,这个国家也出现了伟大的创新,比如“火药、多级火箭和指南针”。The real reason why we saw less innovation – and more imitation – emanating from China in recent decades, has simply been that this approach was best suited to the country’s economic reality until now.之所以我们看到中国最近几十年中释放出的创新力不足而模仿有余,真正的原因仅仅是这种方式最适合该国直至今日的经济状况。In a country where common products have often been under-supplied, there was little motivation to strive to create the most sophisticated technologies. Better not to reinvent the wheel; rather make as many wheels as cheaply as you can with the technology provided by those who invented it in the first place. That’s exactly what many Chinese companies did in the last few decades, whether in manufacturing washing machines, computers, mobile phones, or online marketplaces.在一个普通商品经常供应不足的国家,努力发展最先进技术的动机不足。最好不要重新发明车轮;而是采用最先发明车轮的人提供的技术,尽可能多地以低廉的成本来制造车轮。这正是很多中国企业在过去几十年里所做的,无论是制造洗衣机、电脑、手机,还是建立网上市场。It is not until the next phase of development that we would expect to see some innovation. As companies such as Haier, Lenovo, Xiaomi and Alibaba faced internal competition to their cheap and relatively straightforward products, they responded not by aspiring to the cutting edge of global technology, but by upgrading their existing technologies and producing them more efficiently.直到下一个发展阶段,我们才有望看见一些创新。如海尔(Haier)、联想(Lenovo)、小米(Xiaomi)和阿里巴巴(Alibaba)这类公司,在其廉价且相对简单的产品遭遇内部竞争时,他们过去的应对方式不是追求全球尖端技术,而是升级其现有技术,并更有效率地制造产品。Having won the battle to provide the most basic goods to domestic consumers, Chinese companies are now increasingly, and often for the first time, forced to turn to product innovation, Rein writes. They either have to start climbing the value chain abroad or in China, as the low hanging fruit of supplying basic goods has gone. They won’t fail. Why? Because they didn’t when faced with the previous challenges.雷小山在书中写道,在赢得向国内消费者提供最基本商品的战役后,如今中国企业越来越被迫——常常是首次——转向产品创新。由于供应基本商品这颗“低垂的果实”已经被采摘,这些企业不得不开始在中国或国外市场攀爬价值链。他们不会失败。为什么?因为他们在面对之前的挑战时从未失败过。As examples, Rein points to companies like Alibaba. Through its subsidiary, TMall, it made consumers trust small and even unknown sellers of branded goods online. Through AliPay, a third party online payments system that is equivalent to PayPal, it addressed China’s weak consumer protection environment by collecting personal details from vendors that allow them to be tracked down if they sell substandard products. It seemed to work; Alibaba raised .8bn in its recent debut on the US stock exchange.作为范例,雷小山提到了像阿里巴巴这样的公司。通过其子公司天猫(TMall),阿里巴巴让消费者信任在网上销售品牌商品的小商家,甚至是无人知晓的商家。通过付宝(AliPay),即相当于PayPal的第三方在线付系统,它以收集卖家个人信息的方式改善了中国脆弱的消费者保护环境,如果卖家销售未达标的商品,他们可被追查到底。这招似乎很管用;阿里巴巴在美国的券交易市场首次公开募股便完成了218亿美元的融资。Such cases – for which Rein gives a few more examples from companies such as Tencent, Huawei or Xiaomi – have to show that a communist or developing country background can be as fertile of a ground for innovation as any other. Indeed, the innovations Rein puts forward use the flaws of communist China to their advantage, rather than to be paralyzed by them.雷小山还列举了一些腾讯(Tencent)、华为(Huawei)和小米等公司的例子。这些案例都表明,共产主义也好,发展中国家背景也罢,同样可以为创新提供肥沃的土壤。事实上,雷小山所提出的创新范例,都是把共产主义中国的缺陷为己所用,而非受困其中。For sure, Rein is not alone in his view that Chinese companies are getting to the innovation phase. Consulting firm G this year put four Chinese companies (Lenovo, Xiami, Tencent and Huawei) in its annual list of the world’s most 50 innovative companies.毫无疑问,雷小山并不是唯一认为中国企业正步入创新阶段的人。今年,波士顿咨询集团(G)把4家中国企业(联想、小米、腾讯和华为)纳入其年度全球最具创新力的50家企业榜单。In the later chapters of his book Rein comes up with a number of fields in which we can expect to see Chinese innovation, such as health care, healthy living, or tourism. In each of the fields, Rein shows that with increasing demand from Chinese consumers, innovative solutions are likely.在该书的之后几个章节中,雷小山提出了一些我们有望看到中国创新的领域,比如医疗、保健或旅游。雷小山表明,在以上各个领域中,随着中国消费者的需求不断增长,都可能出现创新性方案。But are the examples of a handful of companies enough to prove the bigger picture? Or is innovation in China still the exception, rather than the rule? After being convinced by Rein’s appealing storyline in the first few chapters, the er is left wondering just that. While we are prepared to accept that some Chinese companies have innovated to a significant extent, we are less y to believe that this means that the longstanding habit of copying is dead, as the title of the book suggests.不过,少数几家企业的创新例子足以明全局吗?或者,中国的创新是否仍属个例,而非定式?在被雷小山最初几章中有趣的故事说后,读者就会思考这些问题。尽管我们准备好接受一些中国企业已大举创新的事实,但我们还不准备相信这意味着长期存在的模仿习惯已经像该书书名暗示的那样终结。Yet Rein’s is an intriguing book, with many interesting anecdotes, mini-case studies, and interviews. If you discount the author’s obvious self-interest in writing it (he is, after all, the founder of a consulting group helping Chinese and foreign companies succeed in the Chinese market), you will be pleasantly surprised by the author’s fluency, and the “teachable moments” that arise from his writings.话虽如此,雷小山的书中选入了很多有趣轶事、迷你案例研究和采访,确实引人入胜。如果不理会作者著书明显的私心的话(雷小山毕竟是一家帮助中国及外国企业取胜于中国市场的咨询集团的创始人),你将会惊喜于作者的雄辩之才,以及他笔下的“教学时间”。“The End of Copycat China – The Rise of Creativity, Innovation and Individualism in Asia”, (227p) by Shaun Rein, and published by Wiley, will be available as of November 14, 2014 in the UK for #163;15.39. It is aly on sale in the US (.00).《山寨中国的终结:亚洲创造力、创新力和个人主义的崛起》(227页),作者雷小山,约翰威立出版社(John Wiley),2014年11月14日起在英国上架,建议零售价15.39英镑。该书已在美国上架(定价25美元)。 /201412/348085

On Thursday, Wal-Mart seemed to be playing the part of a losing sports team looking to turn things around by ousting the head coach. The Bentonville, Arkansas-based retail giant announced that it had hired a new chief executive to oversee its struggling U.S. stores.上周四的沃尔玛(Wal-Mart)看起来就像是一输了比赛的球队:希望通过解雇总教练来扭转局面。这家总部位于阿肯色州本顿维尔的零售巨头宣布,已聘请一位新高管来执掌陷于困境的美国零售业务。Greg Foran, the current CEO of Walmart China, will take over Walmart U.S. for Bill Simon, who has held the position since 2010 and will be leaving the company. The moves comes nearly six months after Doug McMillon took over for a retiring Mike Duke as CEO of all of Wal-Mart.沃尔玛现任中国业务CEO高福澜(Greg Foran)正是这位人选,他将接替比尔o西蒙掌管沃尔玛美国业务。自2010年以来一直担任沃尔玛美国CEO的西蒙将离开这家公司。就在近6个月前,董明伦(Doug McMillon)刚刚接替退休的麦道克(Mike Duke)出任沃尔玛全球CEO。In many ways, you can think of Simon’s departure as a natural reaction from someone who has been passed over for the company’s top job. “We had considered Simon as a potential candidate to replace Walmart’s former CEO, Mike Duke, but Doug McMillon was given the nod over Simon,” according to a note from investor research firm Morningstar. “We aren’t completely surprised by Simon’s departure.”从很多角度,你可以认为,西蒙的离开是一个未能问鼎公司最高职位者的自然反应。“我们曾经将西蒙列为接替沃尔玛前CEO麦道克的潜在人选,但最终董明伦胜出。”晨星(Morningstar)的一份研究报告称,“对于西蒙的离职,我们一点也不感到惊讶。”Financial services firm Cowen and Company in its own release said that it was “surprised that [Simon] stuck around for so long, as we thought he would want to start the clock on his 2-year non-compete as quickly as possible.”金融务公司Cowen and Company在新闻稿中表示,“[西蒙]呆了这么久令人意外,我们原本以为他会尽快离职,尽早启动2年内不得务于竞争对手的倒计时。”Walmart Vice President of Communications David Tovar confirmed as much to Fortune. “Doug and Bill were two internal candidates for the top job. Doug got the job and, in those situations, it’s not uncommon for the person who didn’t get it to ultimately leave the company and go somewhere else.”沃尔玛企业传播副总裁大卫o托瓦尔也向《财富》(Fortune)杂志实称,“董明伦和西蒙是两位来自公司内部的CEO候选人。最终董明伦得到了这个职位。在此类情形下,未成功问鼎者最终离职他就的情况并不少见。”Wal-Mart, in its statement announcing the management change, praised Simon for leading a “turnaround that reinvigorated the company’s focus on everyday low costs, everyday low prices and an increased product assortment,” in his time as U.S. CEO.沃尔玛在宣布管理层变更的声明中,称赞西蒙在担任美国业务CEO期间“为公司注入了新的活力,专注于每日低成本、每日低价和增加产品种类。”Simon introduced the retail giant’s prescriptions, increased its focus on healthier foods, and led a successful makeover of its apparel department by shifting to more athletically inspired gear, says Faye Landes of Cowen and Company.Cowen and Company的法耶o兰蒂斯表示,西蒙推出了沃尔玛的4美元处方药,加大了对健康食品的关注,并通过增加运动装备成功重塑了装部门。But Simon’s track record at Wal-Mart has also been marred by struggling U.S. sales. “We know that our U.S. business is critical to the success of our company and that it can be even stronger,” McMillon said in a letter to Wal-Mart employees on Thursday. “[Foran] will bring fresh eyes to an increasingly competitive market that is changing rapidly.”但西蒙在沃尔玛的业绩也受到美国零售业整体不景气的影响。“我们知道,美国业务对于公司的成功至关重要,它可以变得更强,”董明伦在上周四发给沃尔玛员工的信中表示。“[高福澜]将为瞬息万变、竞争日益激烈的市场带来新视角。”That’s a nice way of putting it.这样的陈述很是委婉。Foran faces a daunting challenge. The company’s latest quarterly earnings revealed the fifth straight decline in U.S. sales, which factored into the retailer’s 5% drop in profits for the quarter ending April 30.高福澜面临的其实是非常棘手的挑战。沃尔玛最近的季度报告显示,公司美国销售额连续第5个季度下滑,截至4月30日的季度利润下降了5%。Competition from online retailers like Amazon.com and evolving shopping patterns among Americans—who are now making more frequent trips to dollar and drug stores—are partly to blame for the slumping sales. Tovar, Wal-Mart’s spokesman, told Fortune on Thursday, that Foran will continue the store’s ongoing strategy to address those concerns: opening smaller, 10,000 to 40,000 square-foot stores like Walmart Express and Neighborhood Markets and further embracing e-commerce.来自亚马逊(Amazon.com)等网络零售商的竞争以及购物模式的转变(美国人正在更加频繁地光顾1元店和药店),都造成了零售额的下降。沃尔玛发言人托瓦尔上周四告诉《财富》杂志称,高福澜将继续实施现有策略来应对这些挑战:开设沃尔玛便利店(Walmart Express)和社区店(Neighborhood Markets)等规模较小的超市(面积1-4万平方英尺),进一步拥抱电子商务。Burt Flickinger, a retail consultant at Strategic Resource Group, for his part, attributed Wal-Mart’s poor U.S. performance in the past several quarters to “self-sabotage,” mainly its decision to cut worker hours and its well-publicized refusal to significantly raise workers wages—two big reasons why Flinckinger says Wal-Mart’s stores are increasingly sloppy and sparsely stocked. (Last year, Wal-Mart launched a program aimed at giving workers more access to open shifts.)Strategic Resource Group的零售业顾问波特o弗里金格,将沃尔玛美国业务过去几个季度的表现疲弱归咎于“自毁前程”,主要是指该公司决定缩减工作时间以及其广为人知的拒绝大幅上调员工工资——弗里金格认为,这是沃尔玛门店变得日益杂乱和存货不足的两个主要原因。(去年,沃尔玛推出了一项旨在提供开放调班的计划。)Underlying all of these factors is one that’s completely out of any CEO’s control: “A lot of [the declining U.S. sales] has to do, quite simply, with the fact that [Walmart#39;s] business is skewed to the lower-end consumer, and that consumer is still hurting,” says Landes.所有这些背后是一个完全不为CEO掌控的因素:“[美国销售额下降]很大程度上与[沃尔玛]业务偏于低端消费者有关,这些消费者仍未恢复元气,”兰德斯说。Indeed. According to a 2013 study from economists Emmanuel Saez and Thomas Piketty, the top 1% of Americans earned more than one-fifth of all the income earned by Americans in 2012. And for the first two years of the recovery, the mean net worth of households in the wealthiest 7% rose by an estimated 28%, while the mean net worth of households in the lower 93% dropped by 4%, according to the Pew Research Center. These trends have made a dent into consumer confidence: the majority of Americans did not report feeling good about the amount of money they had to spend until their income reached the ,000-a-year mark, according to a Gallup poll conducted last year.的确如此。经济学家伊曼纽尔o塞斯和托马斯o皮凯蒂2013年的一项研究显示,美国最富有的1%人群收入,占2012年全体美国人收入的五分之一还多。根据皮尤研究中心(Pew Research Center)的数据,在经济复苏的前两年,最富有7%的家庭净资产均值预计增长了28%,而剩余93%的家庭净资产均值下降了4%。这些趋势已损伤到消费者信心:盖洛普(Gallup)去年进行的一项调查显示,大部分美国人在年收入达到6万美元之前,对于必要出都感觉肉痛。Low-earning customers are still “buying less discretionary items,” says Lande, and they’re resorting to cost-saving tactics when purchasing goods they must have, like “trading down from beef to poultry.”低收入消费者仍在“减少购买非必需品”,兰德斯说,即使在购买必需品时也会考虑节省出,比如“买牛肉改为买猪肉”。And don’t think Wal-Mart hasn’t noticed. “Fundamental dynamics haven’t changed, and household incomes are still flat,” Simon said during the retailer’s earnings call in May. “As we head toward the political season and rhetoric heats up, it will continue to challenge consumer confidence.”不要以为沃尔玛没注意到。“基本面因素没有改变,家庭收入依然平平,”西蒙5月份在沃尔玛的业绩电话会议上表示。“随着选举季临近,各种言论升温,它会继续挑战消费者信心。”Does that mean that Wal-Mart’s chances for a U.S. sales rebound are nil, save for a full economic recovery? Not necessarily, mainly because the company has a perpetual advantage: its 4,200 U.S. stores still move enough goods to offer customers competitive prices, says Ken Perkins of Morningstar.这意味着如果美国不出现全面的经济复苏,沃尔玛要实现销售额反弹的概率为零?不一定,主要是因为沃尔玛有一个常年的优势:晨星的肯o波金斯表示,其4,200家美国门店仍在运送足够的商品,为消费者提供有竞争力的价格。For that same reason, though, a turnaround won’t be easy. With that big an operation running on such small margins, it’s difficult to generate sales growth. Losing a sale or customer here or there can make a noticeable difference, Perkins says. “It’s hard to move a ship the size of Wal-Mart in the right direction,” he said.但要基于这个理由实现反弹并不容易。以这样低的利润率经营这样大规模的业务,要实现销售额增长很难。从这里或那里流失一笔销售或一个顾客,都可能产生显著的不同,波金斯表示,“要让沃尔玛这样规模的旗舰保持正确的方向航行很难。” /201407/316161Tumbling oil prices have long been seen as kryptonite for clean energy companies — and share prices of some of the world’s best known renewable power groups have slumped in the wake of the latest slide in crude.油价暴跌一向被视为清洁能源企业的克星。近期原油价格大幅下滑,一些世界最知名的可再生能源集团的股价也随之猛跌。Shares in Denmark’s Vestas, the world’s largest wind turbine supplier, dived after the oil producers’ cartel Opec decided not to cut production in late November and prices are still down 11 per cent, noticeably below the broader market.11月末石油输出国组织(Opec,简称欧佩克)决定不减产后,丹麦维斯塔斯公司(Vestas)的股价应声暴跌——目前跌幅仍达11%,明显逊于整体股市表现。维斯塔斯是全球最大的风力涡轮发电机供应商。The Chinese solar panel giant, Yingli Green Energy, and Tesla Motors, the US electric carmaker, have suffered even sharper share price falls. Crude’s surprise rise of a barrel to .40 on Wednesday did little to halt the decline.还有两只股票跌幅更大,中国太阳能电池板巨头英利绿色能源(Yingli Green Energy)和美国电动汽车制造商特斯拉汽车(Tesla Motors)。即使周三原油价格意外回涨3美元,至63.4美元每桶,也未能遏制这两家公司股票的跌势。Even before Opec’s move, lower oil prices appeared to be hitting hybrid cars in the US, where sales were down 11 per cent in November compared with the same month last year. Sales of some models of fuel-hungry sports utility vehicles, meanwhile, were as much as 91 per cent higher last month than a year ago.在欧佩克做出不减产决定之前,油价下跌似乎就已经开始冲击美国混合动力车市场。11月美国混合动力车销量同比下降11%。同时,一些耗油量大的运动型多功能车(SUV)销量同比上升了91%。That trend may not be so pronounced in other industrialised countries where taxes make up a bigger component of pump prices than they do in the US. And some analysts say the market has overreacted when it comes to wind and solar companies.这种趋势在其他发达国家或许不那么明显,因为与美国相比,这些国家的成品油零售价中税项所占的比例较大。一些分析人士称,对于风能、太阳能相关企业,市场反应过度了。However, there is still a large question about how a prolonged period of low crude prices might affect global investment in clean energy, which has climbed from bn in 2004 to about 1bn last year.然而,一个更大的问题是,假如原油价格长期处于低位,全球范围内的清洁能源投资会受到什么影响?此类投资已经从2004年的600亿美元攀升至2013年的2510亿美元。A large chunk of that investment has been powered by the growth of renewable energy subsidies and analysts say a sustained bout of cheap oil dents the arguments many governments make that consumers are better off funding renewables because fossil fuel prices are likely to rise while wind and solar prices fall.可再生能源补贴的增长带动了很大一部分清洁能源投资。分析人士表示,原油价格持续低企会削弱许多政府的以下论点,即投资发展可再生能源会让消费者享受更多实惠,因为化石能源价格可能会升高,而风能和太阳能价格会降低。“Much policy in recent years has been justified on the basis of scarce hydrocarbons and continually rising prices of said hydrocarbons,” said Ian Temperton of Climate Change Capital, a green investment specialist owned by Bunge, the global agribusiness.“近年来许多政策的依据都是烃类能源的稀缺性,以及这类能源持续走高的价格趋势,”跨国农业集团邦吉(Bunge)旗下绿色投资企业——气候变化资本(Climate Change Capital)的伊恩#8226;坦珀顿(Ian Temperton)说。This argument may have to be adjusted even if the latest oil-price rout eases, he says, because if governments end up taking tougher action on global warming, such as the international climate deal to be sealed in Paris next year, it may dampen fossil fuel use.坦珀顿表示,即使最近的油价崩盘有所好转,这种论点或许也需要调整,因为如果政府最终对全球变暖采取更大力度的行动,比如计划明年在巴黎签署的国际气候协议,这些行动或许会抑制化石能源的使用。“Policy makers will have to come to terms with the fact that if the plan is to stop using hydrocarbons before we run out of them, then they will go into oversupply and their price will fall in the long term,” said Mr Temperton.“政策制定者必须接受以下事实,如果相关计划是在我们逐渐用完烃类能源前停止使用此类能源,那么烃类能源将供过于求,其价格在长期来看将下降,”坦珀顿说。For the moment, it is still too early to be able to discern a meaningful impact on renewable investment trends from falling oil prices. But at first glance, history suggests the impact could be serious.就目前来说,要辨明油价下跌对可再生能源投资是否有实质性影响,还为时过早。但若是根据历史情况初步判断,这种影响可能会十分严重。A jump in crude prices during the 1970s Arab oil embargo prompted what looked like a new age of green energy, not least in the US.20世纪70年代阿拉伯国家石油禁运导致原油价格飙涨,使美国等国家迎来了绿色能源的新纪元。Solar panels went up on the roof of the White House then occupied by President Jimmy Carter, while a raft of energy conservation measures were launched and insulation rates rose.时任美国总统吉米#8226;卡特(Jimmy Carter)在白宫屋顶安装了太阳能电池板,同时政府推出了许多节能措施,绝热率也上升了。As oil prices came down, however, so did the White House solar panels, under President Ronald Reagan, along with investment in a nascent wind and solar industry. Sales of gas-guzzling vehicles, on the other hand, climbed.然而,当油价降了下来,白宫屋顶的太阳能电池板也在总统罗纳德#8226;里根(Ronald Reagan)任内被拆除,对新兴的风能和太阳能产业的投资也随之下降。同时,高油耗汽车的销量则提高了。Today, however, a new driver of clean energy investment has emerged in the shape of global warming concerns. This was not the case last century, when worries centred on too heavy a reliance on foreign oil imports.现在,全球对气候变暖的担忧成为了带动清洁能源投资的新动力。而在上世纪,情况并非如此,当时的忧虑主要集中在对外国原油进口的过分依赖上。“Back then the prospect of climate change barely registered as a policy concern,” said Maria van der Hoeven, executive director of the International Energy Agency. “Today we know otherwise,” she said, adding that governments should take advantage of the latest oil price slump to encourage more low-carbon investment, by eliminating fossil fuel subsidies and putting a meaningful price on carbon.“那时,气候变化的前景几乎未被纳入政策制定的关注范畴,”国际能源署(International Energy Agency)总干事玛丽亚#8226;范德胡芬(Maria van der Hoeven)称,“如今我们知道情况不同了。”她补充道,各国政府应该利用这次油价下跌的机会,通过取消化石能源补贴以及制定合理碳税,鼓励增加对低碳产业的投资。There are now more than 480 climate change laws in countries around the world, up from fewer than 40 in 1997, according to Globe International, a legislator body that annually assesses laws to combat global warming.根据Globe International的数据,目前世界各国共有超过480部有关气候变化的法律,而1997年不足40部。该机构是每年对抵御全球变暖的法律进行评估的立法者团体。That includes those subsidies for wind farms and solar plants that have pushed up green-energy use worldwide, especially in countries such as Germany, Europe’s largest economy, where renewables now account for as much as a quarter of the electricity used.其中包含一些向风力发电厂和太阳能发电厂提供补贴的措施。正是这两类发电厂推动了绿色能源在全球范围的应用,特别是在欧洲最大经济体德国,可再生能源如今为德国供给1/4的电力。That support — plus the fact that the use of oil-fired power plants has declined sharply in many countries — is one reason analysts say share market slides in some renewables companies may be overblown.这种持措施,再加上很多国家的燃油发电站急剧减少的情况,是分析师认为一些可再生能源股已经跌得过多的一个原因。“The conventional wisdom is that if oil prices go down, then it drags down power prices and makes wind and solar look more expensive,” said Credit Suisse analyst Mark Freshney. The correlation is a lot more complicated now, he says. “But I think there is still a perception in the market that the link exists.”瑞信(Credit Suisse)分析师马克#8226;弗雷谢尼(Mark Freshney)称:“传统观点认为,如果油价下滑,便会拉低电价,使风能和太阳能显得更贵。”他称,这种关联如今变得复杂得多。“不过,我觉得市场中仍然有人认为存在这种关联。”Some parts of the clean energy industry, such as biofuels, may face a greater risk from cheap oil. But analysts say the broader investment outlook is uncertain.清洁能源产业中的个别领域,比如生物能源,遭受低油价冲击的风险可能更大。不过分析师称,整体产业投资前景目前尚不明朗。“We do not expect a lot of impact unless the oil price falls significantly further and stays at those lower levels,” says Angus McCrone of Bloomberg New Energy Finance, a research group.“我们不认为会产生很大影响,除非油价进一步急剧下跌并维持在较低水平,”彭新能源财经(Bloomberg New Energy Finance)的分析师安格斯#8226;麦克龙(Angus McCrone)称。Even in regions where oil prices are linked to some gas contracts, such as Europe, it is difficult to see a short term impact on renewables, he says.麦克龙称,即使在油价与天然气合约存在关联的地区,比如欧洲,也不太可能看到油价对可再生能源形成短期冲击。“Weaker gas prices in Europe could give utilities a reason to burn more gas and less coal,” says Mr McCrone. “But there is no reason at the moment to expect an impact on wind and solar investment,” he says, because investment decisions are driven largely by national incentive schemes.“欧洲天然气价下跌,可能给公共事业部门提供一个燃烧更多天然气、减少使用煤炭的理由,”麦卡龙称,“但是,目前没有理由认为这会对风能和太阳能投资造成冲击。”他称,这是因为相关投资决定很大程度上是受国家激励计划的驱动。“The chances of early policy changes are slim, since no country would base its strategy for the future power mix on short-term movements in the spot price of gas,” he said.他称:“初期发生政策变动的几率不大,因为没有国家会把未来能源构成战略建立在天然气现货价格的短期波动上。”A shift in the way electricity is generated since the days of the Arab oil embargo is also important, say some wind industry leaders.风电行业的重量级人物称,自阿拉伯石油禁运时代之后发电方式的转变,也是一个重要因素。“We don’t compete with oil,” said Steve Sawyer, secretary-general of the Global Wind Energy Council.全球风能理事会(Global Wind Energy Council)秘书长史蒂夫#8226;索耶(Steve Sawyer)表示:“我们不与石油竞争。”“Twenty-five years ago there was a substantial amount of electricity generated by oil, but not now,” he said, adding the cost of wind power had declined so much that even with crude at a barrel, wind farms could be competitive with the diesel generation still used in some developing countries and island states.“25年前,石油发电量相当大,但现在不一样,”索耶补充称,风力发电的成本已经大为降低,即便原油价格降到每桶30美元,风力发电厂仍然可以与柴油发电(一些发展中国家和岛国仍然使用这种发电方式)竞争。 /201412/350067

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