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The asset-quality review资产质量审查Gentlemen, start your audits先生们,开始审计吧Close scrutiny of Europe’s banks may turn up unexpected shortfalls对欧洲的密切关注可能会变成意外的资金短缺Oct 5th 2013 |From the print editionTHE ink on the agreements that will hand supervision of the euro area’s biggest banks to the European Central Bank (ECB) is barely dry. Yet the ECB is aly enmeshed in squabbles with national banking supervisors over the extent of its powers and the rigour with which it will undertake its first big task, a warts-and-all review of the balance-sheets of the banks it will take charge of in a year’s time.欧元区刚刚敲定将欧元区的监管权交给欧洲最大的欧洲中央的协议。然而,欧洲央行已经卷入与国家监管机构的争吵之中,争吵围绕其权利范围以及其承担第一大任务之严格。其将会在一年时间里审查所有的资产负债表。Details over how the ECB will conduct this asset-quality review (AQR) will probably be released in the second half of October, but the outlines are aly beginning to emerge. The main aim of the review is to ensure that the ECB is not embarrassed by the revelation of holes in the balance-sheets of its new charges. Fresh in its mind is the example of the European Banking Authority (EBA), a young European regulator that lost much of its credibility after the collapse of banks that had passed its stress tests only months earlier.虽然关于欧洲央行如何进行资产质量审查的详细细节可能会在十月下半月公布,但是大体状况已经开始初现端倪了。这次审查的主要目的是确保欧洲央行新接管的这些的资产负债表的缺口不会让其尴尬。欧洲的例子还让人记忆犹新,这个年轻的欧洲监管机构由于通过其压力测试的纷纷崩溃而在几个月前失去了公信力。To avoid that danger the ECB is emphasising that the AQR is not a stress test, which would simulate the effect of various economic scenarios on banks’ balance-sheets. Instead it is doing a preliminary examination to ensure that it understands what is on banks’ books in the first place. National regulators fret that they will be embarrassed by what it finds. This has prompted some to push back hard to limit the scope of the ECB’s inquiries.为了避免上述危险,欧洲央行强调资产质量审查不是一次压力测试,模拟各种经济情况对资产负债表的影响。取而代之的是,它会做一次初步检查确保其会在第一时间了解的状况。国家监管机构担心他们会对央行的发现感到尴尬。这已经促使一些人强硬地限制了欧洲央行查询范围。Surprisingly, this resistance is not coming from countries on Europe’s periphery such as Spain (see article), which have much to gain from the imprimatur of ECB supervision. Rather it is coming from core countries such as France and, to a lesser extent, Germany, where seemingly well-capitalised banks may come out of the asset review looking thbare.令人惊讶的是,这种阻力不是来自诸如西班牙的欧洲国家,西班牙很需要欧洲央行监管的首肯。相反,这种阻力是来自法国等核心国家,还有德国的反对,只不过程度稍轻。这些国家看似资金充裕的可能会出现难看的资产审查结果。One issue is the “risk weighting” of assets, a process by which banks adjust the size of their capital buffer to account for the riskiness of their lending. Studies by both the Basel Committee, a club of central bankers and supervisors, and the EBA have found wide and unjustifiable variations in the way banks risk-weight their assets, even when asked to do so for identical hypothetical portfolios. The consequences of such variations can be significant. If the euro area’s biggest banks were forced to abandon their internal risk-weighting models and instead apply cruder standardised models, many would see their core-capital ratios decline by several percentage points (see chart). The ECB is likely to push for greater consistency in risk weighting, which could force banks in France, Germany and elsewhere to raise capital.其中一个问题是资产的风险加权,通过风险加权,可以调整资本缓冲规模冲抵其贷款风险。央行行长和监事俱乐部巴塞尔委员会和欧洲的研究发现中广泛存在各种不合理的资产风险权重方式,甚至是为了相同的假设投资组合。这些方式的后果是严重的。如果欧元区最大的被迫放弃他们内部的风险权重模型,许多会发现它们的核心资本比率下降几个百分点(见表)。欧洲央行很可能会推行更大规模统一的风险权重,会迫使法国德国以及欧洲其他地方的筹集资金。Informed observers also expect the ECB to find evidence of “regulatory forbearance” in these markets, whereby supervisors have allowed banks to fudge the level of non-performing loans on their books, restructuring loans and easing repayment terms instead of taking write-downs. Adjusting for this could also open up capital holes. A process devised by Germany and France to shore up confidence in weak banks on Europe’s periphery may end up hitting a quite unexpected target.消息灵通的观察家同时预计欧洲央行将找到在这些市场“监管纵容”的据,在这些市场,监管机构允许在资产负债表上对不良贷款程度作假,重组贷款,延长还款期,而不是采取减记。对此作出调整可能会导致资金缺口。由法国德国设计的提振欧洲国家信心的方法可能会以击中一个意想不到的目标而告终。 /201310/259548

In books and movies like Call of the Wild, huge, vicious huskies pull sleds for hundreds of miles over the Alaskan tundra. A Moment of Science wonders, what kind of dogs are sled dogs?在书里或者在像《野性的呼唤》之类的电影里,巨型凶猛的哈士奇在阿拉斯加的冻原上可驰骋数百英里。《科学一刻》栏目想知道,到底什么样的是雪橇呢?Most champion sled dogs are not pure husky: in fact, the “Alaskan Husky” isn’t really a breed at all: it’s a mix of various breeds. Although not pure bred, every sled dog must be carefully bred for life on the trail.大多数冠军雪橇都不是纯种哈士奇:事实上,所谓的“阿拉斯加哈士奇”根本就不是一个品种,而是由多个品种杂交而成。尽管并非纯种,每条雪橇在其拉雪橇的生涯中都需精心喂养。The dogs need heavy coats to protect them from the cold, and tough feet to prevent injuries. Unlike the tough dogs in the movies, dogs with softer feet wear booties when they run.们需穿戴厚重的保暖以免受寒,以及拥有强健的足部以防止受伤。与电影里面强壮的不同, 足部柔软的在奔跑时会穿上短靴。The dogs also need compact bodies to maximize endurance. The sled dogs’ remarkable endurance is thanks to their large heart-to-body ratio, and their ability to carry oxygen from the lungs to the muscles, which is about three times that of a human being们需要结实的身躯以使自身耐力最大化。雪橇耐力持久,主要是因为它们的心脏对比其身体而言相当之大,并且它们将肺部的氧气供给给肌肉的能力是人类的三倍。On film, large dogs seem powerful, but their size decreases their ability to use oxygen efficiently. In competitive dog-sledding, dogs usually weigh less than 55 pounds and can comfortably trot over 70 miles a day.在电影里,体型巨大的看起来很强壮,而事实上它们的体型弱化了它们利用氧气的能力。在雪橇竞技当中,通常体重在55磅以下的每天能够轻松地慢跑70英里。A sled dog also needs the right temperament. They must love running and be sociable and obedient. Like wild dogs, each team has a hierarchy, but the dogs struggle for position by taking aggressive or submissive postures such as squealing and rolling. Real dogfights are rare because the dogs are carefully introduced and trained before going out on the trail.雪橇需性情温和。他们必须热爱奔跑,温顺友好。正如野一样,每个群都有头,但是们通过极具侵略性的长吠或者表达顺从的滚地等动作来获取位置。们混战的机率较小,因为在进入雪橇队之前他们就已经受到了良好的引导和训练。The careful crossing of northern dogs, like Malamutes, with southern breeds like Greyhounds produces dogs with the right stuff to be sled dogs.北方的爱斯基与南方品种如长腿猎等交配得当,那么他们的后代将具备成为雪橇的优良基因。 /201306/245609

Business商业报道Schumpeter熊彼特Bringing home the bacon将培根带回家Tiny Denmark is an agricultural superpower小国丹麦是农业超级霸主EVERY weekday 20,000 pigs are delivered to the Danish Crown companys slaughterhouse in Horsens, in central Denmark.在每一个工作日里,2万只猪将被送入丹麦科王公司位于丹麦中部的霍尔森斯的屠宰场中。They trot into the stunning room, guided by workers armed with giant fly swats.他们受到持着巨型苍蝇拍的工人们驱赶,快步地跑进那令人震撼无比的房间中去。They are hung upside down, divided in two, shaved of their bristles and scalded clean.在那儿,他们被倒挂起来,一分为二,接着被刮去身上的猪鬃,再以白灼的方法清理干净。A machine cuts them into pieces, which are then cooled, boned and packed.一部机器将他们分割成块,进而冷却、去骨和包装起来。The slaughterhouse is enormous, ten football pitches long with 11km of conveyor belts.该公司的屠宰场巨大无比,约有十个足球场的长度,配有11公里长的传送带。Its managers attend to the tiniest detail.它的管理者们关注到了最微小的细节。The fly-swatting workers wear green rather than white because this puts the pigs in a better mood.由于绿色能使猪处于较好的心情,所以,驱赶猪群的工人们均着绿色装而不是白色。The cutting machine photographs a carcass before adjusting its blades to its exact contours.切割机器会事先对畜体进行摄像,再以它真实的轮廓形态去调整刀片。The company calibrates not only how to carve the flesh, but also where the various parts will fetch the highest prices: the bacon goes to Britain and the trotters to China.另外,公司调整的不仅仅是对肉的处理方法,同时也对应调整了不同的部分所能卖出的最高价格销售之地:培根运往英国,而猪蹄运往中国。Denmark is a tiny country, with 5.6m people and wallet-draining labour costs.丹麦是一个拥有560万人口,且劳动力成本极高的小国。But it is an agricultural giant, home to 30m pigs and a quiverful of global brands.但她却是一个农业大国,在拥有3000万头猪之余,世界上闻名遐迩的农业品牌也聚集于此。In 2011 farm products made up 20% of its goods exports.在2011年,其农产品出口占总出口的百分之二十。The value of food exports grew from 4 billion in 2001 to 16.1 billion in 2011.食品出口贸易由2001年的400亿欧元上升至2011年的1610亿欧元。The government expects it to rise by a further 6.7 billion by 2020.截止至2020年,丹麦政府预期将会有更进一步的670亿欧元的增长。Why, in a post-industrial economy, is the food industry still thriving?在一个后工业化的经济体里,为何食品产业仍在蓬勃发展?Much of the answer lies in a cluster in the central region of the country.大部分可从国家中央区域的产业群中找得出。Policymakers everywhere are obsessed by creating their own Silicon Valleys.不管是何处的政策制定者,都渴望于建立属于他们自己的硅谷。But Denmarks example suggests that the logic of clustering can be applied as well to ancient industries as to new ones.但丹麦的例子展现出集群效应不仅对新产业,而对传统产业来说也同样适用。In central Denmark just as in California, innovation is in the air, improving productivity is a way of life, and the whole is much greater than the sum of the parts.在丹麦中央区就像在加州一样,空气中弥漫着创新的味道,改进生产率已是一种生活方式,而整体之和远比部分之和大。Entrepreneurs see the future in meat and milk.企业家们在肉和牛奶中看到了前景。The cluster includes several big companies, which act as its leading investors: Danish Crown, Arla, Rose Poultry and DuPont Danisco.这片产业群中,包含了几个作为主要投资者的大公司:丹麦科王、爱氏晨曦、Rose Poultry、杜邦丹尼斯克。Plenty of smaller firms are also sprouting, which act as indicators of nascent trends and incubators of new ideas.与此同时,大量的小型企业也在发展起步阶段。他们不仅是行业新趋势的引路明灯,还是创新理念的萌生之处。Though the food industry, capital-intensive and tightly regulated, is rarely rich soil for entrepreneurs, in Denmark it is fertile.因为资本密集和受到严格规管的特点,食品产业往往并不是企业家们的乐土,但是,在丹麦,这一行发展的条件却截然不同。Several young companies are making information-technology tools for different bits of the business:一些新近成立的公司,正在为不同的业务发展相对应的信息科技工具。LetFarm for fields, Bovisoft for stables, AgroSoft for pigs, Webstech for grain.LetFarm对应着土地资源管理, Bovisoft对应着牛棚管理, AgroSoft对应着猪的管理, Webstech对应着谷物的处理。ISI Food Protection focuses on dealing with organisms that spoil food or sp poisoning.ISI食品保护系统专注于处理会导致食品腐坏传播毒素的微生物。InOMEGA3 specialises in food ingredients containing Omega-3 fatty acids, which are credited with various health-giving powers.InOMEGA3则专注于食品原料中包含了Omega-3脂肪酸,而这被认为与多种不同的有益健康的因素相关。Soy4you,develops alternatives to meat products.Soy4you,则发展成为了肉类产品的替代品。The cluster also has a collection of productivity-spurring institutions such as the Danish Cattle Research Centre and the Knowledge Centre for Agriculture.产业群中也有一批致力于促进生产力的机构,比如丹麦牛类研究中心和农业知识中心等等。Danish universities remain at the forefront of the agro-industry: at Danish Technical University 1,500 people work on food-related subjects.丹麦的大学仍保持了在农用工业的方面的前沿:在丹麦技术大学,有1500人研究与食品相关的学科。A tradition of public-private partnerships, which began with farmers forming co-operatives to improve production and marketing in the late 19th century, continues to flourish.在十九世纪末,从旨在通过农民组织合作来优化生产与市场销售的公私合作开始,这样的传统如今仍在持续地蓬勃发展中。An Agro Food Park near Aarhus, backed by the industry and the regional government, is nearing completion.靠近奥胡斯的一个农业食品产业园区,在行业与地方政府的持下,已接近完工。It employs 800 people aly and is expected to have 3,000 staff by 2020.目前园区内已经雇佣了800名员工,同时预计到2020年为止将拥有3000名员工。The Cattle Research Centre, for example, demonstrates that there are dozens of ways to boost bovine productivity.例如,牛类研究中心表明他们有许多方法来提高牛的生产力。Robots can do everything from milking cows to keeping them washed and brushed to mucking out their living quarters.机器人可以做到从挤牛奶、让奶牛们保持清洁到将粪便清理出他们的生活区。The milking robot can also act as a lab in the farm by analysing the milk for signs of health problems.挤奶机器人也可以作为一个位于农场的实验室,即通过分析牛奶的成分,进而作为健康问题的反映。Microchips can keep an eye on cows behaviour. Carefully screened Viking semen can improve the quality of the stock.微芯片能够保持着对牛只行为的监控。仔细筛选过的维京可以提高牛类血统的质量。The word on everyones lips is innovation.挂在每个人嘴边的词都是创新。Big companies are building centres to develop new products.大公司正在建立新的中心以开发新的产品。Arla is spending 36m on one in the Agro Food Park.爱氏晨曦花费了3600万欧元在它位于农业食品产业园区的中心。DuPonts centre in Aarhus is part of a global network with branches in America, Australia and China.杜邦公司在奥胡斯的中心则是它囊括着美国、澳洲、中国分的全球网络的一部分。They are also abandoning their insular ways, collaborating with startups and sponsoring food festivals and star chefs.他们也放弃了原本狭隘的方式,开始与初创的新公司合作,以及赞助美食节和明星厨师。Universities are adding departments: Aarhus now has a centre devoted to consumer behaviour in regard to food and DTU is focusing on bio-silicon—applying IT to food.大学们正在增加各项部门:奥胡斯的一个研发中心致力于研究关于食品方面的消费者行为;而DTU专注于生物硅---一项将IT技术应用于食物产业的尝试。Land of milk and honey-roast ham牛奶与火腿之地If all this spending on innovation is to pay off and Denmarks food industry is to continue to thrive, the countrys farmers will have to overcome formidable challenges at home and abroad.为了确保投入到创新研发中的一切花费都有所回报,同样地,为了确保丹麦的食品产业能够持续繁荣,当地的农民们必须克来自国内来的巨大挑战。Among the Danish public, distaste for factory farming is increasing. Borgen, a popular television political drama, devoted an entire episode to criticising pig farming.在国内,一股对工厂化农耕的厌恶正在持续升温。Demand is shifting from the European Union, which consumes more than 60% of Denmarks food exports, to emerging countries, some of which are becoming agricultural powers in their own right.一档十分受欢迎的政治类电视剧《权利的堡垒》,曾用了整整一集来批判养猪业。而国外的需求正从占食品出口交易量达60%的欧盟向新兴国家转移。在这些新兴国家中,有一部正凭借自身的实力发展成农业强国。Growing pressure on natural resources such as water and feedstock could render some of the industry unsustainable.像水源和种子库存短缺等等的资源问题,令行业压力持续增加,并可能致使产业中部分环节难以为继。Against that, food is a growing industry: demand is set to rise by 60% by 2030, and Denmarks food cluster is as well placed as any to benefit.虽然如此,食品产业仍拥有良好的发展前景:到2030年为止,需求将增长60%;丹麦的食品产业群会处于优势地位,进而盈利。Its companies have lots of expertise in food safety, for example: China has identified Denmark as a model.食品公司们有很多食品安全方面的专业技术,比如,中国目前已确定了将丹麦作为其模板来发展。Danish firms are thriving at the high as well as the low end of the business:丹麦的公司们正在积极发展着从高到低的各项业务:Noma, a celebrated restaurant in Copenhagen, has helped to create a cult of Nordic food, including pigs tails, supplied by Danish Crown.一家位于哥本哈根的著名餐馆Noma,帮助创作完成了一批北欧风味的食物,包括由丹麦科王公司提供的猪尾巴。Above all, perhaps, Danes are remarkably hard-headed about making money out of blood and soil: the Danish Crown slaughterhouse organises regular tours for visitors, including schoolchildren, with views of the killing line.总而言之,或许,丹麦人对于从鲜血与土壤中赚钱表现得异常冷静:丹麦科王公司的屠宰场会定期组织游客团对他们的屠宰生产线进行参观,而游客中还包括学生。 201401/272298

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