当前位置:黑龙江地方站首页 > 龙江新闻 > 正文


2019年12月14日 19:34:49    日报  参与评论()人

泉州美容手术泉州红蓝光祛痘多少钱SANTA CRUZ, Calif. — Andrea Nguyen, who writes cookbooks for a living, knows that making pho in a pressure cooker is not the solution to California’s drought. Still, developing a reasonable version of the Vietnamese noodle soup that can be made in less than an hour, with half the water, matters to her these days.加利福尼亚,圣塔克鲁兹——安德莉亚·阮(Andrea Nguyen)以撰写食谱为生,她知道,在加州干旱期间,用高压锅煮炖越南粉不是什么好选择。不过,一碗半是汤水的美味越南汤面也可以在不到一个小时就做好,这段时间她经常做。“We’re all trying to do what we can,” she said. “It’s all about consciousness.”“我们都在努力,”她说,“这和观念有关。”Across California, home cooks and restaurant chefs are adjusting to a new reality in kitchens where water once flowed freely over sinks full of vegetables, and no one thought twice about firing up a big pot of water for pasta.在加州,家庭厨师和餐馆大厨开始适应新的事实,他们不再开大水龙头冲洗蔬菜,煮一大锅水做意大利面之前也会三思而行。The state is in the fourth year of a severe drought, but the reality of living with less water began hitting hard in the spring. For the first time, state officials ordered residents of every city and town to conserve water or face consequences.加利福尼亚州进入严重干旱已经是第四个年头,但今年春天,节约生活用水这件事变得认真起来。加州官员第一次要求每个城镇的居民节约用水,否则就得面临严重后果。Some residents had aly taken the punishment into their own hands with drought shaming, using social media to call out people with well-watered lawns or other outward signs of excessive water consumption.有些居民已经开始自作主张地惩罚、羞辱那些在干旱中不节约用水的人,他们用社交媒体曝光那些过分灌溉草坪的人,以及其他明显浪费水资源的行为。A culinary equivalent has yet to pop up, probably because running a kitchen is not as water-intensive as maintaining a yard or using the bathroom, where a bucket to collect water as the shower heats up has become an accepted part of home décor.目前还没有和烹饪相关的曝光,或许是因为烹饪时用水不像维护庭院或者洗浴时那样,需要那么多的精打细算——现在用大桶接淋浴时排放的凉水,已经成了许多家庭必做的事情。Yet the drought’s impact is being keenly felt in culinary matters, from how Californians cook and clean, to how they shop and even what foods they can find at the market.然而,在加利福尼亚,从厨子到清洁人员,餐饮界还是深刻地感觉到了干旱对烹饪的影响,从购物方式到市场上能买到的食物都发生了变化。“There is no such thing as putting your vegetables in a colander and letting the water drain through it anymore,” said Margo True, the food editor at Sunset magazine and the former executive editor of Saveur.“再也不能把蔬菜放在滤锅上用自来水冲洗干净了,”《落日》(Sunset)杂志的食品编辑与《Saveur》杂志的前执行主编玛尔戈·特鲁(Margo True)说。She and other cooks report that people are steaming more than boiling, and cooking with fewer pots and pans, a practice that she says fits nicely with the current popularity of entire meals that can be prepared on a sheet pan. “It’s marginal,” she said, “but it makes people feel better.”她和其他几位厨师说,人们现在更多用蒸东西取代煮东西,用更少的厨具烹制食品,她说,这符合目前流行的整体餐趋势,这样的一餐可以用一个大烤盘就做好。“这很俭省,”她说,“但是能让人感觉良好。”Food producers have been forced to change, too. Cheese makers who rely on milk from animals used to eating lush grass have had to contend with radically different flavors in the milk. Hodo Soy Beanery, in Oakland, had to find a way to streamline its process for making tofu, a food that takes lots of water to wash and chill.食品生产商也被迫做出改变。奶酪生产商需要依赖动物产奶,它们原本有丰盛的饲料进食,现在奶的口味有了极大的变化,生产商们也只得去适应。奥克兰的霍多大豆小吃店(Hodo Soy Beanery)得想办法改变生产豆腐的方式,因为豆腐需要很多水来清洗和冷却。In fields everywhere, the drought (along with a particularly mild winter and unusually cold spring) has changed the quantity, quality, predictability and price of the state’s best produce.在各个方面,干旱(外加较为温暖的冬天和极为寒冷的春天)改变了许多加州名产的产量、质量、预期生产情况和价格。The cherry crop was small, and gone in a flash. Strawberries and basil showed up at the market earlier than anyone can seem to recall. The first peaches — whose prices rose 11 percent last week, according to a ed States Department of Agriculture market report — arrived two weeks early.樱桃的收成非常少,很快就下市了。草莓和罗勒的上市期比任何人记忆中都早。最早的一批桃子也提早上市了两星期,根据美国农业部的市场报告,上周它的价格上升了11%。Cooks are bracing for more shortages. About 30 percent less rice will be planted this year, the California Rice Commission reports. Farmers, who in June were handed sharp new limits on water use, have to decide which crops they aren’t going to grow.厨师们还得面对更多短缺状况。根据加利福尼亚稻米协会报道,今年该州稻米将减产30%。6月,农民的用水受到进一步的新限制,他们得决定停止种植哪些庄稼。Shoppers in other states are starting to feel the effects. Philadelphia Cousins, Julia Child’s niece, can’t seem to find a California avocado in Colorado, where she lives.其他州的商家也开始感受到干旱带来的影响。茱莉亚·柴尔德(Julia Child)的甥女菲拉德尔菲亚·卡辛斯(Philadelphia Cousins)现居科罗拉多,她发现自己买不到加州产的牛油果了。“I think in coming months we’ll start seeing a shortage of a lot more than avocados,” said Ms. Cousins, who works closely with her aunt’s culinary foundation. “It really breaks my heart witnessing this, having grown up in California, which, in my childhood, was lush and fruitful.”“我觉得在未来几个月里,我们还会面临更多短缺,不只是牛油果,”卡辛斯女士说,她和阿姨密切合作,经营烹饪基金会。“这种情况真让我心碎,我从小在加利福尼亚长大,那里曾是那样肥沃多产。”There is an upside: Some produce has become heartbreakingly delicious.不过也有好的一面:有些东西变得极度美味。“I have definitely noticed some really exceptional ingredients this year,” said Suzanne Goin, who runs four restaurants in the Los Angeles area, including A.O.C. and Lucques. “The fruit is smaller and there is less of it, but it’s super-tasty and more intense. Of course, it’s also more expensive.”“今年我开始留意到某些非常特别的食材,”苏珊娜·戈因(Suzanne Goin)说,她在洛杉矶拥有四家餐厅,包括A.O.C与Lucques。“果实变小了,产量也小了,但它们的滋味却变得极为浓郁美妙。当然,价钱也更贵了。”Less irrigation means the cells aren’t as full of water, which leads to smaller, intensely flavored fruit. That is something fans of Early Girl dry-farmed tomatoes aly know. The method, pioneered before the drought became so severe, relies on cutting off irrigation once a plant is established, leaving it to rely on whatever water it can find.较少的灌溉令果实的细胞较为缺水,因此果实会变得个头较小,味道更浓。喜欢“早到女孩”(Early Girl)用干农法耕种的西红柿的人们早就知道这一点。这种方法在干旱变得如此严重之前就已经产生,它降低作物惯常的灌溉量,让它依靠自己能获取的水存活。Chefs have changed protocols both in their professional and personal kitchens. “I boiled some beets last night at home, and I poured the water onto my tree,” Ms. Goin said.在餐馆和自家厨房,大厨们都改变了操作规程。“昨天晚上我在家煮了一些甜菜,然后用这些水浇树,”戈因说。At restaurants, cooks defrost food in the walk-in refrigerator instead of in several changes of water. Ice is dumped on plants at the end of the shift rather than melted with hot water. Dishwashers are scraping plates instead of spraying them, and packing dishes more tightly into machines.在餐厅,厨师们把食物放进冷藏间解冻,不再使用数次换水的办法。最后剩下的冰块被堆放在植物下面,不再放进热水中溶解。洗碗工改为用力擦拭盘子,不再往上面洒水,并且在把碟子放进洗碗机时堆得更紧密。John Cox, a chef at the Post Ranch Inn in Big Sur, became an instant folk hero among chefs on the hunt for water-saving techniques in April, when word sp that he had rigged up an air compressor to blow the food off plates before putting them in the dishwasher. He estimated that he has saved about a thousand gallons a day with the practice.大瑟尔的波斯特农庄酒店的大厨约翰·考克斯在四月发现了一种省水新技术,他拼装出一台空气压缩机,把盘中的剩余食品在放入洗碗机之前吹下去,消息传开后,他顿时成了厨师们心目中的英雄。他估计,自己的做法每天可以节省一千加仑的水。For diners, the most noticeable difference comes when they sit at a table. New state rules forbid waiters to serve water without asking first. After an initial hello, a waiter at Octavia, in San Francisco, the newest restaurant from the chef Melissa Perello, announced that “due to the shortage, we offer water only upon request.” If she hadn’t, the restaurant could have been fined 0.对于用餐者们来说,最明显的不同发生在他们刚刚坐到桌边的时候。新的州法规禁止侍者不经询问就给客人上水。旧金山的奥克塔维亚是大厨梅丽莎·佩莱罗(Melissa Perello)最新开的餐厅,在这里,一位侍者走上来,先问了好,接着说,“由于缺水,我们只在客人要求时才提供饮用水。”如果她不这样说,餐厅可能会被罚款500美元。In the kitchen, signs remind employees to make sure the faucets are off, and Ms. Perello said price increases and the shorter, earlier seasons have forced her to be more creative.厨房里有标志提醒雇员关紧水龙头,佩莱罗说,水价上升、供应短缺、农产品提早上市,这一切都迫使她发挥更多创意。Drought-stressed produce cooks differently, said Joyce Goldstein, a Bay Area chef, restaurant consultant and food writer who has cooked with California produce for decades. “It goes dead ripe really fast,” she said. It is softer and tends to lose its texture when cooked too long, a point she made in a recent column on canning she wrote for The San Francisco Chronicle.乔伊斯·戈德斯坦(Joyce Goldstein)是湾区的大厨,也是餐厅顾问和美食作家,几十年来一直用加州农产品烹饪,她说,干旱之下出产的作物要用不同的方式烹饪。“它们很快就会煮得烂熟,”她说。食材变得更柔软,如果烹饪时间过长,就会损失质感,最近她在为《旧金山纪事报》(The San Francisco Chronicle)撰写的关于罐装保存食品的专栏里提到这一点。Early peaches were so soft that she didn’t cook them at all when she canned some. Instead, she just poured hot brine flavored with ginger, clove and cinnamon over the peaches.早熟的桃子太软,所以没法烹饪,只得用罐装保存。做法是将热的浓盐水用姜、丁香和肉桂调味,浸泡桃子。“You really have to be vigilant these days and pay attention to what you have in front of you,” she said.“这些日子里真的要当心,要格外注意食材,”她说。The smaller fruit that results from less irrigation can be a challenge for farmers. David Masumoto, whose family produces a boutique crop of organic stone fruit on 80 acres south of Fresno, had a difficult time selling their petite Gold Dust peaches, which they intentionally grew using as little water as possible.较少的灌溉会令果实较小,这对农民来说是种挑战。大卫·松本(David Masumoto)一家在弗雷斯诺有一处店铺,批发经营占地80英亩的果园中出产的果实,这些日子以来,他们有意用尽可能少的水来灌溉,因此要出售较小的“金粉”桃子就变得有些困难。Consumers too often view the drought as something abstract, said Nikiko Masumoto, his daughter. “Here we were trying to do something good by conserving water and still farming with the intention of producing something with exceptional flavor, and no one was buying them,” she said.消费者通常觉得干旱是很抽象的,松本的女儿 Nikiko Masumot说,“我们试着在节约水资源的同时仍然种出美味的水果,结果没有人买。”She was so frustrated, she started a social media campaign using the hashtag #SmallFruitRevolution to change the minds of shoppers who equate size with quality.她感到非常难过,于是发起了一场社交媒体宣传活动,使用“#SmallFruitRevolution”(小水果革命)标签,试图改变消费者把水果的个头同质量等同起来的观念。A new mind-set is creeping into cafeterias at several large technology firms in California. Maisie Ganzler, a vice president at Bon Appétit Management Company, which runs more than 650 cafes for art museums, universities and corporations like Google and Plantronics, said its clients are starting to embrace water conservation as part of a larger movement to reduce food waste.新观念也来到加利福尼亚一些大型技术公司的自助食堂。好胃口管理公司(Bon Appétit Management Company)经营着650多家美术馆、大学与公司的食堂,谷歌和缤特力(Plantronics)都是它的客户,公司总裁梅奇·甘兹勒(Maisie Ganzler)说,客户开始接受节水观念,把它视为减少食物浪费的一部分。The company is exploring hydroponic gardens run on solar power, and recently created posters for some clients’ cafeterias that compare the amount of water it takes to grow various fruits and vegetables. It is cooking with imperfect vegetables that farmers might otherwise plow under. One client has stopped serving beef on Fridays, a nod to the large amounts of water used to raise grain-fed cattle.公司在研究依靠太阳能的溶液培养花园,最近还为若干公司的食堂制作了海报,比较不同水果和蔬菜生长所需要的水量。公司用并不完美,不需农民深耕的蔬菜烹饪。一家公司停止在周五供应牛排,因为谷物喂饲的牛成长需要消耗大量水资源。“Controlling your food is a way of feeling powerful in a world we often feel powerless in,” Ms. Ganzler said. “And everyone feels pretty powerless about what’s happening with the drought.”“在这个世界上,我们经常会有无力感,控制自己的食物会让你感觉有了一些掌控能力,”甘泽拉说。“在干旱到来之际,所有人都有深深的无力感。”Not every cook in California believes that radical change in the kitchen is going to help. People want to believe they are doing the right thing, but the impact is a drop in the bucket, said Nicolette Hahn Niman, an environmental lawyer and author whose husband, Bill Niman, pioneered the modern American grass-fed beef industry.并非所有的加州厨师都相信厨房内的改变会对事态有所帮助。人们愿意相信自己在做正确的事,但效果很可能只是杯水车薪。环保律师与作家尼柯莱特·哈恩·尼曼(Nicolette Hahn Niman)说,她的丈夫比尔·尼曼(Bill Niman)是现代美国草饲牛工业的先驱之一。Still, she too feels better by conserving. This year she is not planting anything new, just watering her perennials, like kales and her giant cape gooseberry bush.不过,节约资源仍然会让她感觉好一点。今年,她不再种植新的作物,只是继续灌溉原本种的多年生作物,比如羽衣甘蓝和庞大的灯笼果灌木。Cooks who garden debate whether growing one’s own food is a good way to ease the pressure on the water supply that feeds the state’s .4 billion agricultural industry, or whether a garden is too expensive and wasteful.拥有花园的大厨们开始讨论,自行种植食材是不是减轻农业用水压力的好办法(加利福尼亚州拥有价值464亿美元的农业),拥有花园是否过于昂贵和浪费。Marcy Smothers, a Sonoma County food personality who hosts the radio show “At the Table With Wolf and Smothers,” had for years celebrated Mother’s Day with a trek to the Kendall-Jackson estate winery to buy 10 new heirloom tomato plants at an annual sale. This year, she abandoned her home tomato patch.索诺马食品界人士玛西·斯莫泽斯(Marcy Smothers)拥有一档广播节目“与伍尔夫和斯莫泽斯共餐”,多年来,她每年都长途跋涉,到肯德尔-杰克逊(Kendall-Jackson)庄园酿酒厂的年度销售会上购买10棵最新的该庄园特色家传西红柿植株,以此庆祝母亲节。今年她放弃了在家里种西红柿。Ms. Smothers nourishes her flower pots with the water she uses to boil artichokes. And she has gone back to using a pasta-cooking method popularized by the author Harold McGee that starts with cold water (about half the amount traditionally used) and requires a lot of stirring.现在,斯莫泽斯用煮开朝鲜蓟的水来浇花。她还开始使用哈罗德·麦克吉(Harold McGee)最早使用的冷水烹饪意大利面方法,这需要做很多搅拌,但比传统做法节省一半的水。“I’m Italian, so I eat pasta a couple of times a week,” she said. “We all do what we can do.”“我是意大利人,每周要吃两三次意大利面,”她说。“我们都在尽量做我们能做的。”Ms. Nguyen, the Vietnamese cook working on a drought-friendly pho, feels the same way. Traditionally, meat and bones are blanched for the soup, then that water is discarded. More fresh water is used for a three-hour simmer.越南厨师阮女士也在为干旱时期调整越南粉的做法,她也有同感。传统上,汤里的肉和骨头应该煮到发白,然后把汤扔掉。炖汤需要三小时,要用掉很多水。To compensate for the intensity of pressure cooking and the truncated cooking time, she has tinkered with the amounts of star anise, ginger, cinnamon and salt, and has added a bit of apple, using fish sauce for fortification after the pho is cooked.为了补偿蒸食和缩短烹饪时间所损失的鲜味,她放入了大量八角、姜、肉桂和盐,还放了一点苹果,在越南粉做好后使用鱼酱做最后调味。The broth is still rich and perfumed, but not quite the same as pho that has simmered gently for hours. The recipe will be featured in Ms. Nguyen’s fifth book, to be published in early 2017.做出的汤仍然仍然浓郁芬芳,但和文火煮炖几小时的越南粉不太一样了。这个食谱会收进阮女士的第五本食谱书中,该书于2017年初出版。“I think it captures the notion of what pho means to people, but it has this extra twist,” she said. “You can feel like maybe eating a bowl of pho is contributing to the greater good.”“我觉得它把握住了越南粉的精髓,但有了很大转变,”她说。“你可能会觉得这碗越南粉对世界更有益处。”Recipe: Pressure Cooker Beef Pho菜谱:高压锅蒸越南牛肉粉 /201507/387322泉州祛眼袋手术价格多少钱 Global public confidence in institutions has evaporated in the last year, taking trust levels back to lows not seen since the financial crisis in 2009, according to research to be presented at the World Economic Forum in Davos this week.根据一份将于本周在达沃斯(Davos)世界经济论坛(World Economic Forum)上展示的研究报告,去年全球公众对各机构的信心不再,导致人们的信任水平跌至2009年金融危机爆发以来从未出现过的低点。“Unimaginable events” from the Ebola crisis to the disappearance of a Malaysian airliner, Russia’s intervention in Ukraine, the forex rate-rigging scandal and the high-profile hacks of Sony Pictures and celebrity photos on Apple’s iCloud have created a “sense that things are out of control,” said Richard Edelman, chief executive of the world’s largest public relations consultancy by revenues, which publishes the annual Edelman Trust Barometer.全球营收最高的公共关系咨询机构爱德曼(Edelman)每年都会发布爱德曼信任度调查报告(Edelman Trust Barometer)。该公司首席执行官理查德#8226;爱德曼(Richard Edelman)表示,从埃拉病毒危机,到马航客机的失联、俄罗斯对乌克兰的干预、外汇利率操纵丑闻、备受关注的索尼影视(Sony Pictures)遭遇黑客攻击事件、以及苹果公司(Apple)iCloud艳照门事件,种种“难以想象的事件”让人产生了一种“诸多事情处于失控状态的感觉”。The rapid pace of innovation across industries has also left many people feeling unsettled, depressing confidence in both business’s and government’s ability to manage change.各产业快速的创新节奏也让许多人产生不安定感,并抑制了他们对企业和政府应对变化能力的信心。“All this has had a negative effect on trust in institutions. We’ve given back all the gains of the last five years,” he said.他说:“所有这些都对人们对机构的信任产生了负面影响。过去五年里增加的所有信任度都被一扫而空。”For the first time, nearly two-thirds of the 27 nations surveyed fell on the “distrustful” end of Edelman’s index, gauging respondents’ trust in government, business, media and non-governmental organisations.在被调查的27个国家里,首次有近三分之二的国家落在了爱德曼指数的“不信任”区间。所谓爱德曼指数,是用来衡量回应者对政府、企业、媒体和非政府组织(NGO)信任程度的指标。Among the informed public segment of the 33,000-person survey — a group of 700 wealthy, well-educated, well-informed individuals — 57 per cent said they trusted business, down from 59 per cent last year.这一调查有3.3万人参加。其中,在由700名富有、受过良好教育、文化水平很高的个人组成的一个高知公众群体中,57%的人表示他们信任企业,低于去年的59%。In half of the countries surveyed, trust in business dipped below 50 per cent, the worst ing since 2008. Canada, Germany, Australia and Argentina saw the biggest declines, with the percentage of those trusting in business dropping more than 10 points. In the US, however, trust rose from 58 to 60 per cent.在半数被调查国家中,对企业的信任比例跌至50%以下,这是2008年以来的最低读数。其中,加拿大、德国、澳大利亚和阿根廷的跌幅最大,信任企业的人比例减少了逾10个百分点。不过在美国,人们对企业的信任比例却从58%升至60%。Trust in government rose overall from 45 per cent to 48 per cent but after stripping out large jumps in India and Indonesia, which held national elections in 2014, government trust dipped to 44 per cent. The sharpest falls came in South Korea, where trust dropped from 45 per cent to 33 per cent, and Malaysia, down to 45 per cent from 54 per cent. In Russia, in contrast, trust doubled from 27 per cent to 54 per cent.对政府的总体信任比例则从45%升至48%。不过,在刨除了印度和印尼的大幅度增长之后,对政府的信任则降至44%。此前,印度和印尼两国都在2014年举行了大选。对政府的信任比例中,跌幅最大的是韩国和马来西亚。韩国该比例从45%跌至33%,马来西亚则从54%跌至45%。相比之下,俄罗斯的情况正相反,该国信任政府的比例翻了一番,从27%升至54%。Trust in media dipped from 53 per cent to 51 per cent, with the lowest levels recorded in Turkey, Japan, Ireland, Sweden and the UK.对媒体的信任比例从53%跌至51%。其中,比例最低的是土耳其、日本、冰岛、瑞典和英国。Even NGOs, which had weathered the turbulence of the financial crisis and recovery, saw their first drop, to 63 per cent from 66 per cent last year. Trust fell most in the UK, down to 51 per cent from 67 per cent; Hong Kong, to 63 per cent from 77 per cent, and China, to 72 per cent from 84 per cent.尽管平安度过了金融危机及其后复苏阶段的种种纷扰,非政府组织也首次遭遇了信任度下跌。对非政府组织的信任比例从去年的66%跌至63%。其中,对它们的信任比例下跌最快的是英国、香港和中国内地。英国信任非政府组织的比例从67%下跌至51%,香港则从77%下跌至63%,而中国内地则从84%下跌至72%。Mr Edelman pointed to unhappiness with NGOs’ ability to pushing change in China and in tackling energy issues, such as hydraulic fracturing, or “fracking”, in the UK.爱德曼指出,人们对非政府组织在中国内地不能推动变革、在英国不能解决“水力压裂法”等能源问题十分不满。The rise of new technologies, including fracking, has emerged as a fresh factor weighing on public confidence.包括水力压裂等新技术的崛起,已成为为公众信心带来压力的新因素。“Innovation should be a trust accelerator, but it is actually a trust anchor,” Mr Edelman said. “It is seen as unregulated, good for companies and individuals but not for society.”爱德曼表示:“创新原本应该促进人们的信任,实际上却阻碍了人们的信任。人们认为,创新不受监管,尽管它对企业和个人很有好处,却无益于社会。”Fifty-one per cent of those surveyed said the pace of development and change in business was too fast, versus 28 per cent who found it too slow and 19 per cent judging it just right.51%的被调查者表示商业的发展和变革节奏太快,认为它太慢的只有28%,而认为它正合适的则只有19%。Genetically modified foods and hydraulic fracturing were least trusted, at 32 per cent and 47 per cent, while confidence was higher in electronic and mobile payments (69 per cent) and personal health tracking (59 per cent.)转基因食品和水力压裂法是最不受信任的技术,信任这两样技术的比例分别为32%和47%。相比之下,人们对电子设备和移动付的信任程度更高,信任比例为69%。还有就是个人健康跟踪技术也较受信任,信任比例为59%。Respondents favoured tighter regulation of innovations, but only half said they trusted policy makers to do that effectively.回应者更倾向于加强对技术创新的监管。不过,只有半数的人表示,他们相信政策制定者能有效监管技术创新。Trust in innovation correlated with overall trust in institutions, with countries such as the UAE, India and Indonesia expressing higher confidence in both, and Germany, Japan and Sweden being more distrustful.对技术创新的信任程度与对机构的总体信任程度有相关性。在阿联酋(UAE)、印度和印尼等国家,人们对两者的信心相对较高。而在德国、日本和瑞典,人们对两者的信任程度较低。 /201501/355723Rising incomes, rapid urbanisation and concerns over the toxic smog that enshrouds many of its cities are driving China away from coal and oil and towards natural gas.不断增长的收入、快速推进的城镇化以及人们对笼罩多个中国城市的有毒雾霾的担忧,正促使中国改变对煤炭和石油的依赖,更多地使用天然气。Gas usage has risen almost sevenfold in 13 years to 168bn cubic metres, and China has become the largest consumer after the US and Russia.过去的13年中,中国天然气用量几乎增长了6倍,达到1680亿立方米,中国也成为位居美国和俄罗斯之后的第三大天然气消费国。Further increases are expected. The power, industrial and transport sectors are forecast to drive demand to 315bcm by 2019, according to the International Energy Agency, the wealthy nations’ energy watchdog, and Beijing has set its sights even higher.中国天然气用量有望进一步增长。作为富裕国家能源监督机构的国际能源署(IEA)预测,到2019年时,中国电力、工业和交通部门将推动中国天然气需求量增至3150亿立方米,而中国政府设立的目标则更为高远。But uncertainty remains about the pace of growth into the next decade.但是在下一个十年,中国天然气的发展步伐还存在一些不确定的地方。“Natural gas demand in China has potential to grow much more rapidly than it is now,” says Anne-Sophie Corbeau, senior IEA gas analyst. “However, there is still a lot standing in its way. In some ways we are less optimistic about the Chinese.”“中国天然气需求有潜力实现比现在快得多的增长,”国际能源署高级天然气分析师安妮-索菲#8226;科尔(Anne-Sophie Corbeau)说,“然而,在其前进的路上还有很多障碍。在某些方面,我们对中国的天然气前景不那么看好。”The expansion of the country’s gas sector is a massive logistical and capital investment challenge. Supply availability, delivery infrastructure, pricing levels and policy, and funding to promote gas over other fuels are all factors that dictate the speed at which the switch occurs.中国天然气行业的扩张将给物流和资本投资带来巨大挑战。供应能力、输送基础设施、定价标准和政策、以及推广天然气以取代其他燃料所需的资金,这些都是决定能源结构转换速度的因素。The government wants to boost gas’s share of total energy consumption from 4 per cent to about 8 per cent by the end of 2015 and 10 per cent by 2020, to reduce the plumes of black clouds resulting from heavy coal use.中国政府希望提高天然气在能耗总量中所占的比重,目标是到2015年底将这一比重从现在的4%提高到8%左右,到2020年提高到10%,以减少大量燃烧煤炭造成的黑云。But China’s ability to construct the vast infrastructure network needed to produce, import and transport enough gas to meet demand is under scrutiny.然而,生产、进口和输送足够多的天然气以满足中国的需求,需要庞大的基础设施网络,中国是否有能力建好这个网络,正受到密切的关注。“There is a lot of pent-up demand, particularly over the last decade, but infrastructure and the availability of supply have been a constraint,” says Michael Stoppard, gas strategist at IHS. “They really haven’t been able to develop the gas quickly enough.”“有很多被压抑的需求,特别是在过去10年里,但基础设施和供应能力一直是瓶颈,”咨询机构IHS的天然气策略师迈克尔#8226;斯托帕德(Michael Stoppard)说,“他们确实未能以足够快的速度发展天然气。”Pipelines have been at the top of the agenda. After a decade of negotiations, China struck a 0bn supply deal with Russia in May as part of a long-term strategy to raise gas imports via pipeline and liquefied natural gas. China is also connected to pipeline corridors in central Asia and Myanmar. But these will take years to ramp up to full potential, says Ella Chou at the Brookings Institution’s China Center.管道建设是当务之急。在经过10年的谈判后,中国在5月份与俄罗斯签订了一项价值4000亿美元的天然气供应合同,这是中国通过输气管道和液化气方式提高天然气进口量的长期战略的一部分。另外,中国还连入了中亚和缅甸的管道走廊。但布鲁金斯学会中国中心(Brookings Institution#39;s China Center)的Ella Chou表示,这些举措需要数年时间才能发挥最大潜能。The country, which is believed to hold the world’s largest reserves of shale gas, hopes to replicate the US production boom in the form of tight gas, coal-bed methane and coal-to-gas conversion. But unlike the US shale industry, China does not have thousands of independent oil and gas entrepreneurs competing to expand production.中国被认为是世界上页岩气储量最大的国家。它希望通过发展致密气、煤层气和煤转气来复制美国的天然气繁荣。但中国的页岩油气行业与美国不同,中国没有成千上万独立的油气企业家相互竞争来提高产量。Everything depends on state-owned companies that lack development experience. Exploration rights, geological surveys and the adaptation of drilling and exploration technologies to suit the country have proved problematic, as has pulling together the relevant statistics.在中国,一切都依赖国有企业,这些企业缺乏发展经验。勘探权、地质勘测、改进钻探和勘探技术以适应中国情况,都被明是困难重重,将相关统计数据汇集在一起也是如此。Beijing has halved its target for shale gas production by 2020 to 30bcm, according to Reuters, after efforts to unlock the unconventional fuel ran into difficulties.路透社(Reuters)消息称,尝试开采非常规能源遇到困难后,北京方面将2020年的页岩气开采目标减半到300亿立方米。China became a net gas importer in 2007 and import dependency reached 32 per cent last year. Aside from questions over how quickly indigenous production can increase and whether China can contract enough imports by pipeline, there is a shortage of LNG storage facilities.2007年中国成为了天然气净进口国,去年中国对进口天然气的依存度达到32%。国内产量能以多快的速度增长,中国是否能签订合同进口足够多的管道天然气——除了这两个问题以外,中国还面临着液化天然气贮藏设施短缺的困境。“On top of its long-term contracted gas [deals with] Turkmenistan, Myanmar, Russia, and LNG deals with the Qataris, Australians and Canadians, the ability of the Chinese to continue to grow domestic production – conventional and unconventional – quickly will dictate the needs of extra uncontracted gas that could be at a lower cost,” says Thierry Bros, senior analyst at Société Générale in Paris.“除了与土库曼斯坦、缅甸、俄罗斯达成的长期合约天然气(交易)以及与卡塔尔、澳大利亚和加拿大达成的液化天然气交易以外,中国继续快速提高国内常规和非常规天然气产量的能力,将决定对额外的非合约天然气的需求,这些天然气的价格可能更低,”法国兴业(Société Générale)驻巴黎的高级分析师蒂埃里#8226;布罗斯(Thierry Bros)说。Ultimately demand will be determined by price, analysts say, because of the many alternatives to imported gas that are cost-competitive. The single biggest competitor is power from coal transported via transmission lines to the coastal regions.分析师表示,最终,需求将由价格决定,因为进口天然气的许多替代品的价格也颇具竞争力。其中煤电是最有力的竞争者,煤电通过输电线路传输至沿海地区。Until 2006 growth in consumption was met entirely by relatively low-cost domestic gas supply. However, higher-priced imports have been added to the mix, and their cost has risen considerably with the oil price.2006年之前,价格相对低廉的国内供应的天然气完全可以满足消费量的增长。但是,由于价格较高的进口天然气也进入市场,导致天然气价格随油价猛涨。“Policy makers often have to strike a balance between providing affordable gas supplies to encourage gas penetration, and setting a price that will serve as an incentive for more domestic production and higher imports,” writes Michael Chen of the Oxford Institute for Energy Studies in a report.“是提供较为廉价的天然气供应来推广天然气的使用,还是将定价作为激励措施来促使国内提高天然气产量并增大进口量,政策制定者不得不经常在二者中求得平衡,”牛津能源研究所(Oxford Institute for Energy Studies)的Michael Chen在一份报告中写道。Manufacturers, which are aly paying relatively high prices, want to stay competitive in the global market, while Chinese households want to keep their costs low.那些已在付相对较高价格的制造业企业,希望在国际市场上保持竞争力,中国的家庭则希望生活成本不要升高。But without even higher prices, the national oil companies will continue to face significant financial losses, diminishing any incentive around exploration, production and developing unconventional reserves.但是,如果天然气价格无法进一步提高,中国国有石油公司将继续面临巨额经济损失,从而削弱勘探、生产以及发展非常规储备的动力。 /201408/320475泉州韩式假体隆鼻哪家医院好

泉州哪家脱毛比较优惠泉州好的丰唇整形医院 泉州腰部抽脂哪家医院好

泉州微整形哪个好 A 48-year-old woman died Thursday morning in the Fabre métro station after it appears her scarf and then her hair got caught in the teeth of the escalator. She was apparently strangled by her scarf.The incident, which has been deemed an accident by Montreal police, occurred at 9:15 a.m. at the station on the corner of Jean Talon Street East and Fabre Street in the Villeray district, said Constable Jean-Pierre Brabant.“The woman’s scarf got caught in the escalator and then she bent down to try to get it out and her hair got stuck, too,” Brabant said. “A bystander called 911 and by the time police arrived, she was declared dead,” by an Urgences-Santé paramedic.加拿大蒙特利尔市(Montreal)地铁发生扶手电梯杀人事件,一名48岁妇人的围巾被扶手电梯夹住后,蹲下企图将围巾扯出时,却不幸地连头发也被夹住,最后活活被勒死。“We got a call a little after 9 a.m. that there was a woman found at the bottom of an escalator, trapped, and that there was an article of clothing involved,” said Robert Lamle, a spokesperson with Urgences-Santé. “The woman was in cardiac arrest.;事发于前天(1月30日)早上9时15分,现场为蒙特利尔一个无人站岗的法布雷(Fabre)车站。目击者表示,出事妇人当时搭下行扶手电梯,围巾被夹住,她蹲下身子企图扯出围巾,却连头发也被夹住,躺在电梯末端。两名好心乘客立即上前施救,妇人最初仍有呼吸,但救护人员赶到时,她已没心跳。“The firefighters, first responders, got there first and began resuscitation efforts. Our technicians arrived and took over but it was not viable and the woman was declared dead,” Lamle said.There is an emergency stop button at the top and bottom of the escalator, which is the case for all escalators serving the métro system. Brabant said he did not know whether anyone pressed the stop button while the woman was struggling. He said a witness, whom police are looking for, used an STM emergency phone to call for help. He asked anyone else who witnessed the incident to call police.An engineer who has been working on these mechanisms for the Sociéte de Transport Montreal for the past nine years told The Gazette escalators are equipped with safety mechanisms that are supposed to prevent this kind of accident.交通局工程师表示,地铁扶手电梯设有安全装置,一旦有乘客跌倒或有物件夹住,电梯就会停止运作。每个地铁站的扶手电梯也设有“停止”按钮,乘客遇有意外,可立刻按键,煞停电梯。 /201402/274941福建省泉州泉港区治疗腋臭的医院福建省泉州第一人民医院贵不贵



泉州E光嫩肤多少钱 在泉州地区一院点痣时空社区 [详细]
在泉州美白针价格 泉州地区中药祛黄褐斑哪家医院好 [详细]
惠安妇幼保健院地址在哪 久久晚报泉州微创双眼皮手术丽口碑 [详细]
妙手分享泉州安溪县假体隆鼻价格 泉州哪里自体丰胸好导医新闻泉州激光美白 [详细]