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2019年09月23日 06:31:29    日报  参与评论()人

武汉华夏医院可以割包皮么武汉大医院包皮手术预约The most terrifying words in the English language, according to Ronald Reagan, are: “I’m from the government and I’m here to help.” Today, for some Europeans, they are: “I’m from the EU and I’m here to bail you out.”罗纳德#8226;里根(Ronald Reagan)说过,英语中最可怕的几个词是:“我是政府派来帮忙的。”今天,对有些欧洲人来说,最可怕的几个词则是:“我是欧盟(EU)派来纾困的。”Germany and the single currency have been made scapegoats for the problems of member states and for Europe’s inability to overcome the continent’s financial and economic crises. Berlin is accused of lacking solidarity, imposing contractionary policies and gaining competitiveness at others’ expense. The euro is blamed for depriving countries of their own central banks’ ability to act as lender of last resort and provide unlimited liquidity to the government and banks; and for depriving national policy makers of scope to devalue, thereby trapping them in a vicious spiral.德国和单一货币已被当成了替罪羊。人们认为,欧元区成员国的问题就是这二者造成的,欧洲无力战胜发生在这块大陆的金融与经济危机,责任也在这二者身上。他们指责柏林方面缺乏团结精神、将紧缩政策强加于人、而且为提高自身竞争力不惜损害他国利益。至于欧元,人们则指责它一方面使得各成员国央行无法充当最后贷款人、不能向政府和业提供无限流动性,另一方面使得各成员国政策制定者失去了压低本币汇率的选项、从而让各成员国陷入恶性循环。Germany is flabbergasted at being made the scapegoat. It sees itself as a victim, not a perpetrator. It has contributed substantial funds and assumed a great deal of risk for the five bailouts to date. And it has sacrificed much in the past decade to generate employment at home, with real wages barely higher today than in 1999.对于被当成替罪羊这件事,德国倍感震惊。它认为自己是受害者,而不是加害者。德国为迄今为止的五次纾困提供了大量资金,承担了极大风险。而且在过去的十年里,为了在国内创造出就业岗位,德国作出了巨大牺牲,今天德国的实际工资水平只略高于1999年。But the fact is that every country in crisis needs a scapegoat. It is hard to accept that the fruits of decades of hard work can vanish in a few years. For Europe today, painful domestic reforms can be accomplished only with a high degree of national solidarity, and it is tempting to rally against a common nemesis to achieve such solidarity.但现实就是这样,每个处在危机中的国家都需要找到替罪羊。数十年来辛勤工作的成果,在短短数年之间就灰飞烟灭,这一点很难让人接受。就今天的欧洲而言,痛苦的国内改革只有在国民高度团结的前提下才能实现。因此对各国来说,为国民找到一个共同的出气筒来达成这种团结,实在是一个诱人的选项。The history of financial crises is a good guide to how scapegoating works. Take the International Monetary Fund. Although some of its prescriptions during the 1997-98 Asian crisis were misguided, governments succeeded in implementing essential reforms – many of which domestic opposition had thwarted for years – by rallying national solidarity against the fund. The cost is that the IMF’s standing on the continent is permanently damaged, as shown by the unwillingness of Asian governments to accept its help during the global crisis of 2008-09.金融危机的历史为我们清晰地指出了这种寻找替罪羊的做法是如何得逞的。就以国际货币基金组织(IMF)为例。在1997-98年亚洲金融危机期间,IMF开出的部分药方确实带有误导性,但有关国家的政府是通过使国民团结在反对IMF的大旗下才得以成功实施必要的改革的(其中许多改革曾在它们国内受到多年的阻挠)。为此付出的代价是,IMF在亚洲的地位受到了永久性的损害——亚洲国家政府在2008-09年全球危机期间不愿接受IMF援助,就佐了这一点。This strategy has, to some extent, proved effective in Europe. Germany is the perfect scapegoat: it is the big European brother who is doing well, is often diplomatically clumsy and has a stained history that makes it tempting to revive old prejudices. There is another virtue: scapegoating has so far allowed moderate governments to keep political extremism largely at bay, a remarkable achievement given the deep social changes under way.事实明,从某种程度上说,这种策略在欧洲是有效的。德国是一只完美的替罪羊:这位欧洲老大哥发展得不错、外交上又笨招频出、还有一段很容易引发人们旧有成见的肮脏历史。这种策略还有一个优点:迄今为止,寻找替罪羊的做法使得那些温和派政府得以在很大程度抵挡住政治极端势力的攻击——考虑到社会正在发生的深刻转变,这实在是个了不起的成就。Yet scapegoating is dangerous. At stake for Europe is nothing less than the survival of the euro. The confrontations are causing deep rifts among both states and citizens. Surveys reveal a high degree of animosity between nations. Think of mocked-up photos showing German politicians in Nazi uniforms, or the misguided perception in Germany of citizens in crisis countries living on European welfare handouts.然而,这种策略是危险的。它不仅对欧元的生存、而且也对整个欧洲造成严重的威胁。这种对抗正在各成员国、各成员国民众之间造成深深的裂痕。调查显示,各国之间的敌意已达到很高的水平。你只需想想那些给德国政治家穿上纳粹制的讽刺照片,或是德国对依靠欧洲救济过活的危机国家民众的偏见。The renationalisation of policy making – with politicians increasingly focused on domestic objectives – and the continued blaming of monetary union for national problems, in crisis and non-crisis countries alike, has eroded the credibility of European institutions and the euro. By making integration more difficult, if not politically impossible, this is starting to cause permanent damage. EU institutions may end up in the position of the IMF in Asia, with governments disengaging from Europe and turning inward.由于各国政治家日益关注国内目标,欧洲的政策制定正在回归各国;另一方面,处于危机中的和未处于危机中的国家仍在将国内问题归咎于货币联盟。这两点侵蚀了欧盟机构和欧元的可信性。这一结果正开始对欧盟造成永久性的伤害,它加大了欧洲一体化的难度,甚至使之在政治上变得不可行。欧盟机构的处境最终可能会与IMF在亚洲的处境相同,各国政府会减少对欧洲事务的关注,转而把注意力放在国内。 What is the way forward? For one, Berlin must take more leadership in Europe. As irritating as it may be to be blamed for all Europe’s ills, Germany’s position of strength gives it a special responsibility. This means it should stop hindering financial and fiscal union, and start pursuing it more forcefully. To revive the European economy, it should also address its own domestic structural imbalances.接下来该怎么做?首先,柏林方面必须在欧洲承担更多领导责任。就算被当作欧洲所有问题的罪魁祸首再令人不快,德国的强大地位也决定了它必须承担起特殊责任。这意味着,德国不应再阻挠财政与货币联盟的建立,而应开始更加有力地促成这一联盟。为了重振欧洲经济,德国还应解决其国内的经济结构不平衡问题。Second, EU countries must assume greater ownership of reforms. Rather than scapegoating, governments need to convince their citizens that the fundamental restructuring is necessary and will be fruitful. It is clear, not just in Cyprus and Italy but across the EU, that we have a long way to go to achieve this.其次,欧盟国家必须承担更大的改革责任。各国政府不应再寻找替罪羊,而是必须让本国民众相信,根本性的结构调整势在必行且将带来丰厚的回报。我们还要走很长的路才能实现这个目标,这一点显然不只适用于塞浦路斯和意大利,也适用于整个欧盟。Third, selected decision-making processes in Europe must be removed from the national political sphere. The crisis has shown that, for many issues of eurozone governance, delegating decisions to intergovernmental political bodies does not work. We need to build institutions to fill this void. Creating a European finance minister, making institutions more immune to national interests and strengthening the European parliament are all urgent.第三,欧洲一些高级别的决策程序必须与各国国家政治脱离关系。本次危机表明,对有关欧元区治理的许多问题来说,委托政府间政治机构作出决定是行不通的。我们需要设立相应的机构来填补这一空白。设立欧盟财政部长、建立更加不受各国国家利益左右的机构、以及加强欧洲议会的权力,都是十分紧迫的任务。The renationalisation of policy making is splitting Europe and risks causing irreversible damage. The pursuit of these three measures is important if Europeans are to prove the Reaganite approach wrong and continue on the path of integration.政策制定回归各国正在令欧洲陷入分裂,并可能造成不可逆转的破坏。如果欧洲人想明里根的说法是错误的、并想继续走一体化道路,那么推行以上三项措施就有着重要的意义。 /201304/235916武汉大学人民医院治疗阳痿早泄 鄂州市中心医院割包皮

武汉华夏男子医院男科武汉华夏男子医院割包皮总费用要多少 Being attracted to friends of the opposite sex is a burden and can harm relationships, researchers have claimed.研究人员认为,异性友谊是一种负担,并可能会伤害到恋爱关系。The new study, which reignites the debate over whether men and women can be just friends, found that the majority of people believe that opposite sex friends are actually a burden.最近的一项研究重新引起了“男人和女人能不能做朋友”的这场争论。该研究发现,大部分人相信异性友谊其实是负担。They say the problem is that attraction is common between people in opposite-sex friendships.研究人员表示,问题在于异性朋友之间普遍互相吸引。When participants were asked to list benefits and drawbacks of having opposite-sex friends, 32 per cent listed feelings of attraction as a cost, while just 6 percent listed these feelings as a benefit.当要求受试者们列出拥有异性朋友的优势和劣势时,32%的人认为互相吸引的感觉是负担,而只有6%的人表示这种感觉有好处。Women were more likely than men to say attraction was a drawback: 47 percent of women ages 18 to 23 listed attraction as a cost of an opposite-sex friendship, while 22 percent of men said the same.女性比男性更可能把互相吸引看成是负担:研究中有47%年龄在18岁到23岁之间的女性,把吸引力列为异性友谊的负担,而只有22%的男性持相同的观点。Opposite-sex friendships may also harm romantic relationships. In the study, 38 percent of women and 25 percent of men ages 27 to 50 said jealousy from their romantic partners was one cost of maintaining an opposite-sex friendship.异性友谊也可能伤害到恋爱关系。在研究中,有38%的女性和25%的男性(年龄都在27岁和50岁之间)说导致恋人嫉妒是维持异性友谊的代价之一。In addition, the more attraction that people felt in an opposite-sex friendship, the less satisfied they were with their current romantic relationship, the researchers told MyHealthNewsDaily.另外,人们在异性友谊中感觉到的吸引力越大,他们对当前的恋爱关系越不满意,研究人员对《每日健康新闻》这样说。;Our findings implicate attraction in cross-sex friendship as both common and of potential negative consequence for individuals#39; long-term mateships,; the researchers, from the University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire, write in the August issue of the Journal of Social and Personal Relationships.“我们的研究表明,异性友谊中的双方普遍彼此互相吸引,这种关系会对个人长期的伴偶关系有着潜在的负面影响。” 来自威斯康星大学的研究人员欧-克莱尔在八月刊的《社会与个体关系》中发表了这一内容。In a separate study, 88 college-age men and women came to the laboratory with an opposite-sex friend, and the pairs were surveyed about that particular friendship.在一项单独的调查中,88名大学年龄段的男生和女生和他们的异性朋友一起来到实验室,研究人员对他们之间的这种异性友谊关系进行了研究。Participants rated their level of attraction toward their friend on a scale of one to nine. On average, men rated their level of attraction toward their female friends as a five, while women rated their level of attraction to their male friends as a four.受试者对异性朋友给他们的吸引力感觉进行了评分,分数的范围从1到9。平均来看,男性对女性朋友带来的吸引力感觉评分的分数是5,而女性对男性朋友的吸引力评分是4。Men and women reported about the same level of attraction toward their friends regardless of whether they currently involved in a romantic relationship.无论受试者有没有在恋爱中,他们在异性友谊中感受到的异性朋友吸引力的水平都不相上下。The researchers hypothesized that interacting with a member of the opposite sex instinctually triggers mating strategies that evolved tens of thousands of years ago.研究人员推测,和异性朋友交往,会本能地触发人类几万年前就已存在并不断演变的择偶策略。;Mating strategies may influence people#39;s involvement in cross-sex friendships to begin with, as well as unintentionally color people#39;s feelings toward members of the opposite sex with whom their conscious intent is platonic,; the researchers said.研究人员解释道,“首先,择偶策略可能会影响人们去找异性朋友;其次,择偶策略可能会无意识地渲染异性之间的感觉,而他们本身觉得彼此之间的关系是柏拉图式的。”However, researchers found that some people did list attraction as a benefit to an opposite-sex friendship.然而,研究人员也发现有些人确实把异性朋友之间的吸引力列为一项优势。;Perhaps attraction can be both benefit and burden for the same individual in different friendships, or be both benefit and burden for the same friendship at different points in time,; the researchers said.研究人员说:“也许对个人而言,在不同的朋友关系中,吸引力有的是好事儿,有的是坏事儿;或者对同一个朋友在不同的时间来说,吸引力有时是优势,有时又会是负担。” /201209/199896咸宁市嘉鱼县龟头炎症

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