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在青岛青医附院割双眼皮青岛做丰胸手术多少钱Business商业报道Online in China中国网络视频The Chinese stream主流媒体Chinas online- market is the largest and most innovative in the world.中国的网络视频市场是世界上最大的最创新的,It is also the most competitive同时也是最具竞争力的LATER this month PPTV, a Chinese online- firm, will release a new reality show called The Goddess Office about four young women living together in a house, trying to create their own e-commerce company.本月下旬,中国的网络视频公司PPTV会推出一档名为女神办公室的真人秀。故事讲的是四位同住的年轻女性尝试开创属于她们自己的电子商务公司。Viewers will be able to ask the stars questions and send them money and ideas for their start-up.观众可以向主角们提问,并向她们贡献金钱和想法来帮助她们创业。The show will employ familiar television elements: the comedic rapport of the characters in Friends and the commercial ambitions of contestants in The Apprentice.这部剧将会引用熟悉的电视元素:《老友记》中演员间的诙谐,《学徒》中竞争者的商业雄心。But this television show will run exclusively online, rather than on a traditional TV network.但是这部剧只会在网络上映,而不是在传统电视上播出。Around the world online is becoming a bigger and more sophisticated business, but nowhere is that truer than in China.在世界范围内,网络视频正逐渐成为更大更先进的产业,不过在中国更是如此。The country has the largest number of online- viewers: around 450m, or nearly 80% of the internet-connected population.中国拥有最多的网络视频观众:将近4.5亿,或者是网民数的80%。Their numbers will rise to around 700m by 2016, according to iResearch, which tracks the industry.根据追踪这个行业的艾瑞咨询公司的调查,到2016年这个人数将会上升至7亿。In America and Europe, online has yet to supplant broadcast- and pay-TV, but in China it seems rapidly to have done so.在美国和欧洲,网络视频还未取代免费与付费电视,但是在中国似乎很快就要取代。A government news source has said that in 2012 only 30% of households in Beijing watched TV, down from 70% three years earlier—although official figures are not always reliable.来自政府的消息称2012年,北京看电视的居民从三年前的70%下降到仅仅30%,—虽然官方数据并不总是可靠。Googles YouTube service is blocked in China, but local companies, including Youku Tudou and Sohu, are wildly popular.谷歌的YouTube视频务在中国是被屏蔽的,但是本土公司包括优酷、土豆、和搜狐广受欢迎。There is lots of user-generated content, but viewers spend most of their time watching professional shows, such as the full-length films, television dramas and comedies that the websites license from China and around the world.有许多视频内容是用户自制的,但是观众大多数时间还是收看网站得到中国和世界其他国家授权的专业节目,如长篇电影,电视剧和喜剧。Media gluttons can devour all this content without charge, as long as they sit through the advertisements.只要观众能耐心等到广告结束,传媒大亨们就能够不付代价地买下这些内容。Online- sites in China owe much of their popularity to the governments tight regulation of the TV industry:中国网络视频网站的流行应功于政府对电视业从紧的规定:all of the 3,000-plus stations are state-owned and their programmes are heavily censored.3000多个电视台都是国有的并且台里的节目都经过严格审查。Rules about content range from the predictable.对于节目内容的规定从可以理解的到令人费解的。It takes months for programmes to get official approval for broadcasting, and only an estimated 30% of shows that are made get aired on TV.节目播放通过审批要历时数月,大概只有30%制作的节目能在电视上播出。Online- sites, in contrast, need a government licence to operate, but are left to police the content on their sites themselves—perhaps because the government never expected them to attract such a mass of viewers.相反,网络视频网站虽然需要政府许可才能运营,但却能自主决定在网上提供的内容—或许政府从来没有想到这些网站能够吸引这么多观众。In principle its the same, but in reality its very difficult to say what the standards are for the online- content players, says Victor Tao, the boss of PPTV.PPTV的总裁陶闯说:原则上讲两者一样,但是事实上,对网络视频内容提供商来说,没有一定的标准。For example, last month the government ordered television channels to edit episodes of Pleasant Goat and the Big Big Wolf, a long-running childrens cartoon, because it was deemed to be too violent.例如长期播送的少儿卡通节目《喜羊羊与灰太狼》,上个月政府要求各电台剪辑该节目,原因是内容太暴力。But online- firms that host episodes of the show seem not to have been given the same instruction.但是提供了该节目的网络视频公司没有收到这项指示。Around five years ago Chinese online- firms started competing directly with television by making their own programmes, and this year they will spend a combined 1 billion yuan on shows like The Goddess Office, according to Jiong Shao of Macquarie Securities, an advisory firm.大约五年前,中国的网络视频公司开始通过制作他们自己的节目来直接与电视竞争。据来自麦格理卷的邵炯透露,今年网络视频公司将为女神的办公室这一类节目投入总共10亿元。Online- shows resonate more with the people aged between 15 and 40, who flock to their sites.年龄在15岁到40岁之间的群体更容易对网上视频节目产生共鸣,而他们正不断地涌向视频网站。For example, Surprise, a series made by Youku that parodies such things as university entrance exams, has been viewed 260m times since it premiered on Youku in August.例如,惊叹是由优酷网站制作的模仿类系列节目,其中有模仿高考等场景,八月份在优酷首发后,观看量达到2.6亿。This year the number of people watching online on their mobile devices has surged.今年,通过移动设备观看网上视频的人数激增。Analysts expect the arrival of fourth-generation mobile networks to accelerate this trend.分析家预测第四代移动网络的到来将会加速这一趋势。People who watch shows on mobile devices spend more time viewing, overall, than those on desktop PCs, according to Victor Koo, the boss of Youku.优酷老板古永锵,说那些拿着手机看视频的人,会比用电脑看视频的人观看更长时间。The main challenge for him and his rivals is to lure more advertisers.不过,古永锵和他的竞争者们所面临的最大的挑战,是如何去吸引更多的广告商。The size and innovation of the Chinese online- industry may be unique, but its economics are not.中国网上视频产业的内容和创新可能是独一无二的,但其经济收益却未见得。Like all online- companies that rely on ad revenues, Chinese firms find it hard to make much money, if any.和所有依赖广告收益的网上视频公司一样,即便是有钱赚,但这些中国公司很难挣到大钱。Although the industry had revenues of around 9 billion yuan in China last year, few firms are profitable.尽管去年此产业获得90亿的营收,但几乎没有公司是盈利的。This is because their costs are so high. Buying bandwidth to deliver content to so many users is expensive, and so are the rights to license content.这是因为他们的成本太高了。购买带宽来为如此多的用户传送内容实在是太昂贵了,版权也是。As a result there have been nearly as many mergers as there are elimination rounds on The Voice of China, one of Chinas most popular TV shows.这样的结果是,中国最受欢迎的电视节目—中国好声音的淘汰赛有多少轮,那么就有多少兼并案。Last year Youku and Tudou, the most popular online- sites, merged.去年,优酷和土豆,中国最受欢迎的网上视频网站合并。In May Baidu, an internet-search giant, bought PPS, a site, for 0m and merged it with its existing service, iQiyi.五月,网络搜索巨头百度以3.7亿的价格收购了视频网PPS,并兼并了其现有的视频务商爱奇艺。Self-interest has helped change the treatment of copyright in China.自利动机让中国人改变了对版权的看法。Several online- firms are stockmarket-listed, and as a result they take content licences seriously, especially since as makers of their own shows they now have intellectual property to protect.一些网上视频公司都是上市公司,他们自然更把版权当回事,尤其是自己做节目后,他们不得不保护知识产权。They are suing those who pirate their content and are thus stealing some of their potential traffic.他们把那些偷走他们流量的盗版行为告上法庭。Youku alone has several hundred copyright lawsuits on the go.单是优酷就已经有几百个侵权案正在处理。Turning the channel换个频道Online- firms are also setting their sights on the living room.网上视频公司还把目光放到卧室里面。Several firms are designing internet-enabled set-top boxes; LeTV is making an internet-enabled television.一些公司设计了能接入网络的机顶盒;乐视电视制造出互联网电视。By invading TV stations home turf they can make themselves more valuable to advertisers—and may even be able to start charging subscription fees.通过抢占电视台的后方,他们让自己更受广告商青睐—他们还可能会开始收订阅费。However, there is no guarantee that this will make the industry profitable.但是,这并不意味着该产业就能盈利。The biggest enemy to the online- service providers is consumer behaviour, says Mason Xu of Heyi Capital, a venture-capital firm.网上视频务供应商最大的敌人是顾客的习惯,合一资本的徐梅森如是说。Because the government runs the television business, consumers are used to paying little for cable—the equivalent of around a month for digital cable.因为政府掌管着电视产业,消费者习惯只花一小笔钱—每月的数字信号差不多为三美元。So it is unclear if they will pay much for online , even if it comes with extra benefits such as ad-skipping.所以,尽管他们能因此享受跳过广告等额外好处,但他们是否愿意为网上电视掏多少钱还尚未可知。A study by McKinsey, a consultancy, suggests that around 15% of Chinese viewers might subscribe to online on an internet-enabled TV set if it cost no more than 30 yuan a month.麦肯锡咨询公司的研究显示,在每月花销不高于33元的前提下,大约15%的中国观众有可能愿意订阅互联网电视上的网上视频。But even that is probably optimistic.即使这样都可能是过于乐观的。Getting slaughtered in the ratings by online has prompted Chinas TV channels to try harder.网上视频抢占了收视率,这使得中国的电视台更加卖力。A wave of singing competitions and dating shows—some of them adaptations of successful Western ones—have come on air in recent years, particularly on provincial satellite channels.一系列唱歌比赛和相亲节目—一些模仿了西方的成功模式—近年来在荧屏上走俏,尤其是那些省卫视台。Meanwhile CCTV, the central governments giant channel, continues to lose viewers.同时,中央电视台,中央政府的主要频道,依然在流失观众。Last month officials scolded other stations for their vulgar and excessive entertainment and pushed for more morality-building and educational shows.上个月,官方指责了其他电台的豪放和过火的节目,他们推行更多的道德建设和教育节目。Some singing contests are being forced off the air, and from next year satellite stations will be limited to one foreign show a year.一些唱歌比赛被迫停止播放,明年起,卫星电视台每年都只能播出一个国外节目。This will only accelerate the broadcasters decline and the switch to online viewing.这只能会加速电视台的衰落与向网上观看的转移。TV is useless now, one person posted on a Chinese weibo, or microblogging site. Fortunately we still have computers.有人在微上说现在的电视没什么用途了,幸好我们还有电脑。 /201311/264726青岛去胎记多少钱 Its summertime, and youre on vacation.时值夏季,你正在享受假期。You sit beside a quiet pond, fishing, trying to relax, trying to think about nothing at all.你稳坐在一个安静的池塘旁钓鱼,想放松自己,试图让脑子放空一切。You watch the leaves stirring, the water rippling in the sunshine, and the water bugs standing on the surface of the water. 你看到树叶随水波荡漾,湖水在阳光下泛起涟漪,还有水虫恣意站在水面上。How do they--Rats! Now your brains working again, wondering how those bugs do that.它们是如何!现在你的大脑再次被拉回工作状态,想知道虫子是如何做到的。Well relax, its Moment of Science to the rescue.好了,放松,又到了科学出马的时候。Today well explain Standing on Water.今天我们将解释水上漂。There are two things involved in this trick:这一所谓的“魔术”涉及两个环节:one is a property of the water, and the other has to do with the bugs feet.一是水的性质,另一点是这种虫子的脚。Lets start with the water.让我们先从水开始。Water molecules naturally stick to each other, due to a strong chemical attraction between the individual molecules.由于单个分子之间的强烈化学吸引力,水分子自然而然的互相紧密连接。At the ponds surface, the uppermost water molecules experience this attraction as a strong pull toward each other, and downward from the water beneath them.在池塘表面, 当强大的引力以及水内部的吸引力互相作用最上层的水分子经历这一吸引力。This creates whats called ;surface tension;-a somewhat compressed layer of water molecules right at the ponds surface.这就产生了所谓的“表面张力”,一种水分子在池塘表面的压缩层。You can think of this layer as being like a tight film over the surface of the pond.你可以将这一层想象成池塘水面一种非常紧密的膜。How does this help the water bug?这对水虫起到什么作用?If the surface water stuck to its feet as well as it stuck to the water below, the bug would be pulled under.如果撑它脚部表面的水撑水面以下,虫子就会被拉入水中。As it turns out, the bugs feet are covered with waxy hairs that are ;hydrophobic;--which means they chemically resist contact with water.事实明,脚部覆盖着蜡状毛的这种昆虫是恐水的—这意味着它们会化学抵抗与水接触。This combination of strong surface tension and water-resistant feet is what lets our bug stand on the water, without even getting wet!这种结合强大的表面张力及防水的脚部让我们的虫子站在水上,甚至没有淋湿!On our next program, well learn how water bugs move across this surface.在我们下一期节目中,我们将了解水虫如何跨越这一表面。Meanwhile, get back to your fishing!与此同时,继续享受你的钓鱼吧! 201309/255038山东省青岛即墨市哪里抽脂好

青岛胎记医院排行榜Germany and the euro德国与欧元The Merkel method默克尔之道Two books that take a close look at the woman at the centre of the euro crisis两本深入观察这位处于欧元危机中心的女人的书Angela Merkel: A Chancellorship Forged in Crisis. By Alan Crawford and Tony Czuczka.《安格拉默克尔:危机炼成的总理之位》,Alan Crawford 和 Tony Czuczka著。Europes Deadlock: How the Euro Crisis Could Be Solved—And Why it Wont Happen.《欧洲之僵局:欧元危机能如何解决—以及为什么这不会发生》,David Marsh著。ANGELA MERKEL, Germanys chancellor since November 2005, is now the longest-serving national leader in the European Union. Her country is more dominant in the EU and the euro zone than ever. She is Germanys most popular politician, at home and abroad. She is unchallenged within her party, the conservative Christian Democratic Union (CDU). And she is coasting to another election victory in September.安格拉默克尔,自2005年11月以来一直担任德国总理,是目前欧盟中任职时间最长的国家领导人。她的国家在欧盟和欧元区中比其它任何时候都要处于更加主导的地位。无论是在国内还是国外,她是德国最受欢迎的政治人物。在她所在的政党,保守的基督教民主联盟(CDU),无人能挑战她的地位。而且,她正在全国巡回,准备赢得9月选举的又一场胜利。Yet she faces a huge and continuing problem: the euro crisis. This is the big test for her political legacy. Making matters worse, many analysts now point fingers of blame at Germany. It is too austere, too insistent on fiscal consolidation even in recession, too prone to put the burden of adjustment on deficit countries, too dominated by lawyers, not economists. These complaints and her political longevity make Mrs Merkel an interesting subject for a book. Several have come out in German, but this work by Alan Crawford and Tony Czuczka, two Bloomberg journalists, is one of the first to appear in English.然而,她面临着一个巨大且持续的问题:欧元危机。这是对她政治遗产的一场大考。更加糟糕的是许多分析家现在都将矛头指向了德国。它太过于紧缩,甚至在衰退时期仍太过于坚持财政整顿,太过于倾向将调整的重担让赤字国家去承受,太过于听从法律人士而非经济学家。这些抱怨加上她长久的政治生命,使得默克尔女士成为写书的有趣的话题。德国已经有一些该题材的书出来了,但这本由两位彭社记者Alan Crawford和Tony Czuczka所著的书是英语世界中的第一本。The two authors tell the euro story well, but their most interesting material is about her past. Such details, which include her upbringing in communist East Germany, her position as a woman in a mans world and her background as a research chemist, help to define her domestic politics and her approach to the euro. They also make her easy to underestimate: in 1998 she unsentimentally helped to push out her political mentor, Helmut Kohl, the man who did most to create the euro. She may be slow-moving, but she has been more effective than many with more obvious flair and charisma.这两位作者对于欧元的故事讲述得很好,但他们最有趣的材料是关于她的过去。她在共产主义东德的成长教育、她作为一个女人在男人世界中的地位以及她作为一位化学家的背景,这些细节都有助于定义她的国内政治和她处理欧元的手法。他们也使得她容易被低估:1998年,她无情地帮助赶走了她的政治导师赫尔穆特科尔,科尔是为欧元的产生出力最多的人。她也许动作缓慢,但她总是比其它许多人更加有效果、拥有更多明显的才华和领袖魅力。At home she is cautious, sceptical of governments ability to change things, solicitous of allies and quick to cut down challengers. Despite preaching change to other EU countries, she is no radical reformer. Indeed, she has pulled the CDU leftward, partly out of conviction but also to create more coalition options and steal votes from the Social Democrats. In the euro crisis she has favoured small, slow steps. When she is in doubt or gets conflicting advice, her instinct is often to do nothing. As an easterner, she has often leant as much towards Poland as towards France, Germanys traditional EU partner.在国内她是谨慎的,怀疑政府改革的能力,热切关心盟友以及对挑战者快速地斩草除根。尽管她游说其它欧盟国家作出变革,但她不是位激进的改革者。的确,她将CDU拉向左倾,部分是处于信念,但也是为了创造更多的结盟选项以及从社会民主党挖选票。在这场欧元危机当中,她偏向于小且慢的步伐。当她不确定时或是听到不一致的建议时,她的直觉常常是什么都不做。身为一个东德人,她常常更偏向于波兰,这个在欧盟中的德国的传统伙伴,而非法国。All this may be fine at home, since Germany is humming along nicely. But it is problematic in the euro crisis. From its start in Greece in early 2010, Mrs Merkel has been reluctant to lead, careful of committing taxpayers money and insistent on punishing the profligate. She has been bad at telling her voters how much they gain from the euro and how much they might lose if it falls apart. She has also favoured a simple morality tale of blaming fiscal incontinence for the crisis, when loss of competitiveness and failure to reform matter far more. And she has often found it hard to work with others: she eventually forged a relationship with Frances Nicolas Sarkozy, but has not got on with his successor, Franois Hollande.所有这一切在国内也许是可行的,因为德国一路都过得很愉快。但这对于欧元危机是有问题的。自从欧元危机于2010年初在希腊爆发,默克尔女士总是不大愿意领导,对花纳税人的钱很小心,坚持惩罚挥霍浪费者。她不善于告诉其选民他们从欧元中获益多少以及如果欧元解体他们可能损失多少。当面临竞争力丧失和改革失败这些更加紧要的事情时,她也喜欢以一种简单的道德故事的方式将危机归咎于不一致的财政政策。而且她也常常发现难于他人合作:她最终与法国尼古拉萨科齐打造了关系,但对于他的继任者弗兰西斯奥朗德则没有。David Marshs short book is a more sceptical take on the euro crisis. A seasoned Bundesbank-watcher and historian of the euro, he has long argued, as did the Bundesbank, that the single currency cannot work without fiscal and political union. Yet he acknowledges that this is unlikely to happen, not least because it would lack political legitimacy. So his preferred solution is to reduce the number of countries in the euro. But that too would not be easy, he concedes. In Berlin, the fear is that if any country quits, the euro could unravel all the way to the Rhine. Mrs Merkel clearly still has much to do to save the single currency.David Marsh的短篇书对于欧元危机更加持怀疑态度。这位经验丰富的联邦观察者和欧元历史学家,他与联邦一样,长期一来一直认为在没有财政同盟和政治同盟的情况下,单一货币是行不通的。然而他承认这不大可能会发生,主要是因为这缺乏政治上的合法性。所以他的首选方案是减少在欧元区中的国家数目。但这也不是容易的,他退了一步。在柏林,人们害怕的是,一旦有国家退出,那么欧元的解体将一路蔓延至莱茵河。很明显,默克尔女士仍有很多事情要做,以拯救这单一货币。 /201404/286355山东大学齐鲁医院青岛院区皮肤美 即墨市第一人民妇保中医院整形美容的收费标准

青岛莱芜注射隆鼻Science and technology科学技术Cancer therapy癌症治疗Checkpoint Charlie查理检查站A new class of drugs is being deployed in the struggle against cancer部署新药部队投入抗癌战斗THE lexicon of oncology is filled with military metaphors: the war on cancer, aggressive tumours, magic bullets.肿瘤学词典里充斥着军事比喻:抗癌战,侵袭性肿瘤,魔术弹。And although these are indeed only metaphors, they do reflect an underlying attitude—that it is the clinicians job to attack and destroy his patients tumour directly, with whatever weapons are to hand.虽然只是些比喻,它们却凸显出人们对待肿瘤的态度。临床医生的工作就是直接攻击和摧毁病人体内的肿瘤,无论是用什么武器装备。As in real warfare, those weapons may be conventional, chemical or nuclear.就像在真实的战场上一样,这些武器可能是常规武器,化学武器,或者核武器。There is even talk of biological agents, in the form of viruses specifically tailored to seek out and eliminate their tumorous targets.有时甚至会使用生物制剂,即能找出并消灭肿瘤标靶的特制病毒。Which is all well and good as strategies go. But as Sun Tzu observed, the wisest general is not one who wins one hundred victories in one hundred battles, but rather one who overcomes the armies of his enemies without having to fight them himself.癌症治疗和兵法一样好用。但是正如孙子所言,善用兵的将军不是指百战不殆,而是能不战而屈人之兵。And one way to do that is to get someone else to do your fighting for you.有个办法就可以做到,那便是让别人帮你战斗。That, in an oncological context, is where immunotherapy comes in.在肿瘤学领域,这就需要免疫疗法出山。Instead of attacking cancer directly, immunotherapy recruits a patients immune system to do the attacking.免疫疗法并不直接攻击癌症,而是招募病人的免疫系统来做这件事,最新的方法是解除那些为保护人体在健康时期免受免疫系统伤害而对其进行检查的控制机制。The latest way of doing so is by removing the controls which keep the immune system in check during times of bodily peace, lest it damage the person it is supposed to be protecting. Such checkpoint-inhibitor immunotherapy has proved itself over the past three years in the treatment of advanced melanoma, hitherto a death sentence.晚期黑色素瘤目前被视为对病人判了死刑,而过去三年的这类病症相关治疗明检查抑制剂免疫疗法确实有效。Now, as a series of papers presented this week to the annual meeting of the American Society of Clinical Oncology, in Chicago, shows, its range is being extended.现在,在芝加哥举办的美国临床肿瘤学协会年度会议上,研究人员发表一系列论文表明该疗法可以推广到其它肿瘤治疗领域。More effective versions are being brought to bear on melanoma.目前更多有效的同类治疗手段正在用于治疗黑色素瘤,And the whole approach is being tried out—often successfully—on lots of other cancers, including those of the lungs, the kidneys, the bladder, the colon, the stomach, the head and the neck.这种方法正在经受其它癌症的考验,如肺部、肾脏、膀胱、结肠、胃部、头部和颈部等出现的癌症,并且常常很有效果。Checkout time检查时间到The treatment of melanoma that started the ball rolling employed a drug called ipilimumab.这种黑色素瘤治疗是研究人员在三年前的协会会议上公布的。This belongs to a class known as monoclonal antibodies.它使用一种名为易普利姆玛的单克隆抗体药物。An antibody is an immune-system protein shaped to lock onto a particular chemical target. And specific varieties of antibody, aimed at specific targets, can be generated from cultures of genetically identical cells created for the task—in other words, cellular clones.抗体是一种能够锁定特异化学标靶的免疫系统蛋白。不同类型的抗体针对不同的特定性标靶,可以通过培养那些为实现特定功能而出现且具有相同基因的细胞获取,换句话说就是采用细胞克隆的方法。Ipilimumab locks onto and thus blocks the action of a protein, CTLA-4, which sits on the outer membranes of immune-system cells called T-lymphocytes.易普利姆玛锁定并抑制CTLA-4的活动,这种蛋白位于T淋巴细胞的细胞膜外层。These lymphocytes exist to kill body cells that pose a threat, such as cells infected by viruses, and also cancer cells.这些T淋巴细胞杀死构成威胁的身体细胞,比如被病毒感染的细胞或者癌细胞等。CTLA-4s role is to calm lymphocytes down and stop them proliferating.CTLA-4的作用是让淋巴细胞冷静下来,阻止它们增殖。That is a good thing when there is no threat around.这在人体未受威胁时是件好事,但是有些癌细胞非常善于躲避免疫系统。But some cancer cells are skilled at hiding from the immune system, so a drug that switches CTLA-4 off can unleash lymphocytes in circumstances when they are needed but otherwise unavailable.在需要淋巴细胞活动却无法激活的情况下,一种关闭CTLA-4功能的药物可以解放更多的淋巴细胞。Ipilimumabs success has spurred the development of further antibodies that work in similar ways.易普利姆玛的成功激励研究人员深入研究有着类似工作机制的抗体。Nivolumab and lambrolizumab gum up another surface protein, PD-1; and a fourth, so new that it still goes by its laboratory identifier of MPDL3280A, binds to PD-L1, a protein that would otherwise help PD-1 to do its job.Nivolumab和lambrolizumab扰乱另一种表面蛋白PD-1。第四种蛋白最近才发现,还使用着实验室标识符MPDL3280A,它可以绑定到PD-L1上,而PD-L1会反过来协助PD-1蛋白完成任务。Though they have slightly different modi operandi, all four antibodies work by shutting down biochemical checkpoints that limit the proliferation of lymphocytes.尽管方式稍微不同,四种抗体采取关闭生物检查站,解除淋巴细胞扩散限制的方法,Hence the name checkpoint inhibitors.因此得名检查抑制剂In the original trials of ipilimumab, 11% of patients responded.易普利姆玛在最初进行试验时,有11%的病人对药物产生反应。That might not sound many, but those who did respond often did so strongly—surviving in some cases for years with no evidence of disease.虽然人数不是很多,但这些病人的反应很强烈。有些人可以存活几年而没有疾病特征。Ipilimumabs successors have pushed the response rate up while maintaining the long-term benefits.易普利姆玛的后续制剂提高了反应比例,同时维持长期效果。A trial of nivolumab, led by Mario Sznol of the Yale Cancer Centre, showed a success rate of almost a third in a group of 107 melanoma patients, when success was defined as a tumour shrinking by 30% or more.耶鲁大学癌症中心Mario Sznol 对Nivolumab进行了试验,按照肿瘤缩小至少30%的标准,参与该试验的107名黑色素瘤病人中有三分之一取得了良好的治疗效果,The median survival time of these successes has so far been 16.8 months, quite a gain over the nine months that might have been expected for such people just a few years ago.目前存活时间的中位数为16.8个月,这要比前些年对这类病人存活期的预期增加了9个月,已经算相当长了。Lambrolizumab, too, looks promising.Lambrolizumab也很有前景。Antoni Ribas of the University of California, Los Angeles, and his colleagues reported to the meeting that the tumours of more than a third of the 135 advanced-melanoma patients whom they had treated with it have shrunk.洛杉矶加利福尼亚大学的Antoni Ribas及其同事在会议上报告称,135名接受Lambrolizumab治疗的黑色素瘤病人中,有超过三分之一的肿瘤缩小了。Some of these people had previously been treated, unsuccessfully, with ipilimumab, confirming that the two drugs really do work in different ways.有些人之前接受ipilimumab治疗却没有成效,明了这两种药物确实有着不同的工作机制。Those separate modes of action were also confirmed by work announced to the meeting by Jedd Wolchok of the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Centre, in New York.两种制剂相互独立的作用机制也由Jedd Wolchok向大会所做的工作汇报明。He and his colleagues reported that a combination of ipilimumab and nivolumab causes faster and more complete responses than either does on its own. So far, they have treated 52 people.Jedd来自纽约斯隆–凯特林癌病中心,他和同事们称ipilimumab和nivolumab结合使用比单独使用产生更快更彻底的效果。The tumours of around three-quarters of these patients began shrinking in the first 12 weeks of treatment.目前他们治疗了52位病人,约有四分之三的的肿瘤在治疗初的12周内开始缩小,In a third of cases tumours shrank by 80% or more in that period and in 90% the patient was continuing to respond at his last check-up.同时有三分之一的肿瘤缩小了至少80%。在最后一次的检查中,这种治疗对90%的病人继续有效。This, then, is good news for those with melanoma.这对于患有黑色素瘤的病人是个莫大的好消息。But the most intriguing paper of the series was delivered by Roy Herbst, who also works at Yale.然而这些论文中最令人激动的要数同在耶鲁工作的Roy Herbst所发表的论文。He and his colleagues are testing MPDL3280A in a trial open to people who have any type of metastatic or otherwise incurable tumour—those, in other words, for whom established treatments offer no hope.他和同事们在一轮实验中测试MPDL3280A,并且面向所有患有任何转移性或者不可治愈肿瘤的人,换句话说,这些病人的肿瘤是目前成熟的治疗手段所不能治疗的。Preliminary results suggest a fifth of the 140 patients in this trial are responding. And, as in the case of Dr Wolchoks work, these responses are long-lasting.该实验的初步结果显示140名病人中有五分之一产生反应,并且这些反应长期持续,恰如Wolchok士研究中观察到的那样。The crucial point in the MPDL3280A trial is that those who have responded have a range of cancers—not just melanoma.MPDL3280A试验的关键点在于那些产生反应的病人患有的癌症多种多样,不局限在黑色素瘤。What was once a treatment specifically for melanoma now looks as if it might work for at least some cases of half a dozen common cancers.曾经专门用于黑色毒瘤的治疗现在看似至少对六种常见肿瘤的部分病例起效。If such results are confirmed by future studies, a new front will have opened in the war on cancer.这一结论如果能在未来的研究中得以验,抗癌战争就开拓了新前线。Moreover, the troops on this front will be not untested conscripts but confederates who are familiar with the enemy and just needed a little encouragement to join the battle.此外,守在前线的部队不是没有经验的新兵,他们对敌人十分了解,只需要一点点鼓励参加战斗,Sun Tzu would surely have approved.而孙子必定会批准下命令。 /201311/265144 Business商业报道Women and work女性和工作The glass-ceiling index玻璃天花板指数The best—and worst—places to be a working woman职场女性待遇最好和最差的国家AS IT is International Womens Day on March 8th, The Economist has created a glass-ceiling index, to show where women have the best chances of equal treatment at work.今天是3月8日国际妇女节,《经济学人》就创造了一个玻璃天花板指数模型来向大家展示哪个地区的职场女性拥有最公平的待遇。It combines data on higher education, labour-force participation, pay, child-care costs, maternity rights, business-school applications and representation in senior jobs.这个模型中考虑到的指标有:高等教育、劳工参与度、薪酬、抚养子女的成本、妇权利、商学院申请、以及在高级职务中的表现。Each countrys score is a weighted average of its performance on nine indicators.每个国家的得分是这九项指标加权平均之后的结果。To no ones surprise, Nordic countries come out well on educational attainment and labour-force participation.毫无疑问的是,北欧国家在受教育水平和劳工参与度这两项指标上非常突出。Women are also relatively well represented in their parliaments; Finland and Sweden were among the first countries to allow women to vote and stand for election.女性在国会中也能享受相对较高的代表权;芬兰和瑞典都属于最先让女性享有选举权的国家。Yet even there women are paid less than men for similar work.然而即使这样,这儿的女性在应对相似的工作时拿到的薪酬也比男性要低。In Finland and Sweden the gap is close to the OECD average of 15%, though in Norway it has fallen to 8%.在芬兰和瑞典,男女收入差异已经接近经合组织收入平均水平的15%, 而在挪威男女收入差异仅仅只有8%。In Finland women accounted for almost half of those who took the GMAT, an entrance exam for business schools, in 2012-13.在芬兰,2012年至2013年参与GMAT考试的考生中有一大半是女性。Worldwide, the share was 43%, an increase of five points in a decade.在全世界来看,这一比例达到了43%,比10年前上升了五个百分点。In Norway nearly two-fifths of board members for the largest listed companies are women, thanks largely to the introduction of mandatory as in 2008.在挪威,最大的上市公司董事会中几乎有五分之二是女性,造成这一现象的很大一部分原因是2008年的强制配额。That is twice the share in the European Union, which is considering bringing in as if the current voluntary approach fails.该比例已经是欧盟的两倍了。欧盟表示,如果现行的自愿方式无法奏效的话,他们将会考虑引用强制配额。At the bottom of our index are Japan and South Korea.在指数列表低端的是日本和韩国。Too few women there have jobs, few senior managers or board members are women and pay gaps are large—in South Korea, at 37%, the largest in the OECD.在这两个国家,职场女性人数相当少,在高级职务和董事会成员中也少有女性的身影。并且,韩国男女收入差距在经合组织中是最高的,达到了37%。If, in the UNs words, equality for women is progress for all, both countries have a long way to go.如果用联合国的话来说,对于女性而言,平等意味着在各方面都有进步,那么这两个国家都还有很长的路要走。 /201403/279413青岛济宁吸脂多少钱青岛市胸科医院美容中心



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