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云南大理妇幼保健人民中心中医院不孕不育科百家网

2020年01月26日 17:57:18 | 作者:丽养生 | 来源:新华社
When the pressure goes up, this shaft just pulls on it, pulls on the metallic tendon, and that pulls on the joint to make its arm to go forward for example, or back. So, you can see these cylinders going in and out as he moves his arm up and down.;当压力升高时,活塞就往里推,从而推动金属零件,进而推动机器人的关节,使胳膊或后背向前运动。因此,当它提起或放下胳膊时,你会看到这些液压缸在里外活动。All those components are pretty heavy.所有的这些组成部件都很沉重。;When hes fully configured with power systems, he can weigh up to 450 pounds.;“当装上电力系统,配置齐全的时候,他体重就会达到450磅。”But it wont take a superman to put on this super device. It is engineered to feel light on whoever wears it.但是要穿上这套设备,并不是只有超人才行。只要一开动引擎,谁穿上它都会感觉轻松。;He can feel the mass of 450 pounds, but he doesnt feel the weight. I can move the system around now just with my fingers, if I use his input. So, it basically floats. When he picks it up though again, and Ive tried to push on him and he pushes on me, he has great strength. So the key is he can put out large forces, but he doesnt have to use much effort to do that.;它能感受到450磅的质量,却感受不到重力。如果利用它的输入功能,我可以只用手指便能移动这个系统。它基本上是漂浮着。当它再次抬起重物时,我推它,他也推我,它的力量很大。所以重点在于它能不费吹灰之力对外界施加很大的力量。How much can an Exoskeleton lift? How much do you want to lift?Exoskeleton能举起多重的重物呢?而你想举起多重的重物呢?;The computer can decide to have anywhere from zero to 3,000 pounds per square inch inside the cylinder. So the loads these cylinders can hold can be 1,000 pounds.;“计算机会决定液压缸内每平方英寸承受零到3000磅的重量。所以这些液压缸能承受质量为1000磅的重物。”This super strength could come in handy in an emergency.这种超能量可以在紧急情况下派上用场。;Now theres many applications for the Exoskeleton in life-saving activities, and going into situations where you extract people that are injured, or where you move material thats hazardous to people.;“如今已为Exoskeleton开发出用于救生活动的软件,并应用到现实社会中去,比如将受伤群众送往安全地带,或者移动对人类有害的物质材料。”And the military wants to use it to take the pain out of heavy lifting.而且军队也希望利用它来解除大型起重的痛苦。;Many times with aircraft and other vehicles, you want to load munitions into them and they are heavy. And if you have to keep doing that all day, youll get very tired. So, this is an issue of endurance.;“许多次,你想利用飞机和其它交通工具来搬运沉重的军火武器。一整天下来,你会精疲力尽。所以这也解决了耐力的问题。”原文译文属!201207/191043Business Aviation Flight to the future商业 航空业 飞向未来Modernising creaking air-traffic systems will be a huge task实现老化的航空系统现代化是一个艰巨的任务THESE days a ,000 car comes with GPS satellite navigation fitted as standard.目前,一辆价值一万五千美元的轿车配有GPS导航系统,才被认为达到标准。But a 0m airliner still has to be guided through the skies by spoken instructions from a bloke with a radio in a control tower.但是一辆价值一亿五千万美元的客机在航行时依然是通过指挥塔台上的人员通过广播进行操控。That is because air-traffic management (ATM) systems are stuck in the 1950s.这是因为空中交通管理(ATM)系统还是上个世纪50年代的。Instead of flying straight, planes must zigzag from one ground beacon to the next, and ascend and descend in steps, at each stage obtaining permission from the ground.客机必须曲折地从一个信号站飞到下一个,而不是直线飞行;每一步上升或下降都需要得到地面的许可。The controllers radar only shows planes approximate positions, so they must space them well apart.空管员的雷达只能显示出飞机的大概位置,好让两架飞机之间有足够的距离。All this wastes fuel and causes congestion and delays.这些举动都要浪费燃料,并造成拥堵和延误。The average flight in European airspace is 50km (31 miles) longer than it need be.在欧洲领空,平均飞行距离比实际所需长50公里(合约31英里)。So the worlds aviation authorities are seeking to modernise the whole system, streamlining the routing of flights and providing much more real-time information to pilots and controllers.因此,世界航空管理部门都在尝试使整个系统实现现代化,让航空路线效率更高,并向飞行员和空管员提供更多的实时信息。This could lead to huge orders for electronics firms, which is why, in his recent jobs speech, President Barack Obama called for billion of extra cash to speed up Americas ATM-modernisation project, NextGen.这可能会给电子公司带来大量的订单,也就是为什么巴拉克?奥巴马总统在最近的讲话中,呼吁给美国的ATM现代化工程;新世代;增加10亿美元的额外投入。A study by consultants from McKinsey of Europes equivalent project, SESAR, finds that its costs should be dwarfed by the fuel savings and the economic boost from squeezing more flights into Europes busy skies.麦卡锡在欧洲的分公司也开展了同样的名为SESAR的项目,其顾问进行了一次调研,发现让原本拥挤的航线塞进更多的航班会带来经济利益激增,这样航空设备更新换代的花费与燃料节约出的费用就显得微不足道了。America stands to make similar gains.美国也准备通过相同的方法获益。It is in everyones interest to invest in modernisation, but the airlines are wary: several times in recent history they have bought expensive kit only to find they cannot use it because controllers have failed to upgrade their equipment to match.投资现代化是每个人的利益所在,但是各大航空公司却十分谨慎,客机上装配了昂贵的元件却无法使用,因为空管员无法更新设备去匹配,这种情况近年来时有发生。These sorts of ambitious projects to introduce new technology, with countless participants, are prone to cock-ups.这种充满抱负的项目旨在引进新技术,拥有大量的参与人员,但往往都会陷入混乱。Those involved in ATM modernisation want to avoid what happened when mobile-phone standards were set, with different countries ending up with incompatible systems.参与ATM现代化的人们希望避免移动电话标准确定时出现的情况,也就是不同的国家最终都开发了互不兼容的系统。To guard against that risk, the UNs International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO) has just held a summit in Montreal, at which it divided the long list of ATM modernisation projects into manageable chunks, on which the worlds aviation authorities will try to agree standards, one at a time.为了规避这个风险,联合国国际民用航空组织(ICAO)前不久在蒙特利尔召开了峰会,将长长的ATM现代化项目名单分成了几个可操作的版块,这样,世界航空主管部门就能尽量循序渐进地统一标准。The process has started well, though developing countries are said to worry about rich countries imposing costly programmes on them.尽管据说发展中国家担心发达国家会将高价的项目强加到自己身上,但这个进程还算开端良好。Agreeing on technical standards will be difficult enough. Harder still, says Nancy Graham, an ICAO official, will be paying for it all.统一技术标准已经够困难的了,但据ICAO官员南希?格雷汉姆称,更困难的是这一切要付出的代价。 /201212/217794

IF CALIFORNIA were not aly so famous for Silicon Valley and Hollywood, it might be renowned for the cluster of water-technology firms in its San Diego County. The reverse-osmosis (RO) spiral module, the trick that underpins turning sea- and waste-water into potable stuff, was patented in San Diego in 1964. Today dozens of firms in the area supply many of the world’s roughly 13,000 RO plants in places from the Persian Gulf and Israel to Australia, China, Singapore and Spain.如果加利福利亚的出名不是因为硅谷和好莱坞,那么圣地亚哥大量的水处理公司也许会让它声名在外。反渗透膜元件1964在圣地亚哥被申请专利,该设备是将海水和废水转化为可饮用水的基础。当今全球约有13000家反渗透厂,它们分布在从波斯湾、以色列到澳大利亚、中国、新加坡和西班牙的地方。而其中的大多数厂商从圣地亚哥的水处理公司引进技术和设备。Southern California itself, however, has not so far been a big user of its own technology. This is surprising, given that the whole American south-west confronts a water problem. But there is at least now a growing consensus that the existing infrastructure, consisting of vast aqueducts that carry water from the Sacramento Delta in the north and the Colorado River in the east, will not suffice as the climate gets warmer and the population increases. In places such as San Diego, which has measly and brackish groundwater and currently imports 90% of its water, the answer must be greater conservation, as much reuse as possible, with most of the rest coming from the sea.然而到目前为止,南加州自身对水处理技术的运用并不广泛。这让人感觉到很惊讶,因为整个美国西南地区面临水资源匮乏问题。至少大家都逐渐认识到:随着气候变暖和人口增加,现存的基础设施(包括大量从北部的沙加緬度三角洲、东部的科罗拉多河铺设到西南地区的输水管道)将难以满足用水需求。圣地亚哥拥有的地下水储量既少,盐份又高,如今其90%的用水需从外地引入。在像圣地亚哥这样的地方,其对策是尽可能的节约用水、循环利用,而剩余不足的部份则大多从海洋中获取。 The first part, conservation, is hardly controversial any more. San Diego today uses less water with a larger population than it did in 1989, the year water consumption peaked. The second part, water recycling, has been a harder sell, because of what the industry calls the yuck factor. It doesn’t help that Americans still use the term “toilet-to-tap” for recycling, even though properly treated sewage is nowadays completely clean. Singapore made its programme acceptable in part by rebranding it as NEWater. But even the Singaporeans cannot recycle all their waste-water.首先,节约用水已被广泛认同。圣地亚哥如今人口增加了,耗水量却比1989年(耗水量最高的一年)少。其次,水循环利用很难被广泛接受,其原因在于业内所称的“恶心之物”。美国人民称水循环为“马桶-水龙头”,即使被恰当处理的污水十分干净,其也难去除人们的恶心之感。新加坡使其在理论上被接受,部分原因在于它把处理过的污水称为新生水。但是,即使是新加坡人也不能循环利用所有的废水。This is where desalination comes in. A firm appropriately called Poseidon Resources is now close to building the biggest desalination plant in America behind a power station by the beach in Carlsbad. The power plant sucks in 304m gallons of seawater a day for cooling in any case, so Poseidon plans to divert 104m gallons a day through its osmotic membranes.海水淡化技术就因此出现了。恰如其名,Poseidon Resources公司将在美国修建最大的海水淡化厂,其厂址位于卡尔斯巴德的海滩附近的发电站后面。发电站每日总会吸取30400万加仑海水用于冷却,因此Poseidon计划每日用渗透膜淡化10400万加仑海水。Fondling a pipe of membranes (they are rolled like toilet paper but the size of a cannon), Poseidon’s Peter MacLaggan explains the scale: if water molecules were blown up to the size of tennis balls, salt molecules would be softballs (roughly 50% bigger in diameter), viruses would be trucks, and bacteria would be the size of power plants. From the 104m daily gallons, 50m gallons of pure H2O will come out at one end and brine at the other, to be fed back into the power station’s discharge, and then into the ocean.渗透膜如同卫生纸一样卷起来的,但却有大炮那么大。Poseidon的Peter MacLaggan一边摸着渗透膜一边解释道:如果水分子胀大到乒乓球大小,盐分子有垒球大(在直径上大约长50%),病毒有卡车那么大,细菌有发电厂那么大。在每天处理的10400万加仑海水中,有5000万加仑的纯水从渗透膜一端流出,然后在其另一端变成浓盐水,最终由发电厂的排放系统流回海里。Lots of people like the idea. Once fully running in 2015 the plant could produce 10% of the region’s water. And there are plans for more desalination plants. Inland Californians, Arizonans, Nevadans and others would need to take much less water from the endangered Colorado River.很多人赞同这种想法。到2015年,一旦Poseidon全部投入运行,其可以提供该地区用水的10%。而且有许多厂准备加入海水淡化处理队伍。加利福利亚内陆、亚利桑那州、内华达州和其它地方从日渐干涸的科罗拉多河中抽取的水将越来越少。But a few people hate it a lot. Environmentalists are suing Poseidon every step of the way. Joe Geever of the Surfrider Foundation says desalination uses too much energy and that Poseidon’s plant would kill too much marine life, including fish such as the goby and the garibaldi, which unfortunately happens to be California’s state marine fish. He understands that there is a role for desalination, he says, but would rather not have it right there, right now, and on this scale.但是也有一些人极不赞同。环境保护者正在起诉Poseidon海水淡化方式的每一步骤。冲浪协会的Joe Geever说:“海水淡化耗费太多的能源,而且Poseidon会伤害许多海洋动物诸如虾虎鱼、海金鱼之类的鱼类,而后者恰好是加州的海洋鱼。”他说,他知道海水淡化的重要性,但是相对于其来带的利弊,他宁愿加州此刻没有这么大规模的海水淡化厂。201204/177102

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