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杭州检查不孕不育要多少钱求医互动

2019年11月12日 04:34:17 | 作者:搜索媒体 | 来源:新华社
Science and technology科学技术Exercise and addiction锻炼也会上瘾Fun run奔跑的奥秘People, it seems, have evolved to be addicted to exercise人类似乎在进化过程中对锻炼上瘾了AS THE legions of gym bunnies and jogging enthusiasts who race out into the spring sunshine every year clearly demonstrate, running can be fun.那一大批在春日和煦的阳光中奔跑着的健身爱好者无不向我们展示着奔跑的乐趣。More specifically, running triggers the release of brain chemicals called endocannabinoids that create a potent feeling of pleasure.更确切地讲,在奔跑时人体内有一种化学物质被释放,从而使人产生一种强烈的愉悦感。As their name suggests, these endocannabinoids work in the same way as the active ingredient of marijuana.正如其名字的含义一般,这些endocannabinoids有着跟大麻中的有效成分一样的效果。From an evolutionary standpoint this surge of endocannabinoids, and the runners high it creates, make sense.从进化论的观点来看,人体内endocannabinoids水平的上升及由此而生的赛跑者的亢奋对人类的发展是有意义的。For ancient humans, remaining fit enough to run after game and away from predators and enemies was vital for survival.那些远古时代的人类,为了能够顺利追捕到猎物并从其他猎食者的追击中逃脱,必须将身体状态始终维持在一个良好的水平。Yet whether other mammals are also driven to exercise by endocannabinoids has remained a mystery.既然人类如此,那么其他哺乳动物是否也会在endocannabinoids的内在驱动下而进行锻炼呢?Now a study led by David Raichlen of the University of Arizona has revealed that the runners high does exist in other species, but not in all.这仍是个未解之谜。现在一项由Arizona大学的David Raichlen士领衔的研究已经在其他哺乳动物体内-并非全部都有-发现了endocannabinoids的存在。You expect me to what?!你猜我在干什么?!Dr Raichlen hypothesised that endocannabinoid-driven exercise highs would be found in those mammals that gain an evolutionary benefit from being fast on their feet: antelopes, horses and wolves, for example.Raichlen先提出了一个假设:像羚羊,马和狼这样一些因拥有飞毛腿而在进化过程中受益的哺乳动物中也存在着锻炼产生的兴奋现象;However, he also thought that they would not be present in those which are known for being quick and agile, but not for running, like ferrets.而那些以灵动著称,却非凭奔跑文明的动物,如雪貂,则不会出现此现象。To test these ideas, he and a team of colleagues devised an experiment that monitored the endocannabinoid levels of different species after they had been walking or running on a tmill.为了检验这些猜想,Raichlen和由其同事所组成的团队设计了一个实验-对在跑步机上行走,奔跑过后的动物体内的endocannabinoids水平进行监控。The experimental animals in question were ten people, eight dogs and eight ferrets.被考虑用来进行实验的动物有以下三种:十个人,八条和八只雪貂。Dr Raichlen had them run or walk on the tmill for 30 minutes.Raichlen士先让他们在跑步机上行走或奔跑30分钟。Since running and walking speeds differ from species to species, the speed at which the tmill moved was varied so that it raised the heart rates of the different participants to the same level.由于不同的动物速度不一,所以跑步机的传送带速度设置是以使不同动物的心率达到同一水平为依据。Running speeds were thus set at 2.5 metres a second for people, 1.83 for dogs and 0.84 for ferrets.这样设置的结果便为:奔跑速度为人类2.5米/秒,1.83米/秒,雪貂0.84米/秒;Walking speeds were set at 1.25 metres a second for people and 1.1 for dogs.行走速度为人类1.25米/秒,1.1米/秒。The ferrets proved too easily distracted to walk consistently on the tmills and were thus left to sit quietly in their cages for this part of the study.雪貂由于太易分心,没办法让它持续在跑步机上行走,所以在进行该部分实验时它们被留在了笼中静静地坐着。Each participating animal ran for one session and walked for one other, and did so on separate days, to avoid exhaustion.每只动物会跑一段走一段,为了避免动物们出现筋疲力尽的情况,实验是分成几天进行的。Before and after each session, blood was drawn from each and the endocannabinoid levels in it were measured.在实验前和试验后,动物们都会被抽血以检验其中的endocannabinoid水平。The researchers report in the Journal of Experimental Biology that, after 30 minutes of walking, participants endocannabinoid levels did not rise.研究人员在《生物学实验》杂志中提到,在经过30分钟的行走之后,参加实验的动物的endocannabinoid水平并没上升。After running, however, the average humans endocannabinoid levels rose from 2.4 picomoles per millilitre to 6.1.然而在奔跑过后情况则有所不同:那10个人的平均endocannabinoid水平从2.4 pmol/ml上升到了6.1 pmol/ml。Dogs showed a similar trend, with levels rising from 2.4 pmol/ml to 8.0.的变化趋势与人类似---由2.4 pmol/ml升至8.0 pmol/ml。Ferrets were different. Although they did show an increase, from 3.0 to 3.9 pmol/ml, this was not a statistically significant rise.唯独雪貂例外。他们的endocannabinoid水平虽亦有所上升-3.0 至 3.9 pmol/ml,但仍处于统计学上可不被纳入考虑的范围内。These findings suggest that dogs experience a runners high but ferrets do not.这些发现表明中同样存在着赛跑者的亢奋现象,而雪貂则没有。Dr Raichlen argues that it makes sense for ferrets not to have systems that reward cardiovascular activity, since such exercise consumes a lot of energy, may cause injury, and is not crucial to the stealthy hunting technique of sneaking down burrows and killing rabbits in their sleep.看来雪貂体内并不存在对心血管活动进行阳性强化刺激的系统,Raichlen士认为这对雪貂的发展同样是有意义的,要知道太剧烈的运动会消耗掉过多的能量, 甚至引发受伤,且这并非是雪貂捕猎技术中的关键-它们一般只需偷偷溜进兔子窝并在兔子们熟睡时将其杀死即可。What is not clear is whether the endocannabinoid reward is an ancient mechanism that has been lost on branches of the mammalian tree that do not need it, or is something that evolves quickly in species which become active.仍有待考的是,究竟这种endocannabinoid刺激机制是从远古时代起即为哺乳类动物所拥有,还是从某些活跃的个别物种中进化出来的?Given that humanitys arboreal simian ancestors would presumably have had little need to run, it is probably the latter.鉴于人类的祖先—类人猿是树栖动物,据推测它们很少有奔跑的需要,因此正确结论很可能是后者。But to be sure Dr Raichlen will need to put animals far less co-operative than ferrets on the tmill.但若要确认此假设,Raichlen士需将更多如雪貂般不太合作的动物哄上跑步机。 /201403/278510

Free exchange自由贸易Tilted marine倾斜的海运New techniques show the damage done by subsidies at the heart of global trade新方法表明对航运业的补贴具有危害性THERE is no better symbol of the benefits of globalization than the container ship. More than 9 billion tonnes of goods and materials were transported by sea in 2012, with trade helping to lift global growth rates. An ever-expanding web of links connects rich and poor; developing countries now account for around 60% of seaborne trade. But ships also show the rotten side of trade: protectionism. In 2006 China enacted a “Long and Medium-Term Plan” to enlarge its shipping industry by 2015. It has been successful (see left-hand chart). New research shows its attempts to tilt markets may be having a bigger impact than previously thought.没有什么比集装箱船更能代表全球化带来的益处。2012年,超过90亿吨的物资通过海运运输,这些贸易加快了全球增长速度。发达地区与贫困地区之间的联系不断扩大,如今发展中国家占据了海运贸易的60%。然而,船舶市场依然显现了贸易的消极一面:保护主义。2006年,中国颁布了一个截至2015年的以鼓励航运业为目的的“中长期规划”。这个计划目前看来是成功的(见左图)。近期调查显示,中国试图倾斜市场的行为可能比想象中更具冲击力。Protectionism in shipping is centuries old. In a 1905 study* Royal Meeker, an American economist, explained how a system of subsidies developed under Elizabeth I. Rewards were based on tonnage of ship, and included “bounties” paid to fishing boats heading for the North Sea in search of herring. Adam Smith provided an early economic analysis in “The Wealth of Nations”, lamenting: “It has, I am afraid, been too common for vessels to fit out for the sole purpose of catching, not the fish, but the bounty.” The handouts distorted the shipbuilding industry, resulting in an oversize fishing fleet and a misallocation of resources.航运业保护主义已经有一百年的历史了。美国经济学家罗亚尔·米克在1905年做的一项研究解释了伊丽莎白一世在任期间的补贴制度是怎样制定的。补贴是基于船舶吨位确定的,包括对驶往北海捕获鲱鱼的渔船提供的奖金。亚当·斯密在《国富论》中给出了一个早期的经济分析,他感叹道:“装配船舶的唯一目的恐怕不是,而是为了得到津贴。”救济金(补贴)扭曲了造船业,引致了捕捞船队过于庞大、资源配置不当。Far from avoiding the distortion Smith spotted, governments have been keen to nurture it. The early logic was military. A strong merchant fleet meant lots of boats that could be commandeered during times of war. One way to bolster shipping has been to grant lucrative contracts for postal delivery: Britains Cunard lines benefited hugely from such a deal in the 1830s. Another method, used by both America and Japan in the early 1900s, was easy finance, in the form of cut-price government loans.与斯密所倡导的避免市场扭曲理论相悖甚远,各国政府一直以来都热衷于提供补贴。早期,对航运业提供补贴被认为可以为军事务。一个强大的商船队意味着战争时期可以征用更多的船舶。鼓励航运业的一种方法是允许签订利润丰厚的邮递合同:英国的丘纳德航运公司在1830年的一笔邮递交易中获利甚多。另一种方法是以廉价政府贷款的形式为航运公司提供便捷的融资,这也是19世纪初美国和日本采取的政策。Modern shipping subsidies are used to build economic heft rather than military might. Governments like shipping due to the knock-on effects of a booming yard. Modern ships are huge (up to 400m long) and include up to 30,000 parts. Assembling them is labour-intensive, and so is making the parts that outside suppliers provide to the shipyards. A recent report by Americas Maritime Administration estimated that more than 107,000 people work in the countrys heavily protected shipyards. Adding in the companies supporting the yards, and the shops and services that support these workers, the total ran to 400,000, an employment “multiplier” of 4. So, the idea is, by helping shipping a government indirectly supports workers in many other industries.现在的航运补贴更多的则是为了加强经济实力,而非军事力量。各国政府青睐航运业是因为建造船厂能够带来一系列连锁效应。现代船舶船型巨大(可达400米长),可囊括零部件多达3万个。供应商制造向船厂提供的零部件,以及组装这些部件都是劳动密集型的工作。根据美国海事局最近做的一份报告估计,超过10.7万人在政府强烈保护的造船厂工作。加上这些造船厂的供应商,以及这些工人产生的商品和务消费需求,总共拉动了40万人的就业,就业乘数为4。因此,这样一来通过加强航运业,政府间接拉动了其他行业的就业。Yet economists views on subsidies have hardened over time. Chinas policy provides subsidies both for the construction of ships themselves and for the building or expansion of shipyards. These interferences can distort trade, resulting in inefficient production. In deciding whether a subsidy flouts trade rules the World Trade Organisation (WTO) uses a “price gap” approach. The idea is simple: if a country is producing and selling something at a big discount to what others are charging, there is probably something fishy going on.然而,经济学家们对政府补贴的态度越来越坚定。中国的政策是同时对建造船舶和建造、扩大船坞提供补贴。这些干预会扭曲贸易,导致生产效率低下。世界贸易组织(WTO)用“价格差”的方法判定一项补贴是否违反贸易规则。道理很简单:如果一国生产并出售某产品的价格远低于其他国家的要价,这其中可能就有问题。Price gaps provide a quick warning system, but are a poor way to judge the full extent of subsidies, according to a 2013 book by Usha and George Haley, of West Virginia University and the University of New Haven. It is a static approach, ignoring how demand for each shipyards differentiated products varies over time. It also fails to account for variations in efficiency. Whereas Chinese workers may be relatively cheap, large South Korean or Japanese shipyards exploit economies of scale that smaller Chinese yards cannot. The balance of all these factors, in addition to subsidies, should influence a shipyards costs and prices.根据乌莎(西弗吉尼亚大学)和乔治·海利(纽黑文大学)在2013年发表的一本书,价格差提供了一个直观警示机制,但它却不能很好的判断补贴的真实程度。价格差是个静态方法,忽视了每个造船厂的不同产品的需求随时间的变动。并且它也不能解释生产效率的变动。虽然中国的劳动力可能相对更廉价,但韩国和日本的大型造船厂相对中国的小型造船厂拥有规模效应。除了补贴,这些因素的综合作用也影响着造船厂的成本和定价。Recognising this, a 2014 working paper by Myrto Kalouptsidi of Princeton University provides a new way to spot subsidies and measure their impact. Using detailed quarterly data on factors like a shipyards age, size, capacity and staffing levels Ms Kalouptsidi estimates cost functions—the relationship between a yards output and its cost of production—for 192 yards across China, Japan, South Korea and Europe. By analysing data between 2001 and 2012, she can isolate the impact of Chinas 2006 policy.鉴于上述原因,普林斯顿大学的学者Myrto Kalouptsidi于2014年在一份研究手稿中提出了一种考察补贴并衡量其影响的新方法。使用造船厂年龄、规模、容量、员工配备水平等因素的详细季度数据,Kalouptsidi估计出了中国、日本、韩国以及欧洲的192个造船厂的成本函数(造船厂生产的成本与产出之间的关系)。通过分析2001年到2012年的数据,她排除了中国2006年鼓励航运业的政策的影响。The results are striking. A simple price-gap approach shows that Chinese ships cost 7.3% less than rivals. Controlling for quality differences—Chinese ships are seen as lower quality and so should be around 3.5% cheaper, even in the absence of subsidies—gives a 4% gap, hardly justification for WTO rage. But Ms Kalouptsidis estimates show this is just part of the story. Government help artificially lowered Chinese firms costs by between 15-20%. The aid will have included explicit subsidies and hidden benefits, such as tolerating losses at state-owned yards. Chinas market share jumped as the policy was introduced (see right-hand chart).结果是惊人的。简单的价格差方法显示中国船舶的生产成本相对其竞争对手低7.3%。考虑质量差异—中国船舶被认为质量低下,即使没有补贴也应该便宜将近3.5%—最终产生了4%的价格差,这并不足以让WTO动怒。但是Kalouptsidi的估测表明,这仅仅是表面现象。政府人为地援助中国企业将成本降低了15%到20%。这些援助包括显性补贴和隐性福利,例如容许国有造船厂亏损经营。自从这种政策出台,中国的市场份额显著跃升。As in Smiths day, this has shifted resources. By comparing the costs and productivity of the shipyards in her sample, Ms Kalouptsidi forecasts how the market might have developed in the absence of Chinas subsidies. Her analysis points to a big resource reallocation: absent the meddling, Japans market share would have been around 30 percentage points higher. Since many South Korean or Japanese yards are more efficient than Chinas, it means that the true cost of ship production may well have risen. Bloated by subsidy, Chinas yards have turned out a surfeit of vessels, often poorly matched to customers demands.如同在斯密的时代,这种政策转移了资源。Kalouptsidi女士通过比较她选取的样本中的不同造船厂的成本和生产率,预测出了在中国不提供补贴的情况下市场的发展状况。她分析提出了一个大幅变动的资源重置:如果没有干预,日本的市场份额应该比现在高出大概30%。由于许多韩国和日本的造船厂比中国生产效率更高,这意味着船舶的真实生产成本可能已经抬高了。受到补贴的鼓励,中国造船厂过度生产,常常与客户需求不匹配。All this suggests the WTO and other trade-watchers may need to refine their tools to help identify the full extent of subsidies. Other markets are ripe for this kind of analysis. The global glut of solar panels owes much to protectionism, according to the Hayleys book. Steel markets are badly distorted by subsidies to producers, says the WTO. Subsidised solar panels being exported aboard subsidised ships made from subsidised steel show just how far those that seek free trade have to go.这些都表明了WTO和其他的贸易研究者可能需要改进方法,以更好地判断补贴的严重程度。其他市场已经具备使用上述分析方法的条件。根据海利的书,太阳能电池板在全球范围内的供给过剩是由保护主义造成的。WTO认为,钢材市场因为生产补贴而严重扭曲。用补贴的钢材建造补贴的船舶,运输出口补贴的太阳能电池板,看来那些追求自由贸易的人还有很长一段路要走。 /201408/321411

Leaders头条关注Genetically modified crops转基因作物Fields of beaten gold遭受捣毁Greens say climate-change deniers are unscientific and dangerous. So are greens who oppose GM crops  环保主义者表示,气候变化否认者是不科学和危险的。反对转基因作物的环保主义者也同样危险.IN AUGUST environmentalists in the Philippines vandalised a field of Golden Rice, an experimental grain whose genes had been modified to carry beta-carotene, a chemical precursor of vitamin A.8月,环保主义者在菲律宾蓄意破坏了一片金大米田地, 金大米是一种实验性的谷物,其基因被修改为维生素a的化学前体b胡萝卜素。Golden Rice is not produced by a corporate behemoth but by the public sector.金大米不是由企业巨头,而是公共部门种植的。Its seeds will be handed out free to farmers.它的种子将免费发放给农民。The aim is to improve the health of children in poor countries by reducing vitamin A deficiency, which contributes to hundreds of thousands of premature deaths and cases of blindness each year.用于改善贫困国家儿童的健康状况,缓解这些儿童的维生素A缺乏情况, 每年都会10%以上的人因缺乏维生素过早死亡和失明。Environmentalists claim that these sorts of actions are justified because genetically modified crops pose health risks.环保人士声称,此类捣毁行为是合理的, 因为转基因作物对健康构成风险。Now the main ground for those claims has crumbled.  现在,此类声称的理由已被击破。Last year a paper was published in a respected journal, Food and Chemical Toxicology.去年,一篇论文在权威杂志《食品与化学毒理学》上发表。It found unusual rates of tumours and deaths in rats that had been fed upon a variety of maize resistant to a herbicide called Roundup, as a result of genetic modification by Monsanto, an American plant-science firm.它发现在老鼠中出现不寻常的肿瘤和死亡状况,而这些老鼠被喂食过一种玉米,此种玉米是, 美国植物科学公司生产的转基因作物,对草甘膦农药具有抵抗力。Other studies found no such effects, but this one enabled campaigners to make a health-and-safety argument against GM crops—one persuasive enough to influence governments.其他研究并没有发现此种的影响。然而,此文章致使倡议人士以健康与安全问题为理由反对转基因作物,甚至对政府也产生了影响。After the study appeared, Russia suspended imports of the grain in question. Kenya banned all GM crops.这项研究发表之后, 俄罗斯暂停进口存在疑虑的粮食。肯尼亚禁止了所有的转基因作物。And the French prime minister said that if the results were confirmed he would press for a Europe-wide ban on the GM maize.法国总理表示, 如果结果得到实, 他将敦促欧洲禁止转基因玉米。But the methodology of the study, by Gilles-Eric Seralini of the University of Caen and colleagues, was widely criticised and, on November 28th, the journal retracted the paper.但是卡昂大学的塞拉利尼和他的同事们这项研究的方法论,被广泛批评。 11月28日,《食品与化学毒理学》撤销该论文。There is now no serious scientific evidence that GM crops do any harm to the health of human beings.。现在没有足够的科学据表明,转基因作物对人类的健康有任何危害。There is plenty of evidence, though, that they benefit the health of the planet.然而,却有大量的据表明,转基因作物可以造福于人类的健康。One of the biggest challenges facing mankind is to feed the 9 billion-10 billion people who will be alive and richer in 2050.人类面临的最大挑战之一是到2050年,人们有粮食可吃以及有充足的食物。This will require doubling food production on roughly the same area of land, using less water and fewer chemicals.这将需要在大致相同面积的土地上使用更少的水和更少的化学物质生产出高达两倍的粮食。It will also mean making food crops more resistant to the droughts and floods that seem likely if climate change is a bad as scientists fear.这也将意味着倘若气候变化如科学家们担心的那样糟糕,粮食作物要更耐旱和洪涝。Organic farming—the kind beloved of greens—cannot meet this challenge. It uses far too much land.有机作物-环保主义者钟爱的作物,不能承受这种挑战。它需要太多的土地。If the Green revolution had never happened, and yields had stayed at 1960 levels, the world could not produce its current food output even if it ploughed up every last acre of cultivable land. 如果绿色革命从未发生过, 粮食产量一直停留在1960年的水平, 人类即使利用每一英亩的可耕种的土地,也不能产生出目前的粮食产量。In contrast, GM crops boost yields, protecting wild habitat from the plough.相比之下,转基因作物可以提高粮食产量,保护野生栖息地不遭受开垦。They are more resistant to the vagaries of climate change, and to diseases and pests, reducing the need for agrochemicals.他们更能承受变幻莫测的气候变化,疾病和害虫,减少对农药依赖性。Genetic research holds out the possibility of breakthroughs that could vastly increase the productivity of farming, such as grains that fix their own nitrogen.遗传研究给大大提高农业的生产力带来了突破的可能性, 例如谷物可以修复自己的氮。Vandalising GM field trials is a bit like the campaign of some religious leaders to prevent smallpox inoculations: it causes misery, even death, in the name of obscurantism and unscientific belief.捣毁转基因试验田和一些宗教运动的领袖防止天花接种有点像: 它以蒙昧主义和信仰不科学的名义会造成痛苦,甚至死亡。Follow your principles遵循你的原则America takes little notice of this nonsense.美国需要很少关注此类无稽之谈。But green groups in Europe, with the support of influential figures such as Prince Charles, have succeeded in shaping policy.但在欧洲,环保组织在查尔斯王子等具有影响力的人士的持下,已经成功地塑造了政策。Governments have hedged genetic research around with so many restrictions that much of the business has fled a continent that could be doing more than most to feed the world.政府限制了遗传研究, 大部分业务已经逃离欧洲大陆。Some developing countries—Kenya, India and others—have turned their backs on technologies that could literally save their peoples’ lives.一些发展中国家肯尼亚、印度等国也对此项能够挽救人民的生命的技术嗤之以鼻。And European governments spend taxpayers’ money financing groups encouraging them to do so.欧洲政府花纳税人的钱资助团体鼓励他们这样做。The group in the Philippines that trashed the rice trials, MASIP, gets money from the Swedish government.菲律宾的组织,破坏了瑞典政府出资的MASIP水稻试验田。On moral, economic and environmental grounds, this must stop.无论是从道德、经济和环境上来说 ,此类举动都必须停止。 201401/272963

And among the loot, was Josephus himself, carried to Rome and installed in the Flavian family compound.而在战利品中,约瑟夫将自己带到罗马,并且受命于弗拉家族。But no one in Rome thanked him for doing the right thing.但是罗马没有人因为他所做的事情而感谢他。The kind of people youd expected him to hang out with, historians, philosophers, playwrights and politicians, all despised the Jews.你会希望同历史学家,哲学家,剧作家和政治家一起出去,而单单唯独犹太人例外。And they didnt mind saying so.他们不介意这样的说法。At some point, Josephus had had enough of all this ignorance and gloating.在某些时候,约瑟夫已经受够了这一切的无知和幸灾乐祸。About 20 years after he wrote the Jewish Wars, he took up his pen again, this time to explain with patient dignity and a note of firm defiance and over considerable length just what Judaism was and what it did.大约20年之后他写了关于犹太人的这场战争,再次拿起笔的他这次以耐心和坚定的无视以及相当大的篇幅来解释犹太教是什么,它做了什么。 201406/308411

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