抚顺市妇幼保健医院不孕不育收费好不好中华资讯

来源:搜狐娱乐
原标题: 抚顺市妇幼保健医院不孕不育收费好不好家庭医生在线
Dalian Wanda Commercial Properties, China’s largest business property developer by sales, has signalled a shift in strategy a month after its .7bn listing on the Hong Kong stock exchange.中国销售额最大的商业地产开发商——大连万达商业地产(Dalian Wanda Commercial Properties)在香港交易所(HKEx)完成37亿美元上市一个月后,发出了战略转变的信号。The group said it had signed an agreement with four Chinese investors to finance the construction of 26 new commercial developments — the first time it has brought in outside investors.万达集团称,其已经与4家中国投资机构签署一项协议,为26个新商业开发项目的建设筹资——这是该集团首次引入外部投资机构。Wanda said the Rmb24bn (.9bn) deal marked the “official launch of an asset-lite strategy” under which it will reduce its reliance on property sales in favour of a more rental-driven model. Income from the projects will be split 60-40 between the investors and Wanda, with the company promising an annual return of at least 7 per cent over the first 10 years.万达称,这笔240亿元人民币(合39亿美元)的交易标志着“轻资产战略的正式推出”,在这一战略下,其将减少对地产销售的依赖,转向一种在更大程度上由租赁驱动的模式。这些项目的收入将在万达和投资机构之间四六分成,万达承诺在第一个10年期间达到至少7%的年回报率。Like most Chinese property developers, Wanda is heavily reliant on unit sales, which accounted for more than 80 per cent of its revenue in 2013. Until now, all its developments have been financed using capital generated from previous sales, or with debt.像大多数中国地产开发商一样,万达严重依赖地产销售。2013年,地产销售占总收入的80%以上。此前其所有开发项目的资金都来自以前的销售收入或债务。Wanda’s move to bring in outside investors makes it one of the first Chinese developers to move towards the landlord model common in Singapore and Hong Kong.万达引入外部投资机构的做法,使其成为中国首批转向新加坡和香港常见的那种业主模式的开发商之一。China Vanke, the country’s largest residential developer, has also taken steps to partner with financial investors. Hong Kong’s top developers — such as Sun Hung Kai, Henderson Land, and Wharf — derive less than half of their revenues from unit sales.中国最大的住宅地产开发商万科集团(China Vanke)也已着手与金融投资机构合作。香港顶级开发商——如新鸿基(Sun Hung Kai)、恒基地产(Henderson Land)以及九龙仓(Wharf Holdings)——地产销售占总收入不到一半。With the deal, Wanda will reduce the need for fresh borrowing to fund new projects — avoiding an increase in its leverage.签署这项协议后,万达将减少借款资助新项目的需要,从而避免加大其杠杆率。Fitch Ratings had warned before the group’s Hong Kong listing that its debt levels had “increased substantially” since the start of 2014.惠誉评级(Fitch Ratings)在万达赴港上市前就警告称,其债务水平自2014年初以来已经“大幅增加”。Wanda, founded by billionaire Wang Jianlin, also said its new strategy “caters to China’s new development model, which relies on domestic demand and consumption”. Analysts had been expecting large mainland developers to adopt a more income-focused model, and to tap Chinese investors as the domestic housing market slowed.由亿万富翁王健林创立的万达同时也表示,其新战略“迎合了中国依靠国内需求和消费的新发展模式”。分析师此前就预期,内地大型开发商将采用一种更注重收入的模式,并且随着国内房地产市场放缓,更多地利用中国投资机构的资源。In November, average Chinese property prices dropped 3.6 per cent, while transaction volumes sank 13 per cent.11月,中国平均房价下跌3.6%,而成交量下降了13%。“China’s real estate market is facing a lot of risk and uncertainty right now, and Wanda aly has a lot of projects in China,” noted Chester Zhang, associate research director at Savills in Shanghai. “Bringing in financial investors makes sense. If you’re a pure developer, you have to invest a lot of money. An asset-lite strategy greatly reduces the funding pressure.”上海第一太平戴维斯(Savills)研究副总监Chester Zhang说,“中国房地产市场现在面临许多风险和不确定性,而万达在中国已经有大量项目……引入金融投资机构是明智的。如果你是一家纯开发商,你必须投入大量资金。轻资产战略将大大减轻资金压力。” /201501/355072Should schools give children medicine without parental permission?未经家长允许,学校能给孩子吃药吗?That#39;s the question that has been reverberating in parental circles across China after news emerged that a string of kindergartens were allegedly dispensing antiviral drugs without parents#39; consent.这个问题最近在中国的家长圈子里激起层层涟漪,导火索是中国多所幼儿园被指在未获得家长允许的情况下向儿童分发抗病毒药物。China#39;s official Xinhua News Agency reported that four kindergarten programs--two in Xian in western Shaanxi province, one in central Hubei and another in northeastern Jilin--have been shut due to the problem, with some parents saying their children were suffering from leg pains, nosebleeds and genital inflammation after taking the medicine.据中国官方媒体新华社报道,四所幼儿园因相关问题被关闭,其中两所位于中国西部 西省西安市、一所位于华中的湖北省,还有一所在东北的吉林省,一些家长说,他们的孩子在药后出现腿痛、流鼻血、生殖器肿胀等症状。Authorities are investigating the matter, and three people in Jilin have been detained in connection with the allegations, Xinhua said. Five others from schools in Xian have also been detained, Xinhua said.新华社说,有关当局正在调查此事,吉林已有三人被拘捕。新华社说,西安幼儿园也有五人被拘捕。The issue came to light Friday, after one parent in Xian found her daughter had brought home a prescription flu pill. Other cases came to light as the news sp.这起事件在上周五曝光,当时西安一名家长发现女儿将一片处方感冒药带回了家。随着消息扩散,其他事例也被曝光。Xinhua says that money appears to be a motivating factor. Some parents believe the schools were trying to ward off sickness to ensure students didn#39;t take sick days, it said. Many private kindergartens and preschools in China charge by the number of days students attend school, so fewer sick days equals more money for the teachers.新华社报道说,驱使幼儿园这样做的原因似乎是金钱。报道称,一些家长认为,幼儿园的目的是防止孩子生病缺勤。中国许多幼儿园都是按孩子入园的天数收费,因此减少病假缺勤天数就意味着教师能有更多收入。Others have cited the fact that there is no law prohibiting the practice as a contributing factor.还有人认为,没有法律明文禁止这种行为也是造成这一结果的因素之一。#39;Although their actions were wrong, there is no ban based on law. In other words, it#39;s not illegal for an immoral kindergarten to give children unauthorized medications,#39; Li Jing, the deputy head of Beijing#39;s private Sunny High Scope Kindergarten told the China Daily.北京私立的阳光高瞻国际幼儿园教师李静对《中国日报》说,虽然他们的行为不对,但法律没有明文禁止;换句话说,不道德的幼儿园就给孩子吃药并不违法。The drugs given to students are cheap, just a few cents per pill, said Justin Wang, a partner and director in the Shanghai office of consultancy L.E.K. Consulting LLC, and economic incentives were likely high enough to convince teachers to take the risk.咨询公司L.E.K. Consulting LLC上海办事处合伙人兼主管王景烨(Justin Wang)说,幼儿园给孩子吃的药很便宜,一片才几分钱,而经济刺激可能足够高,让老师愿意冒这个险。Parents of school-age children say schools in China typically require parental consent before administering medication. However, health practices in China#39;s education system vary drastically from the U.S. Some Chinese schools get parental consent to conduct health checks that involve procedures like blood and urine tests; school health checks in the U.S. are often limited to screenings for eyesight, lice and scoliosis.学龄儿童的家长说,学校在组织用药前通常会征求家长同意。但中国教育系统的卫生保健做法与美国迥异。一些中国学校会在征得家长同意后进行涉及血液和尿液检测的体检,而美国的学校体检通常仅限于视力、虱子和脊柱侧弯的筛查。Many parents in China say schools frequently inform them when their children are sick and before performing health checks. Still, schools usually provide only scant information, said Elaine Wang, a mother of two children in local Beijing schools.很多中国家长说,在孩子生病时和接受体检前,学校经常会通知他们。有两个孩子在北京当地上学的Elaine Wang说,但学校通常只提供有限的信息。#39;They inform you that there will be a health screening, but they don#39;t say what happens during those screenings,#39; Ms. Wang said.Wang说,他们会通知你孩子需要体检,但不会告诉你体检过程中具体会发生什么。 /201403/280477

BEIJING — The new memoir of Hillary Rodham Clinton, “Hard Choices,” which gives blow-by-blow accounts of tough discussions with Chinese officials, particularly on human rights, has been blocked in China, according to the American publisher.北京——据该书的美国出版商称,希拉里·罗德姆·克林顿(Hillary Rodham Clinton)的回忆录《艰难抉择》在中国遭封杀,这本书极为详尽地描述了她与中国官员的棘手讨论,尤其是在有关人权的问题上。No Chinese publisher made an offer to buy the rights for the book to be translated into Chinese for sale on the mainland, said Jonathan Karp, president of Simon amp; Schuster, which published the American edition.该书的美国版出版商西蒙与舒斯特公司的总裁乔纳森·卡普(Jonathan Karp)说,没有中国出版商愿意购买这本书的中译本版权,在大陆出版。The English version of the book was delisted from Amazon China on June 10, the day of publication in the ed States, a move that effectively barred wide distribution in China, Mr. Karp said.卡普说,6月10日这本书在美国发行的当日,其英文版在亚马逊中国被撤下,基本上阻止了该书在中国的广泛分销。In Beijing, Gu Aibin, the head of Yilin Press, the state-owned publishing house that published Mrs. Clinton’s earlier book, “Living History,” said “Hard Choices” was different. “Some of the content was not suitable,” Mr. Gu said. “The company decided not to buy the copyright.”国有出版社译林曾出版了希拉里·克林顿以前的书《亲历历史》(Living History),该出版社社长顾爱彬说,《艰难抉择》不同。他说,“这本书里的有些内容不适合。出版社决定不购买这本书的版权。”Import agencies and publishers were fearful of heavy fines if they sold books the government deemed embarrassing or too politically sensitive, although Chinese publishers who were offered “Hard Choices” did not offer specific reasons for declining to buy the new memoir, Mr. Karp said.如果他们销售的书被政府认为在政治上尴尬或太敏感的话,会被处以巨额罚款,进口机构和出版商对此很担心,但卡尔普说,他向中国出版商报价《艰难抉择》一书的版权时,对方并没有给出拒绝购买这本新回忆录的具体理由。Reviewers in the ed States have criticized the memoir, with some asserting that it s like a diplomatic narrative that reveals little because Mrs. Clinton may be planning to run for president. But some of the material on China is far from formulaic.美国的人批评了这本回忆录,一些人说,因为克林顿可能打算竞选总统,这本书读起来像是几乎什么都不揭示的外交辞令。但是这本书中有些关于中国的内容却远非套话。Mrs. Clinton devotes an entire chapter to the drama of how she personally intervened to help a blind dissident, Chen Guangcheng, seek refuge in the ed States Embassy in Beijing in 2012, and then negotiated over several days with furious Chinese officials to allow him to go to the ed States.克林顿用整整一章描述了2012年她如何亲自出面,帮助盲人异见人士陈光诚在北京的美国驻华大使馆寻求庇护,以及之后又如何与恼羞成怒的中国官员进行了数日的谈判,让陈光诚获准去了美国。Mrs. Clinton writes that when the embassy learned that Mr. Chen had escaped security guards in his village south of Beijing and had appealed to the Americans to grant him sanctuary, the decision about what to do was passed up to her.克林顿写道,当美国使馆得知陈光诚已避开保安,逃离了他位于北京以南的村子,并向美国申请避难时,该如何处理此事的决定落在了她的身上。She describes how she talked it over with her aides, knowing that Mr. Chen was waiting in a car on the edge of Beijing for the Americans to come. “I said: ‘Go get him,#39;#8202;#8202;” she writes.她描述了自己如何与自己的助手商量,当她得知陈光诚正在北京边缘的一辆车上等待美国人的到来时,她写道,“我说:‘去把他接来’。”In a justification, she writes that Mr. Chen and his predicament represented all the ed States stood for, and that in the end it was an easy decision.作为一个理由,她写道,陈光诚和他的处境代表了美国所象征的一切,因此到头来那是一个容易做的决定。She elliptically praises Dai Bingguo, the state councilor in charge of foreign policy at the time and an official with whom she had forged a strong relationship, for defusing the explosive situation and allowing Mr. Chen to leave for the ed States.她隐晦地赞扬了当时负责外交工作的国务委员戴秉国以及另一位官员,克林顿与该官员在化解当时爆炸性的局势、允许陈光诚去美国这件事上与建立了良好的关系。The Chinese government would interpret Mrs. Clinton’s personal involvement in the Chen case as an effort by the American secretary of state to “overturn” the regime, an editor at a Chinese publishing house said in an interview Friday. The editor declined to be named for fear of reprisals.一家中国出版社的编辑在周五接受采访时说,中国政府会把克林顿亲自介入陈光诚这件事解释为美国国务院“颠覆”中国政府的努力。这名编辑由于担心遭到报复而要求不具名。“Chen Guangcheng is sensitive by himself,” the editor said. “But if Hillary supported him, that’s like her going up against the Chinese government.”这名编辑说,“陈光诚本身就很敏感。但如果希拉里持了他,就好像是她也在反对中国政府似的。”The Chinese government would not under any circumstances allow the book to appear with that narrative, the editor said.中国政府无论如何都不会允许这本书在保留那部分内容的情况下出版,这名编辑说。Mrs. Clinton’s “Living History” became a major best seller in China in 2003, selling 200,000 copies in the first month, but was recalled by Simon amp; Schuster after the Chinese publisher, Yilin, removed criticisms of China’s policies and the Communist Party without Mrs. Clinton’s permission. “I was amazed and outraged to hear about this,” she said of the censorship at the time.克林顿的《亲历历史》一书在2003年一度成为中国的一部主要畅销书,第一个月就卖出了20万本,但西蒙与舒斯特公司后来召回了该书,因为译林出版社在没有经过克林顿允许的情况下,删除了书中批评中国的政策和共产党的内容。当时,她提到自己的书遭审查时说,“我听到此事既惊讶又愤怒。”The latest memoir would almost certainly be a big seller in China if it were allowed to appear, the Chinese editor said. Mrs. Clinton is not particularly popular here, but “a lot of people would buy the book whether or not they like her,” the editor said. “They are interested in her experience in politics.”这位中国编辑说,新回忆录如果能在中国出版几乎肯定也会畅销。这位编辑说,克林顿在中国并不特别受追捧,但“很多人不论喜不喜欢她,都会买这本书。他们对她的政治生涯感兴趣。”“Hard Choices,” which outlines the Obama administration’s efforts to beef up America’s military and economic presence in Asia that are viewed unfavorably in China, is being sold in Hong Kong and Taiwan, Mr. Karp said.《艰难抉择》一书概述了奥巴马政府加强美国在亚洲的军事和经济力量的努力,而中国不喜欢美国的这种做法,卡普说,该书目前正在香港和台湾出售。It will not be available at Page One, the biggest English bookstore chain in Beijing. A sales clerk at one of the stores said, “Due to some of the content, it cannot be imported.”北京最大的英文连锁书店叶壹堂(Page One)将不出售这本书。在连锁书店之一工作的一名销售人员说,“由于一些内容的原因,这本书无法进口。”Asked if “Hard Choices” could be published in China without the chapter about Mr. Chen, Mr. Karp replied, “Emphatically not.”当被问到《艰难抉择》一书,可否在删除了有关陈光诚的章节后,在中国出版时,卡尔普回答说,“绝对不行。”In the ed States, sales dipped sharply in the book’s second week in the stores from 85,000 copies in the first week, to 48,000 copies, according to Nielsen BookScan, a subscription service that tracks sales.据跟踪销量的付费务公司尼尔森图书调查公司(Nielsen BookScan)的数据显示,在美国,该书第二周的销量大跌,从第一周的8.5万本下降到了4.8万本。 /201407/308993

Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe has sent a ritual offering to a Tokyo shrine that many of Japan#39;s neighbors see as a symbol of the country#39;s imperialist past.日本首相安倍晋三向位于东京的靖国神社供奉祭品。日本很多邻国将靖国神社视为日本帝国主义历史的象征。Mr. Abe sent a traditional potted plant to the Yasukuni Shrine on Tuesday, the first day of a three-day spring festival, officials at the shrine said.靖国神社的管理人员说,安倍晋三星期二将一株传统的盆栽植物送到靖国神社。星期二是春季三天庆祝活动的第一天。The prime minister#39;s offering is likely to upset many in China and South Korea, two main victims of Japan#39;s pre-World War Two colonial aggression.安倍此举很可能会激怒中国和韩国。中韩两国是二战期间日本侵略的主要受害者。But the offering means Mr. Abe is likely to refrain from visiting the Shinto shrine, a move that would have drawn much harsher criticism.但供奉祭品也意味着安倍很可能不会前往靖国神社进行参拜,而参拜靖国神社将招致严厉得多的批评。The central Tokyo religious facility honors 2.5 million of Japan#39;s war dead, including several convicted war criminals from World War Two.位于东京市中心的靖国神社供奉着250万日本战争死难者的灵位,包括几名二战战犯。Mr. Abe last visited the facility in 2013. He defended the move by saying it is natural for him to pay respects to the country#39;s war dead.安倍上次参拜靖国神社是在2013年。他辩解说,向本国的战争死难者表示敬意,对他而言是很自然的事。 /201504/371463Am I coming to the US to engage in prostitution? Do I belong to a clan or tribe? Do I have tuberculosis or infectious leprosy? 我是不是来美国从事卖淫的?我是不是一个宗族或者部落的成员?我有没有患肺结核或者是传染性麻风? I have just renewed my five-year US visitor’s visa after truthfully answering “no” to the above and many other questions. 在给我的五年期美国旅游签续签的时候,我如实地对上述问题以及很多其他问题做出了否定回答。 At the US London embassy the ticket-based queueing system was well organised, there was free coffee, the consular staff who interviewed me were good-humoured and my passport was returned with a fresh visa just three days later. 在伦敦的美国大使馆,人们有序排队,有免费的咖啡,和我面谈的领事馆工作人员态度和蔼,三天之后我就拿到了带有新签的护照。 But as I filled in the application form before my embassy appointment, I wondered what the point was of asking “Do you seek to engage in terrorist activities while in the ed States?” when those who plan to do so will surely click “no”. 但在来大使馆面签之前填写申请表的时候,我真的不知道问“你在美国的时候是否会寻求从事恐怖活动?”这种问题有什么意义,因为那些策划恐怖活动的人肯定会选“否”。 Why are some of the questions so imprecise? For example, on the form I had to fill in (as a journalist, I require a particular type of visa), I was asked if I had ever been responsible as a government official for “particularly severe violations of religious freedom”. What does particularly severe mean? Are mild violations of religious freedom acceptable? 为什么有些问题如此含糊?比如说,在我需要填写的申请表中(作为一名记者,我需要办理特定类别的签),我被问及是否曾经作为政府官员“组织特别严重的违反宗教自由的活动”。“特别严重”是什么意思?轻微违反宗教自由就可以接受吗? Or take an example from the Electronic System for Travel Authorisation (Esta) form that visitors with a US visa waiver complete (this includes tourists from many European and some other countries): “Have you ever been arrested or convicted for an offence or crime involving moral turpitude?” 再来看美国免签游客需要填写的旅游许可电子系统(Esta)表格(面向多个欧洲国家和其他一些国家的游客),上面有一道这样的问题:“你有没有因为道德败坏行为或犯罪而被捕或被判刑?” What is a crime involving moral turpitude? Does agreeing to accept someone else’s speeding points count as moral turpitude when an opinion poll by the AA motoring organisation suggested 300,000 people in the UK had done that? 什么是道德败坏罪?超速之后拿别人的分数顶算不算道德败坏?英国汽车协会(AA)的一项民调显示,英国有30万人都这么做过。 And, finally, how did US visa application forms come to be such a curious agglomeration of questions? 最后,美国签申请表怎么会有这么多奇怪的问题? My first query – whether miscreants are likely to answer incriminating questions truthfully – is one nearly every visa applicant asks. “Clients constantly say: ‘Are you kidding? Does anyone answer ‘yes’?’” says Kehrela Hodkinson, a London-based US immigration lawyer. 我的第一个疑问:邪恶分子有没有可能如实回答关于犯罪的问题?这也是几乎每个签申请者会问的问题。在伦敦工作的美国移民律师科瑞拉#8226;霍德金森(Kehrela Hodkinson)说,客户经常问“你开玩笑吧?鬼才会回答‘是’呢!” It is also the easiest mystery to solve. The point of asking these questions is that, if you answer them untruthfully, you have obtained a visa by fraud or misrepresentation and can be deported if you are found out, either on this visit, or if you subsequently win the right to live in the US. 这个疑问很容易解答。问这些问题的意图在于,如果不如实回答问题,就相当于通过欺骗或者误导获得签,一旦被发现就可能遭到驱逐,不管是在此次旅行中,还是以后获得美国居住权的时候。 My query about the imprecision of some of the questions has a less precise answer. There have been many academic discussions – and even an entire book – on what moral turpitude is. 对一些语义不清晰的问题,我就不能准确地解释了。关于什么是道德败坏,有过很多学术讨论,甚至有一整本书都是讲这个的。 There is no statutory definition of the term. It is up to judges and the Board of Immigration Appeals to decide what it means, Mary Holper of Boston College Law School says in an informative paper. When deciding whether to deport someone, judges have to assess whether the crime in question offends the “moral standards generally prevailing in the ed States”. This, Prof Holper says, “casts judges in the role of God”. 这个词没有法定的定义。波士顿学院法学院(Boston College Law School)的玛丽#8226;霍尔波(Mary Holper)在一篇颇具启发意义的论文中说,它的意思取决于法官和移民上诉委员会(Board of Immigration Appeals)。在决定是否要驱逐某个人的时候,法官必须判断其所犯的罪是否违反了“美国的主流道德标准”。霍尔波教授说,这“让法官扮演了上帝的角色”。 In cases over the years, fraud, theft and many sexual offences have been classed as involving moral turpitude. Assault has been, too, “when the offence has an aggravating factor such as a deadly weapon”, Prof Holper says. 多年来,欺骗、盗窃以及很多性犯罪都被归为道德败坏行为。霍尔波教授说:“如果犯罪过程中有使用致命武器等加重情节的因素,”攻击也算是道德败坏罪。 As for severely restricting religious freedom, the US Commission on International Religious Freedom, a statutory body, says only one person has ever been barred on those grounds: Narendra Modi, tipped by many to be the next Indian prime minister, for his alleged complicity in the deadly 2002 anti-Muslim riots in his home state of Gujarat. (He denies responsibility.) 至于严重限制宗教自由,法定机构美国国际宗教自由委员会(US Commission on International Religious Freedom)指出,到目前只有一个人因为这个原因没被放行,他就是很多人认为有望出任下一届印度总理的纳伦德拉#8226;莫迪(Narendra Modi),原因是他被控参与了2002年在他的家乡古吉拉特邦爆发的反穆斯林严重骚乱(他对此表示否认)。 The reason US visa forms seem such an odd accretion of questions is that is what they are. They have been added to over the decades to confront whatever danger the US was dealing with at the time. 美国签申请表之所以看起来像是很多奇怪的问题堆积而成的,原因就是它们本来就是这样的。这些问题几十年来不断累积增多,以应对美国在各个时期面临的风险。 Prof Holper points out that “moral turpitude” was introduced into US immigration law in 1891. Questions about issues such as prostitution go back to before visas existed, as do many health questions. Officials at Ellis Island used to keep visitors out because they had tuberculosis, says Muzaffar Chishti of the US-based Migration Policy Institute. 霍尔波教授指出,“道德败坏”是1891年引入美国移民法的。关于卖淫等一些方面的问题在签存在之前就有了,很多健康方面的问题也是如此。美国移民政策研究所(Migration Policy Institute)的穆扎法尔#8226;齐矢堤(Muzaffar Chishti)说,埃利斯岛(Ellis Island,原美国移民局所在地)的官员曾拒绝有结核病的游客进入。 Are the visa forms an effective way of keeping undesirables out of the US? “If we’re interested in keeping people who mean to do us harm out, it’s not very effective,” Mr Chishti says. Biometric screening, databases and finger printing are far more useful, he says. 签申请表是不是将不良分子拒于美国之外的一种有效方式呢?齐矢堤说:“如果我们不想让有意伤害我们的人进入美国,这种方式就不是很有效。”他认为,生物筛选、数据库以及指纹图谱要有用得多。 /201312/268160It’s pretty frustrating to follow the press coverage of Uber rape case in India on both sides of the world. What is a terrible tragedy — the details are awful and stomach churning — has played out in the press along three very predictable directions.在一位使用Uber打车务的印度司机强奸女乘客之后,东西方世界的媒体报道读起来都令人沮丧。多惨的一桩悲剧啊,案件的细节令人不忍卒读。媒体的解读也基本上是沿着三个非常容易预期的导向来进行的。Meme #1 — Uber is a company that likes to play loose with the rules and this is yet another example (mostly tech press in the U.S.)导向1:Uber是一家喜欢把规则当游戏的公司,这桩悲剧只是又一个例子(大多数美国的科技媒体)。Meme #2 — India is a country which has a problem with women’s safety (both press here and in India)导向2:印度是一个存在女性安全问题的国家(大多数美国和印度媒体)。Meme #3 — This is another example of why “foreign” companies can’t be trusted in India (from Delhi government, various Indian influencers)导向3:这个例子再次说明为什么“外国”公司在印度得不到信任(新德里政府、在印度有影响力的人士)。All of these are loose caricatures playing to existing biases and it’s frustrating because it ignores the underlying realities of these parts of the world and what could have been done to prevent this.所有这些观点都是在迎合已有的偏见,是非常不严谨的漫画手法。由于它忽略了这些地区的一些基本事实,和人们本可以采取哪些手段来预防这种悲剧,这真的令人非常沮丧。First, some history. India has had a string of similar tragic incidents for many years. When I was at Microsoft Hyderabad in 2005, we started having security guards accompany women home late at night after a string of incidents where women in tech companies were assaulted by their shuttle drivers. As I was writing this post, I found more incidents as recent as 2013. This has been happening for a long time now and India has been grappling with some hard social/cultural questions on why it has been unable to stop this. This is why a lot of us tell women traveling to India to be much more aware of their surroundings — the social calculus you employ when you do something as trivial as jumping into a cab or asking a stranger for a favor isn’t the same in every part of the world.首先要普及一些历史知识。多年来,印度已经发生了一连串类似的悲剧事件。2005年,我还在微软海德拉巴分公司(Microsoft Hyderabad)工作,由于当时接连发生科技公司女性员工被通勤班车司机性侵的事件,我们开始派保安护送下班晚的女性员工回家。就在我写这篇文章的时候,我发现就在不久前的2013年,也发生了很多类似事件。在印度,这类事件早已有之,印度为什么不能制止类似悲剧的发生,也与一些深刻的社会和文化问题有关。这就是为什么我们许多人都会警告去印度旅行的妇女一定要注意周围安全。坐进出租车或请陌生人帮忙这样的小事,可能会导致跟世界其他地方不一样的后果。The idea of Uber doing background checks and “filtering out” this driver with an arrest record is laughable for anyone who has dealt with government records in India. First, there is no reliable way to run a check on someone in most parts of the world and second, even if they did, a small bribe in the right place will fix most records.只要你曾经跟印度政府部门打过交道,你就会知道,质疑Uber为什么没有做好背景调查,从而“过滤掉”这样一个有犯罪前科的司机,是一个多么可笑的想法。首先,在全球大多数地区,并没有可靠的方法彻查某人的历史记录。其次,即便他们有这种方法,一笔小小的贿赂就能把大多数记录改过来。A side anecdote on how such records work. Most of my school friends didn’t have to go to the Indian equivalent of the DMV to get a license when they hit the right age — they just got a “friend” to get it for them for around . I remember being grumpy with my dad when he made me actually take the test. Not because my dad had some moral high ground but more because he didn’t want to spend the money on a bribe (note — that’s my dad in a nutshell for you). India is trying to fix this and anti-corruption has really captured the public’s imagination in the last few years but it’s a long road. Paying off a government official is still very much the status quo (as I find out every time I need something from them).说一个关于这些记录的故事。我的大多数同学在到了合法驾车年龄之后,并不会去印度的机动车辆管理部门申领驾照——他们会去找一个“熟人”花大约10美元弄一张。我记得当年我父亲逼我参加考试的时候,我甚至还发了脾气。我父亲倒不是有多高的道德水平,只不过他不愿意花贿赂的钱。印度政府也试图改变这种风气,近几年印度的反腐行动也引发了公众的不少想象,但这个国家仍然有很长的路要走。花钱贿赂政府官员仍然是一件非常平常的事(每次我去政府机关办事时都会发现这一点)。A reasonable person may ask — shouldn’t Uber have covered their bases anyway and asked the police? In a twist that is probably going to embarrass the Delhi cops, it turns out that Uber actually did get a police “character certificate” for the driver. But as I said above, no one really takes this seriously and Uber shouldn’t have either (more on this later).自然有人会问,Uber难道不应该调查自己的人,并且问问警察吗?这个问题可能会让德里警方感到尴尬,事实上Uber还真有一张警方为那个司机开具的“无犯罪记录”。但就像我上文说的那样,没人真把它当回事,Uber本来也不应该把它当回事。(稍后再进一步谈论这个问题)The Delhi government banning Uber as “unsafe” smells of a knee-jerk PR reaction against a company perceived to be “foreign.” Delhi has thousands of taxi drivers, cab companies and private transport vehicles — no one bothers asking for any sort of real background check for anyone driving these things. I have friends who own cab companies — their “driver check” is asking the driver whether he has a license. And even if everyone suddenly had great checks, let’s not forget that a lot of the recent assault cases in India were first-time offenders. This is just the way business is done in other parts of the world and people generally accept this as the status-quo and guard against it.德里政府以“不安全”为由封掉Uber,透出一丝针对“外国”公司近乎本能的公关反应。德里的出租车司机、出租车公司和私人运营车辆成千上万,几乎没有人要求对任何驾驶这些车辆的人做任何严肃的背景调查。我有朋友就是开出租车公司的,他们的“驾驶员调查”就是询问司机有没有驾照。如果哪家公司真的做了很好的背景调查,我们也不要忘了,印度最近发生的很多性侵案的嫌疑人其实都是初犯者。在世界其他一些地方,生意就是这样做的,人们也基本上接受了这种现状,并对此保持警惕。Uber with its use of technology is way safer than any other cab company or any generic cab driver who hustles you at the airport. I would ask anyone in India or visiting there to trust it (and other startups like OlaCab that use tech to power transport) way more than some cab driver off the street or some company which has three beat-up cars and a phone number in the yellow pages.凭借它所用的技术,比起其他任何出租车公司、或者挤在机场拉客抢客的出租车司机,Uber其实要安全得多。对于任何一个在印度居住和旅游的人,我会请他们相信Uber(以及其它利用科技促进交通的初创公司,比如OlaCab等),而不是街上随便一个出租车司机,或是那些只有三辆老爷车,而且只在黄页本上有一个电话的出租车公司。What really happened here is a tragedy due to India’s inherent social dynamics and problems with sexual assault as well as it’s inability to have a efficient ID system. *That* is why a young woman was harmed and that’s what we should be focusing the spotlight of mainstream attention on.事实上,这出悲剧之所以会发生,根源是印度固有的社会因素导致的性侵问题,以及印度没有能够建立一个高效的身份系统。这才是这名年轻女性受害的原因,这也是社会主流应该关注的焦点。However, there are still several questions we here need to answer.不过我们还是需要回答几个问题。For us in the tech world — How do we scale services that we take for granted when the social/cultural foundations don’t exist in other nations or there are other social dynamics at play? Do we say “Customers need this service even if we can’t guarantee what we can in the first world?” Or do we take a more nuanced approach (and what does that even mean)? I don’t know.对科技界来说,当有些社会和文化基础在某些国家不存在,或者这些国家存在其它社会问题时,我们又该怎样扩展我们认为是理所当然的务?我们是说“顾客需要这项务,即便我们不能保我们在第一世界国家能做到的事,在这里也能做到”?还是我们应该采取一种更微妙的方法(这到底意味着什么)?我不知道。For Uber — They must be feeling under siege now in a situation where they did more than any Indian cab company (and way, way more in working with law enforcement promptly). Props to them but they could/should have done more. Anyone who has spent any amount of time in India would know that background checks just don’t work and a certificate from the cops is just paperwork. How do you actually protect your riders in these parts of the world by going above and beyond what law enforcement can do? Someone suggested that Uber adopt a “more Indian way” of background checking by asking a few neighbors of each driver — as silly as it sounds, a crazy, unscaleable, localized approach like this might yield way better results.Uber现在肯定觉得自己身陷重围,哪怕他们做得比任何一家印度出租车公司都多(也更为迅速地配合执法部门方面)。这一点值得鼓励,但是他们本可以,也本应该做得更多。任何在印度待过一段时间的人都知道,背景调查根本不管用,警方开的无犯罪明不过是浪费纸张。那么在这个地区,你如何在执法部门的能力范围之外保护乘客的安全?有些人建议Uber可以采取“更具印度特色”的背景调查方式,比如询问每个司机的几个邻居——虽然这个点子听起来似乎愚蠢,但像这样貌似疯狂、不容易大规模推广的“土办法”很可能会带来更好的结果。If you can’t actually have effective background checks in less developed parts of the world, how do you tell your riders that before they step into a car? Culturally, how do you react to this by actually looking into doing more than just set up a bunch of meetings with the Delhi home ministry/ police department which establishes a process that looks great on paper? How do you build this concern into your company DNA? It’s way easier to get big numbers to go up (riders, trips, passengers, cities) than protect against the rare, catastrophic incident. I don’t know but I hope Uber uses the same ingenuity it has shown in developing their core service in tackling these questions.如果你在欠发达国家无法进行有效的背景调查,那么在乘客踏进出租车之前,你应该告诉他们什么呢?从文化角度上,除了和新德里的内政及警务部门开一堆会议,建立一套纸上谈兵的流程之外,你还得怎样应对?你如何把这种对安全的关注植入企业的DNA?让大数字(司机、行程、乘客、城市数量等)涨上去,要比预防这种罕见的灾难事故简单得多。我也不知道这些问题的,但是我希望Uber能发扬它在开发核心务时展现出的智慧,来解决这些棘手的问题。The real media tragedy here is the burial of the core story. A young woman was viciously assaulted and still managed to show incredible bravery in the seconds (taking a photo, recording the number) and hours afterward. Society failed her.真正的媒体悲剧在于,他们埋藏了这个故事的核心:尽管惨遭施暴,这位年轻女子依然在随后的几秒钟和几小时内展现出非凡的勇气(拍照、记下车牌号)。但是社会令她失望了。(财富中文网)Sriram Krishnan currently works on mobile monetization products for Facebook, and previously worked on cloud solutions for both Yahoo and Microsoft.本文作者Sriram Krishnan目前为Facebook开发移动货币化产品,此前他曾为雅虎和微软提供云解决方案。 /201412/348278

For his latest automotive venture, Anand Mahindra has turned Asia’s conventional industrial wisdom on its head.阿南德#8226;马欣德拉(Anand Mahindra)最新的汽车事业颠覆了亚洲的传统产业智慧。Instead of assembling the product — the new GenZe electric scooter — with low-cost factory labour in Asia and exporting it to the US, India’s Mahindra amp; Mahindra has opted for what it calls an “all-American product”. It was designed in Silicon Valley and will be made in Ann Arbor, Michigan under the supervision of 60 relatively expensive engineers, with components from across the globe.印度企业马欣德拉(Mahindra amp; Mahindra)并没有利用亚洲工厂里的低成本劳动力组装其新产品——GenZe电动托车——并出口到美国,而是选择打造一款“全美国产品”。这款产品在硅谷设计,将在密歇根州安阿伯(Ann Arbor, Michigan)制造,制造过程会在60名薪水相对亚洲较高的工程师指导下进行,使用的部件将来自全球各地。“This is the new animal that a global new product manufacturing set-up is going to be,” says Mr Mahindra, the Harvard-educated billionaire who took the helm of the bn Indian conglomerate as chairman three years ago.“一种新的全球化产品制造模式就将是这样的,”有哈佛大学(Harvard University)教育背景的亿万富翁马欣德拉说,3年前他开始作为董事长执掌这家市值160亿美元的印度企业集团。“We really felt that India didn’t have the start-up atmosphere#8201;.#8201;.#8201;.#8201;We had a number of people join us from [US electric carmaker] Tesla Motors, for example, because they were excited about this and the Valley allows people just to migrate and to try out new things.”“我们确实感觉印度没有初创企业的氛围……比如,一些来自(美国电动汽车制造商)特斯拉汽车(Tesla Motors)的人加入了我们,因为他们对此感到兴奋,而硅谷又允许人们随意迁入,试验新的事物。”The GenZe is a modest project for the time being. The ,000 scooter with a computer touchscreen and power sockets for cellphones and laptops is aimed at students and young professionals and is expected to launch in Berkeley, California and Portland, Oregon in a few months, with initial annual production capacity of 20,000 units.就目前而言,GenZe是一个规模较小的项目。这款售价3000美元的电动托车配有一块电脑触摸屏,以及为手机和笔记本电脑设计的充电口,目标客户群是学生和年轻的专业人士,预计几个月后将在加州伯克利和俄勒冈州波特兰发售,初步的年产量为两万台。But the plan exemplifies the challenges facing the business models of traditional Indian manufacturers such as Mahindra, and illustrates the difficultiesNarendra Modi, India’s prime minister, will have in creating millions of jobs through his “Make in India” campaign of promoting the country as a low-cost alternative to China.但这个计划充分体现出马欣德拉等传统印度生产商的商业模式面临的挑战,也表明印度总理纳伦德拉#8226;莫迪(Narendra Modi)通过他本人提出的“印度制造”(Make in India)计划创造数百万就业机会的打算将面临的困难。“印度制造”计划旨在宣扬印度成本更低、可替代中国。The Mahindra conglomerate’s existing US businesses are based largely on the competitiveness of Asian manufacturing and services: the group is the world’s largest tractor brand by volume and sells the vehicles made in India, Japan and South Korea through 525 American dealerships aimed primarily at smaller enterprises and hobby farmers. Tech Mahindraprovides IT services to 360 of the Fortune 500 companies.马欣德拉企业集团旗下现有的美国业务基本以亚洲制造业和务业的竞争力为基础:该集团拥有以销量计世界最大的拖拉机品牌,通过525家美国经销商销售在印度、日本和韩国生产的拖拉机,主要面向中小型企业和农业爱好者。Tech Mahindra向《财富》(Fortune) 500强企业中的360家企业提供IT务。Interviewed in his Mumbai of#172;fice, Mr Mahindra is as cheerful as ever under his trademark shock of white-streaked hair, but he is grappling with an upheaval in global manufacturing that has seen the rapid rise of automation, more demand for high-tech products, and intense competition in an Indian domestic automotive market beset by economic uncertainty and unpredictable monsoon rains.在位于孟买的办公室接受采访时,一头标志性花白头发的马欣德拉一如既往地喜气洋洋,但他正在艰难应对全球制造业的一场巨变,这个行业见了自动化的迅速崛起、高科技产品的需求上升、受困于经济前景不确定和变化莫测的季风雨的印度国内汽车市场的激烈竞争。“We [in India] are not where China was when it made its decision to go in for labour-intensive manufacturing. It was in the right place at the right time. It became the world’s supplier and grew rich on the back of that. I don’t think India has that opportunity — that is our biggest problem,” he says.“我们(印度)如今所处的境况与中国决定发展劳动力密集制造业时的情况不同。当时中国处于正确的地点和时机。中国成为了世界的供应商,并依靠这一点富裕起来。我不认为印度有这样的机会——这是我们最大的问题,”马欣德拉说。“The world is moving away from simply low-cost elements. Products today are products which require a brand, which require innovation, and which have a very strong element of both IT and services involved in them.”“当今世界,只看低成本元素日益行不通了。今天的产品需要品牌,需要创新,需要同时包含很强的IT和务要素。”Mr Mahindra explains this in terms of Barbie dolls. In the old days, it was just a doll, but in the future it could be something robotic that walks and thinks — “intelligent Barbie — it sounds like an oxymoron”, he says with a smile.马欣德拉用芭比娃娃来做解释。过去,这仅仅是个娃娃,但是将来可能会是能走能思考的机器人了。“智能芭比——虽然这听起来有些矛盾”,他微笑着说。India in general, and companies such as Mahindra, are by no means excluded from this new, high-tech manufacturing world. It is true that India suffers from poor education and a desperate shortage of skills, but it also has well-known strengths in IT in geographical areas that overlap with those of the motor industry: in Chennai, Gurgaon, Pune and Mumbai, for example. The two sectors are closely connected too: while the core of Mahindra’s Indian motor business is SUVs for the price-conscious local market, Tech Mahindra’s international work includes producing software for driverless vehicles.整体而言,印度、以及像马欣德拉这样的企业,无论如何都不会被排除在这个新的高科技制造世界之外。尽管印度确实饱受教育水平低下和技能严重匮乏之困,但印度世所闻名的IT优势所处的地理区位也恰好与汽车工业的所在地重合:比如金奈(Chennai),古尔冈(Gurgaon),浦那(Pune)和孟买。这两个行业也是密切相连的:马欣德拉在印度的核心汽车业务是面向当地对价格敏感的市场提供运动型多功能车(SUV),Tech Mahindra的国际业务则包括为无人驾驶汽车开发软件。“When people think of manufacturing, it is no longer a very simplistic framework that you can apply, a very binary one that ‘I need to make something low-cost so I go to China#8201;.#8201;.#8201;.#8201;Now China’s place in the sun is gone, go to India’,” he says. “That’s not how people are going to have to think. They’re going to have to create a footprint which might be like a neural network which involves nodes in various places.“当人们思考制造业的时候,使用那种简单化的思维模式已经行不通了,那种两段论——‘我需要生产低成本的东西,我就去中国……如今中国不是最佳制造地了,我就去印度’,”他说。“这不是人们以后不得不采取的思维方式。人们将不得不创造这样的足迹,或许就像神经网络一样,节点遍布各个地方。”“You incubate a product in an atmosphere where that product is best incubated. So, for example, we incubated our electric scooter in California. Because it’s low-volume manufacturing but high-intelligence, intensive manufacturing, we are starting in Michigan. At a point where the volume is going to be much higher and labour is a much higher component, we will pick a different part of the world, most likely India.”“你孵化一个产品,会选择最适合孵化它的环境。所以,打个比方,我们会在加州孵化我们的电动托车。它是个小批量生产的产品,但高度智能化、生产集约化,因此我们从密歇根州起步。到了某个程度,其产量会大幅度提高,工人的数量也会大幅增加,届时我们将选择其他地区,最可能的就是印度。”As well as struggling to devise a profitable manufacturing strategy for the future, Mr Mahindra is grappling with the need to make sense of a highly diversified conglomerate of the sort often unpopular with focused investors and financial analysts.马欣德拉除了难以制定出面向未来的可盈利制造策略,还难以对高度多元化企业集团的合理性进行必要的明,这类企业通常不受重点投资者和金融分析师的待见。With its origins in a quintessentially Indian family enterprise built in a protected post-independence economy, Mahindra not only sells IT services, tractors, trucks, cars, three-wheelers, two-wheelers and small aircraft, but is also involved in defence, renewable energy, banking, insurance, retail, real estate and holidays. Mr Mahindra, a member of the third generation, whose own wealth is estimated by Forbes at .2bn, is not shy of acquisitions. He bought Ssangyong Motor and the scandal-hit Satyam Computer Services among others — and is constantly on the watch for the chance to buy a high-end automotive brand.马欣德拉起源于一个典型的印度家族企业,在独立后受保护的经济环境中逐渐壮大,它不仅销售IT务、拖拉机、卡车、汽车、三轮车、两轮车和小型飞机,还涉足国防、可再生能源、业、保险、零售、房地产以及度假产业。阿南德#8226;马欣德拉是该家族第三代成员,据福布斯(Forbes)估计他的资产为12亿美元。阿南德在收购企业时从不手软,他收购的企业包括双龙汽车(Ssangyong Motor),以及陷入丑闻的萨蒂扬软件技术有限公司(Satyam Computer Services)等等。阿南德还一直在留心收购一个高端汽车品牌的机会。“We don’t call it a conglomerate, we call it a federation,” he says. “If you look at a spectrum between General Electric and Berkshire Hathaway, GE is a conglomerate, one single monolithic company with divisions, Berkshire Hathaway has multiple investments.”阿南德说:“我们不会自称为企业集团,我们称之为联盟。如果你将通用电气(GE)和伯克希尔哈撒韦公司(Berkshire Hathaway)放在一个光谱的两端,那么通用电气就是企业集团,一个有许多部门的单一整体公司。伯克希尔哈撒韦则拥有众多投资项目。”Mahindra, in short, is more Berkshire Hathaway than GE and the boss is in no mood to abandon the safety of diversification.简言之,马欣德拉更像伯克希尔哈撒韦、而不是通用电气,而老板本人也无意放弃多元化带来的安全保障。“If I was sitting here and I had only one unit — an SUV diesel business — even if I was making a 25 per cent return today, your question would be, ‘Anand, are you going to survive?’ Right? Here I am. I’m seeding other parts.“如果我坐在这个位子上,旗下只有一个部门,比如运动型多功能车(SUV)柴油车业务,哪怕现在我的回报率是25%,你仍会问,‘阿南德,你能生存下去吗?’对吧?我已经决定了。我要培育其他业务。”“I’ve got an electric vehicle business. If the world moves, in [big cities], away from vehicles and they say only two-wheelers, and battery two-wheelers, are going to be able to survive, guess who’ll have a product? If they say electric vehicles only in Delhi tomorrow after banning 10-year-old diesel vehicles [this was announced in April by the National Green Tribunal, but the ban has been suspended for the time being], guess who has a product?”“我已经有了电动车业务。如果全世界(的大城市)要告别汽车,然后他们说只有两轮车、电动两轮车可以继续使用,猜猜谁拿得出合适的产品?如果他们继禁止10年车龄的柴油车上路后(印度国家绿色法庭(National Green Tribunal)今年4月宣布该禁令,但暂未实施),明天又说在德里只能开电动车,你猜谁能拿出合适的产品?”With a hint of defensiveness, Mr Mahindra rejects criticism by analysts of his moves into new markets and product categories. “The moment I say I’m going into scooters, they say ‘you’re crazy’. Six months later when BMW comes out with an electric scooter, it’s fine. But when Anand does it, because he’s some small guy in India, it’s not fine.”马欣德拉进军新市场以及新的产品种类之举受到了分析师的批评,对此他有些戒备地拒绝接受。“当我说我要做托车时,他们说‘你疯了’。6个月后宝马(BMW)推出了一款电动托车,大家都觉得没问题。但是阿南德要做这个就不行,因为他只是印度的一个小人物。”Mahindra, of course, is not small — it has operations in 100 countries — but Mr Mahindra the conglomerate chief still describes himself as an entrepreneur, despite, or perhaps because of, the multitude of businesses he controls.马欣德拉当然不是小企业,它的业务遍及100个国家,但作为企业集团老板的阿南德仍将自己形容成一个创业者,尽管(或者是因为)他操控着如此多业务。“Our performance has borne out the fact that the model seems to work. I have been facing this question now for the past two decades and I’m still around, still have my job, so something must be working,” he says.阿南德说:“我们的成绩已经明,这一模式似乎可行。过去二十年我一直面对着这个问题,而我还在这里,还在这个位置上,所以有些东西肯定是可行的。” /201506/381109

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