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抚顺曙光医院男科医院在那儿抚顺矿务局医院治疗男性不育多少钱辽宁省抚顺曙光医院割包皮手术 Out for the Count失去知觉之后If youve ever had major surgery, you probably remember lying down and waking up—but nothing in between. Thanks to the anesthesiologist, during the actual surgery you were out of it: immobilized and insensitive to pain. But until recently scientists had little understanding of how anesthetics actually work on the cellular level.如果你曾经做过重大手术,那么你肯定只记得躺下去和醒来这么2个动作,而其间过程是浑然不知的。多亏了麻醉师,你才能在手术中无知觉地度过:不能动弹,也感觉不到疼痛。但是直到最近科学家们才多少了解到麻醉药是如何在细胞层面上工作的。Thats changed thanks to recent experiments performed by researchers at the University of Zurich, in Switzerland. They knew that anesthetics caused pain receptors in the brain to turn off by acting like most drugs do: anesthetizing drugs attach to particular sites on nerve cells and turn them off. The question was, where on nerve cells do these drugs attach?还得感谢瑞士苏黎世大学的研究员们最近做的实验,这一困惑才得以解开。他们弄清楚了麻药是通 过关闭大脑中的疼痛接收器才使人感觉不到疼痛,原理跟大多数药物一样:麻药附着在神经细胞上某个特殊位置,然后将感知功能关闭。问题是,麻药到底附着在什么位置呢?Nerve cell membranes have receptors for different kinds of chemicals produced by the brain. Gamma-amino butyric acid, or GABA, for example, is a chemical that shuts down nerve cells. The hypothesis was that general anesthesia works by binding to GABA receptors on a nerve cell, thereby activating the receptor and instructing the cell to shut down. So it made sense for the Zurich researchers to focus on GABA receptors.神经细胞膜有多个接收器来识别大脑产生的不同类别的化学物质。例如γ-氨基丁酸,或者简写为GABA,就是可以关闭神经细胞感知功能的化学物质。假设全身麻醉是将麻药和在神经细胞上的GABA接收器绑定在一起,从而激活接收器,然后再传达闭接收功能的指令关的。这样的假设就使苏黎世大学的研究员们明白,集中精力研究GABA接收器是关键所在。To do this they worked with mice that had been genetically engineered to have nerve cells with GABA receptors that wouldnt respond to anesthetics. And sure enough, when such mice were given anesthetic drugs they werent nearly as immune to pain as regular mice that had also been given pain-blocking drugs. Clearly, GABA receptor sites on nerve cells are part of what allows anesthetics to do their job.为了明这点,他们用基因改造过的老鼠做实验,这种老鼠身上的 GABA接收器对麻药免疫。毫无疑问,这样的老鼠在使用了麻药后,比起正常的用了麻药的老鼠,疼痛感几乎没有降低。显然位于神经细胞上的GABA接收器是让麻药起作用的原因之一。While the Zurich experiment fills in only one piece of the puzzle, it is an important step towards learning how these amazing drugs work, and how to make them even better.尽管苏黎世大学做的实验只解决了一小部分困惑,但是这对于了解这些神奇的药物如何工作的,以及怎样让它们发挥更好的效果是重要的一步。 /201208/193298抚顺市包皮手术哪医院好

顺城区治疗前列腺炎哪家医院最好抚顺市新抚医院治疗阳痿多少钱 Still in Books and Arts; Book Review;Tax reform in America;A simple bare necessity;文艺;书评;美国税改;必须做的一件事;The Benefit and the Burden: Tax Reform—Why We Need It and What It Will Take. By Bruce Bartlett.《效益与负担:税改——我们为什么需要税改,推行税改需要什么》。布鲁斯·巴特利特著。Few subjects match tax reform for economic importance and utter lack of sex appeal. With a government bleeding red ink, an ageing population and growth lagging, reform is back on Americas political agenda. Bruce Bartlett, a supply-side economist, tax expert and former adviser to President Reagan, is among those best equipped to help navigate the murky terrain. Mr Bartlett held influential economic positions during the countrys last great spasm of reform in the 1980s, but he is now held an apostate by many Republicans, for whom the only acceptable tax changes are cuts. His balanced, well-researched primer on Americas tax system, “The Benefit and the Burden”, will not endear him further to ideologues, but it is a refreshing entrée to a difficult subject.很少有话题能像税收改革那样具有经济意义,也很少有话题能像税收改革这样枯燥无味。政府赤字还在增加,人口老龄化还在加剧,经济增长依然迟缓,税收改革又重新回到美国的政治议程。一些人秣马厉兵帮助美国共渡难关,供应学派经济学家布鲁斯·巴特莱特就是其中的一位,他是一位税务专家,曾在里根政府里担任顾问。在上世纪80年代的美国改革阵痛中,巴特莱特先生确立了他在经济领域的重要地位,然而现在许多共和党人视他为“叛徒”,因为唯一可以接受的税改方案因他而被删除。他那本结构平衡、条分缕析介绍美国税制的普及读本《福利及税负》不再使他更受理论家的追捧,但把这本书当作一个困难话题的“开口小菜”倒是不错。The books no-nonsense approach to tax policy proves surprisingly engaging. Mr Bartlett walks ers through discussions on income and spending—basic concepts made baffling within the context of the tax code. He offers a dose of history and the useful perspective of a seasoned Washington hand. Americas labyrinthine tax rules are hardly the product of intelligent design, he explains. The popular deduction for home-mortgage interest that helped create suburban America, for example, was not adopted to boost home-ownership but included quite innocently in a 1913 income-tax law that spared interest of any kind. Where economics has useful things to say about tax Mr Bartlett is quick to cite research. And he is prepared to let empirical analysis speak for itself.该书对税收政策的讲述比较严肃,后经明这是一种引人入胜的方式。巴特莱特先生让读者领会了财政收问题,在税收法典中这些基本概念常让人感到困惑。他提供的是一剂历史良药,他提供给读者的是身经百战的政府官员才能具备的有用视角。巴特莱特先生解释说,美国的税收规则如迷宫一般,几乎不是智慧设计的产物。例如,帮助美国郊区快速发展的按揭贷款利息扣除的流行做法,就没有被采用以提高住房的自有率,但却被十分天真地写到美国1913年所得税法当中,按照该方法,各类利息都可以免除。经济学中谈及税收的有用章节都会很快被巴特莱特先生引用。他准备让经验分析自己明这一切。Mr Bartletts critique of Americas tax system is that it creates a deceptive picture of the influence of government, and is far too costly. On revenues as a share of GDP, Americas government looks small relative to its European peers. The difference is illusory. European health spending shows up on the governments ledgers whereas Americas tax preferences for health insurance do not. But the government intervention is there all the same. In 2012 the deduction for employer-provided insurance cost some 4 billion, or roughly 3% of GDP. Include these “tax expenditures” in the budget, Mr Bartlett says, and Americas state looks as bloated as any in Europe. Net social spending rises to 27.2% of GDP—above the level in Italy and Denmark and higher than the OECD average.巴特莱特先生对美国税制提出批评,认为它制造了一种政府影响力的假象,而且成本太高。看上去美国税收收入与GDP之间的比率比欧洲国家要低。两者之间的区别是不真实的。欧洲国家的保健出在政府账上显示为增加,而美国健康保险的税收优惠却没有增加。但美国和欧洲国家政府的介入一直是一致的。2012年,雇主提供的保险成本扣除数为4340亿美元左右,约占GDP的3%。巴特莱特先生表示,包括这些预算中“税收出”在内,美国的状况看起来与欧洲任何国家一样庞大。社会净出增加到GDP的27.2%,超过了意大利和丹麦,也高于经合组织的平均水平。It is also needlessly costly, riddled with quirks of the sort that allow Warren Buffett, an American billionaire, and the Republican presidential contender, Mitt Romney, to pay a lower average tax rate than many poorer households. Rates should be cut, Mr Bartlett argues, but one must also broaden the tax base, leaving few loopholes through which revenue might escape. The value-added tax (VAT) that is common in Europe is a better way. VAT is a tax on consumption; firms receive credits for tax paid on business supplies. The structure improves compliance and efficiency. Europe raises more money than America at less cost to growth; some high-tax countries like Denmark outperform America in real growth per head.也不必说它的成本高昂了,有很多奇怪的制度设计使得美国亿万富翁巴菲特、共和党总统竞争者罗姆尼比许多贫困家庭付的税率还要低。巴特莱特先生认为,税率应该降低,但税基必须扩大,使得收入没有太多的漏洞可钻。欧洲普遍实施的增值税就是一个比较好的方法。增值税是一种消费税,公司收到供应商的货物,也就收到了的税收信用,这种设计能够加强人们对税法的遵守,能够提高效率。欧洲比美国的税收更高,而税收成本增长更小。像丹麦这样的高税收国家,人均实际增长比美国要好。Mr Bartlett favours the introduction of VAT, but reckons that politics will make this hard to do. It is doubly abhorrent to Republicans, who oppose any new taxes, and who fear that the “painless” efficiency of VAT may make the American government too eager to spend. Democrats, on the other hand, worry that VAT will harm low-income households relative to income tax, which is more progressive. European welfare states often rely on tax systems that are flatter than Americas, using welfare spending to smooth out inequities.巴特莱特先生倾向于引进增值税,但他认为美国政治将为这个问题增加难度。也会增加共和党的憎恶,因为他们反对任何新的税种,他们担心增值税的“无痛”功效可能促使美国政府急于花钱。另一方面,民主党则担心增值税会损害到与所得税这个更先进的税收相关的低收入家庭的利益。欧洲福利国家常依靠比美国更低的税收制度,使用福利出来弥合社会不公。Americas politics seem ill-prepared for such reforms. Democrats, riding populist outrage at the rich, want to protect the welfare state and pay for it through tax rises on the wealthy. On the right, well-heeled Americans fume that nearly half of all households pay no federal income tax. Mr Bartletts political diagnosis is perhaps the books least satisfying aspect. Little will be accomplished until congressional Republicans are willing to compromise, he writes, and Americas best chance may be to elect a reform-minded Republican president and a Democratic Congress—and to hope. In the end, the weaknesses in Americas tax code are not half as debilitating as those in its politics.面临税制改革,美国政府似乎准备不足。民主党将平民主义的愤怒发泄到富人身上,他们想要保住福利制度,通过对富人增税解决这个问题。在右派这边,富有的美国人愤怒地说,将近一半的美国家庭不缴联邦所得税。巴特莱特先生对美国政治的诊断也许是该书是不能令人满意的地方。他在书中写道,除非国会中的共和党人愿意作出妥协,否则很难取得进展,美国最好的局面可能是,由一位具有改革精神的共和党人做总统,由民主党人领导国会。他希望如此。最后,美国税典中的缺点所带来的负面影响远不及美国政治大。 /201212/217089抚顺哪家医院必尿科好

抚顺包茎手术费Well, for a while, it seemed the only direction for Apple was up on the NASDAQ. But the worlds most valuable company has become marketly less valuable in recent months. Well find out whats its earnings look like on Wednesday, but Maribel Aber is live at the NASDAQ to explain to us why investors are anxious. Come back a little bit this morning, Maribel, but was it still off 3 per cent?曾经一度,似乎苹果在纳斯达克指数上只可能是上涨的方向。但是,这个全世界最有价值的公司在最近几个月在市场上的价值已开始下跌。我们将在周三看到苹果的收益到底如何,但是,活跃在纳斯达克的Maribel Aber向我们解释为什么投资人这么焦虑。Maribel先生,今天早上,苹果纳斯达克指数回涨了一点,不过仍然下跌了3%?Thats right, Ali. More troubling signs for Apple, really. The Wall Street Journal says Apple sent word to suppliers in December that it would be reducing parts orders for the recently released iPhone5. And the reason here--weaker than the expected demand. Report says that Apple cut some orders in half from regional expectations so that really indicates sales about latest smartphone really have been as strong as Apple anticipated. And Apples stock price peaked at about 705 here back in September. Check out this chart here, this morning, Apple is down 3.1 per cent, trading at 504.35 there. Thats a big drop since September about 26 per cent from its peak. And Apples felling a lot of heat from Samsung and other makers of smartphones.是的,阿里。这的确是苹果更多不妙的迹象之一。华尔街日报称苹果12月曾向供应商表示,可能会减少最近发布的苹果5的零部件的定购。原因就是,实际的需求比预期的要低。又有报道称,苹果将区域预期的定单减少了近一半,因此这实际上表明这一智能手机的最新款如苹果预期的一样强大。同时,九月份苹果的股票价格高达近705。看一看今天早上的这个图表,苹果下跌了3.1%,以504.35交易。这是自从九月份以来的大幅下降,从最高值下降了大约26%。并且,比起三星和其他智能手机厂商,人们对苹果的热度下降了很多。Now when it gets to some other tech news here, we are gonna get earnings reports this week from Intel and Ebay. Ebay reports earnings on Wednesday and briefing.com expects Ebay to report earnings of 69 cents a share, so that would be up from 60 cents a year ago. Lets see how Ebays doing. Right now its down about 7, tenth per cent, to 52.32 there.现在,让我们看看其他技术新闻,这里有来自于Intel和Ebay的本周的收益报告。Ebay周三的收益报告以及briefing.com期待Ebay的收益报告为每股69美分。因此,这将比一年前高出60美分。让我们看看Ebay做得如何。它下跌了大约7,10%,目前为52.32。And Intel is out on Thursday. Briefing.com is forecasting earnings of 49 cents a share. That would be down from 68 cents a year ago and Intel is up by tenth per cent by 22.11.周三Intel的报告也出来了。Briefing.com预测其收益为每股49美分。这一数值是从一年前的68美分下跌的,上涨了10%到22.11。 201212/224007 Books and Arts; Book Review;Iraq under Saddam;Only obeying orders;文艺;书评;萨达姆治下的伊拉克;唯命是从;The Weight of a Mustard Seed: The Intimate Story of an Iraqi General and His Family During Thirty Years of Tyranny,By Wendell Steavenson《一粒荠菜籽的重量:一个伊拉克将军和他的家庭在三十年暴政时期的亲密故事》,温德尔·史蒂文森著。Why did so many apparently decent Iraqis serve Saddam Hussein so loyally for so many years? An American-British reporter, Wendell Steavenson, has interviewed a score or more of Iraqi soldiers, from sergeants to generals, trawling through their life histories to find an answer. In particular, she befriends the family of a brave general, Kamel Sachet Aziz al-Janabi, delving into his life story through his wife, several of his nine children and numerous friends and admirers.为什么在那么多的年月里,会有那么多看起来很正直的伊拉克人对萨达姆是那样的忠心耿耿呢?为了找到,美裔英籍记者温德尔·史蒂文森采访了二十多名伊拉克军人,其中既有中士也有将军,深入了解了他们的人生经历。值得一提的是,她还为英勇的将军卡米尔·萨西尔·阿齐兹·阿尔-贾纳比的家人提供了热心帮助,并通过他的妻子、9个孩子中的几个以及众多朋友和崇拜者,对他的人生传奇进行了探寻。Only later does the er discover that he was one of countless Iraqis executed by Saddam, for reasons that never become clear, in his case only a few years before the Americans toppled the dictator. General Sachet emerges as a fundamentally honest and upright, though occasionally ruthless and intellectually limited, soldier who turns to religion, like so many other Iraqis, as the regime putrefies. His family is battered. Though its members have every cause to celebrate Saddams demise, most of them sympathise with—and some of them actively support—the anti-American insurgency that was still rife as this book went to print.然而随后读者就发现,他是被萨达姆处决的无数伊拉克人之一,而原因一直不明不白。他是在美国推倒萨达姆独裁政权仅仅几年前被处死的。萨西尔将军给人的感觉是一名比较老实、正直的军人,但偶尔也会显示出残忍和不够聪明的一面。随着伊拉克政体的败落,像许多其他伊拉克人一样,他也加入了宗教。他的家庭现已破落不堪,可尽管他的家人完全有理由为萨达姆的死而欢庆,然而对于在该书行将付梓之时仍旧愈演愈烈的反美暴乱事件,他们中大多数人却持赞同态度,有的甚至予以了积极持。Ms Steavenson seeks to examine the inner lives of other Iraqi military men. She relentlessly tracks them down to their abodes of exile in Abu Dhabi, Amman, Beirut, Damascus and London. After a while, there is a dispiritingly drab sameness about their stories. In short, you had to lie to survive. Perhaps the most honest in his reflections is a doctor who became a senior officer in the medical corps. “You had to lie against your principles. You had to say things you did not believe. It was mental conflict. To live 35 years like this. It becomes a personality trait.”史蒂文森试图探查其他伊拉克军人的内心世界。不屈不挠的她循着他们的踪迹,找到了他们流放至迪拜、安曼、贝鲁特、大马士革以及伦敦后的住所。交谈不一会儿,她便感到气馁了,因为他们的故事千篇一律,单调而乏味。简单点说就是,每个人都不得不靠撒谎活下去。一名后来成为医疗部队高级军官的医生对往事的反思或许最为实在。“你不得不违背原则地说谎,说一些你不相信的事情,这是一种心理矛盾。35年都是这样活过来的,它已经成为一种个性特征。”All those interviewed have tales of horror. Just about all of them witness summary executions: of enemy soldiers (mainly Iranians), of Kurds, of Kuwaitis, of Iraqi deserters, of senior Iraqi officers who are deemed to have been guilty of losing battles or even merely of retreating when they should have stayed to fight and die. General Sachet is ordered to oversee such executions. A sergeant witnesses an Iraqi, who was alleged to have abused a woman in Kuwait, hauled up by a crane to be shot by fellow Iraqi soldiers. The same happens to an Iraqi colonel caught smuggling gold. Kuwaiti prisoners have their ears nailed to a plank of wood.所有被采访者都经历过恐怖的事情。几乎所有人都目睹过处决现场,被处决的有敌军(主要是伊朗人),有库尔德人,有科威特人,有伊军的逃兵,也有因为打败仗或者因为本该战斗到死却撤退而被认定有罪的伊拉克高级将领。萨西尔将军受命监督了这些处决过程。一个伊拉克人被指控曾在科威特对一妇女施虐,一位中士亲眼见到他被吊在起重机上然后伊拉克士兵开把他击毙。一位走私黄金被抓的伊拉克上校也有同样的遭遇。科威特战俘的耳朵则被钉在厚厚的木板上。A former bodyguard of Saddams describes, admiringly, how he saw the dictator taking out his revolver and “shooting between the eyes” one of his own relatives who had taken a younger wife and had rejected the presidents request to go back to his original one. A relation of General Sachet tells how Qusay Saddam Hussein, the dictators son, gave an order to kill 2,000 prisoners in Abu Ghraib prison (which became notorious for abuses during the early years of the American occupation) to relieve overcrowding.一名萨达姆前任贴身护卫描述了他看到的这位独裁者拔出左轮手,朝自己的一名亲戚开并“打中眉心”的情景,言语中流露出钦佩之意。那人娶了一名年轻的妻子,而总统要求他回到他原来的妻子身边但被他拒绝了。萨西尔将军的一个亲戚说,这位独裁者的儿子乌赛·萨达姆·侯赛因曾下令杀死阿布格莱布监狱的2000名囚犯,以减轻监狱人满为患的压力。(在美国占领伊拉克的头几年,阿布格莱布监狱曾因虐囚事件变得臭名昭著。)Perhaps most dispiriting of all, virtually none of those interviewed acknowledges responsibility for what was done. Most of their explanations are variations on “we were only obeying orders”. “What could I do?” “But I helped people, many people!” “I suffered also, you know.” “This was usual then.” The gassing of 5,000 Kurds in Halabja was, concedes a seemingly upright general, “a political mistake”.或许最令人气馁的是,事实上没有一个受访者承认对自己的所作所为负有责任。他们的辩解说来道去,大多都是“我们只是在执行命令”,“我有什么办法呢?”“但我还是帮了人的,很多人!”,“你知道的,我也很痛苦。”一名似乎还算正直的将军说,在哈拉布甲用毒气杀害5000名库尔德人的事件,“是一个政治错误”。“I liked them. I joked with them. I sympathised with them,” writes Ms Steavenson. “But not one ever looked me straight in the eye and admitted responsibility for the crimes of the government which they had served.” Even after the depredations of Saddam Hussein, many of those Ms Steavenson talked to still hankered after someone like him. Iraqis, says one, are “an unruly mass of shirugi—slang for thick-headed Marsh Arabs—who need the rule of the rod, a strongman, to control them.” Judging by this remorselessly bleak account of Iraqs moral collapse, one cannot but feel squeamish about Iraqs future, under any regime.“我喜欢他们,和他们一起开玩笑,我同情他们,”史蒂文森写道,“但是没有一个人直视过我的眼睛,承认他们对自己曾经效忠的政府所犯下的罪行负有责任。”尽管受尽萨达姆的蹂躏,接受史蒂文森访谈的许多人依然渴望以后还能有像他那样的人出现。有一个人说,伊拉克人是“一群不守规矩的shirugi(俚语,指愚笨的沼地阿拉伯人),需要棒压统治,需要一名强势之人来管住他们。”伊拉克的道德崩溃竟然会有一个如此无情、黯淡的注脚,我们不禁要为伊拉克的未来捏一把汗了,不管它是怎样的政体。 /201303/231225抚顺男科医院地图抚顺市第二医院前列腺炎哪家医院最好

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