2019年09月23日 02:23:30|来源:国际在线|编辑:百科爱问
Trade troubleCNN's Charles Hodson speaks with Alan Holmer, U.S. Special Envoy for China, about the dispute over industrial subsidiesI think it is quite important and in particular what it shows is that engagement with China can work. And that’s what we are attempting to do in this strategic economic dialogue and many other issues that are being discussed. This is one item that was led by US trade representative ambassador Susan Schwab addressing concerns that we have with respect to Chinese subsidies, particularly export subsidies and subsidies we would say that you need to…that a Chinese company would need to import domestic goods as opposed to imported goods. But this really does show that when we have a chance to work through the issues and to work on them collaboratively that we can get a mutually beneficial result. I think that’s in particular the significance here.But you've got some very very big issues indeed to deal with. You've got the issue of Chinese respect of intellectual property, you got the issue of China’s opening up its market to international financial services, and above all you've got the fact that the Chinese, said in newer estimation, keep their currency the RMB yuan artificially low against the dollar. It’s ganna take a long time, isn’t it, to get real progress on those issues?Well, some of these issues are ones that we are able to make progress on. That’s the focus of what we call our strategic economic dialogue to be able to address the long-term strategic issues that we really need to be able to address over the long term. These are issues like energy and the environment, issues on, as you indicate, getting them to appreciate their currency more rapidly. All the issues with respect to having them accelerate the development of their financial sector, issues on investment, issues for example on integrity of trade consumer protection and product safety. So those are all issues… (Let's) Please go ahead CharlesYes, Sorry, ambassador I mean those are obviously, don’t let's get in too far down the laundry list. I mean, those are all important issues but the fact is sure you don’t have that much leverage—the Chinese sell an enormous number of goods that people in America want to buy, hence the deficit on the one hand; on the other hand, you would be very worried if the reserves that the Chinese are holding in dollars were suddenly to go over to Euros or some other currencies essentially they've got all the leverage, you don’t have much, right?Well, I think there are two important pieces of leverage those apply with respect to America, they also apply with respect to Europe. And that is continued access to those two markets which is something that the Chinese certainly are very interested in. The other piece of leverage is all of these questions are once where the Chinese do recognize. That it's important for them on consumer product safety to protect the Chinese brand. They recognized that it is important for them to move to a more flexible exchange rate and what we are focusing on with them is not so much the direction of reform but the pace of reform. Notes:with respect to: pertaining to, concerning..02/61886Cancer therapy癌症治疗Taking aim sooner即将实现对症下药If personalised medicine is to achieve its full potential, it should be used earlier on in clinical trials若想让个体化药物发挥最大潜力,那就应该尽早将它投入临床试验。Jun 9th 2011 | from the print editionONE of the prospects supporters of the Human Genome Project held out was personalised medicine. Knowing which genes were involved in a particular patient’s disease would allow drugs to be deployed with greater precision. That is starting to happen in the field of cancer. Several targeted therapies, aimed at specific cancer-causing mutations, including Gleevec for chronic myelogenous leukaemia and Herceptin for some types of breast cancer, have been spectacularly successful. Yet in most cases of cancer doctors still base their treatment on where in the body a tumour has sprung up, rather than on which molecular aberrations have caused it.人类基因组计划持者认为该计划的前景之一就是个体化药物。通过了解哪些基因与特定病人的疾病存在关联,会使药物的使用更加精确。在癌症领域,这种情况即将成为现实。几种针对特定致癌突变的靶向疗法——包括治疗慢性髓细胞性白血病的格列卫和治疗多种类型乳癌的赫塞汀——所展现出的治疗效果令世人瞩目。而在癌症的大多数病例中,医生们的治疗仍然基于人体中肿瘤出现的位置,而不考虑究竟是哪几种分子畸变导致了肿瘤的发生。The same is true of medical researchers recruiting volunteers for clinical trials, especially those known as phase I trials, in which a new drug is tested on people for the first time. Participants in such trials are often those whose tumour has sp beyond its original site, and will probably prove fatal. Usually, they have tried all proven therapies, to no avail. Their precarious condition means they are rarely accepted for phase II and III trials, which are more complicated and extensive.对于招募临床试验志愿者,尤其是所谓的第一阶段试验(在该阶段,人们要接受新药的第一次人体试验)志愿者的医疗研究员来说,情况也同样如此。该阶段试验的参加者通常是那些肿瘤发生扩散而远离初始位置的人,他们也将因此而有性命之忧。一般来说,他们已然尝试过所有经过验的疗法,却徒劳无功。他们危急的病情意味着只有少数人能接受更为复杂和广泛的第二和第三阶段试验。Oddly, though, even if the drug being tested is a targeted therapy the tradition in phase I trials has been to gather together patients with, say, lung cancer and assume that all carry the relevant mutation. That is because such trials are concerned mainly with testing a drug’s safety, not its efficacy. The volunteers are usually happy to go along with this. But the odds are not good. On average, fewer than 5% of participants in phase I trials respond successfully to the treatment.但是令人感到奇怪的是,即便所试验的药物是一种靶向治疗药物,第一阶段试验的传统也一直是招募病人,比如肺癌患者,并假定他们所有人都携带相关的突变体。那是因为这些试验主要关注点在于测试药品的安全性,而非有效性。志愿者通常愿意从头到尾全程配合,但是效果仍不甚理想。平均来说,在第一阶段试验中只有不到5%的参与者经过治疗后病情大有起色。201106/141187Court Rules Bali Bombers Can Be Executed by Firing Squad印尼法庭:可决巴厘爆炸案被告 Indonesia's constitutional court has ruled the three men convicted in the 2002 Bali bombings and sentenced to death may be executed by firing squad, quashing their claim it is inhumane and against the constitution. 印度尼西亚的宪法法庭裁决说,因2002年巴厘岛爆炸案而被判死刑的三名男子可以交由行刑队决。这一裁决击碎了他们关于死刑执行的方式非人道和违反宪法的指责。The constitutional court also dismissed a request by the Bali bombers to be beheaded instead of shot, which their lawyers argue is a more humane method of execution. 宪法法庭还驳回了关于以斩首取代决的方式处决巴厘爆炸案制造者的要求。他们的律师辩解说,斩首是更人道的处决方式。The three bombers: Amrozi Nurhasyim, Ali Gufron, and Imam Samudra, have been sentenced to death for the 2002 Bali bombings that claimed the lives of 202 people, many of them foreign tourists. 阿姆鲁兹·努尔哈希姆、阿里·古弗隆和伊玛目·萨穆德拉因为在2002年制造导致202人丧生的巴厘岛爆炸事件而被判死刑。那次事件遇难者中有许多是外国人。Presiding judge Mohammad Mahfud says the pain generated by a firing squad is a natural part of the execution process and not torture, as claimed by the bombers' lawyers. 该案审判长穆罕默德·马赫富德说,由决所造成的痛苦是处决过程中的自然部分,不是这些爆炸制造者的律师所说的折磨。He says there is no justification for the request and that the court has rejected it. 他说,无从明这是个正当的要求,所以法庭予以驳回。The three bombers, who are part of the regional terrorist group Jemaah Islamiyah, have exhausted all appeals and are expected to be executed soon. 这三名属于区域性恐怖组织伊斯兰祈祷团的爆炸案犯已经用尽了所有申诉,预计不久就会被处决。In an unusual announcement, the attorney general said he will give more details about the timing of the executions, this Friday. 总检察长在一个不同寻常的声明中说,他将在星期五提供有关处决时间的具体情况。Indonesia carries out executions by firing squad, usually late at night and without giving prior notice to the public. 印度尼西亚由行刑队执行死刑。执行时间通常在深夜,也不会事先发布公告。A lawyer for the bombers, Wirawan Adnan, says he will respect the court's decision. 这些爆炸制造者的律师之一比拉万·阿德南说,他们将尊重法庭的裁决。"We have to respect the decision. This is because this is a highly respected court and we have to respect the decision," Wirawan said. "We do have our disappointment. But, with that being said, we still respect the constitution and again this is our petition for the constitution, not necessarily for Amrozi, it's for the interest of the constitution." 他说:“我们必须尊重这个裁决。因为这是相当有威望的法庭。所以我们不得不尊重这个裁决。我们当然失望。但是,正如我所说的,我们仍然尊重宪法,再说一次,这是我们针对宪法提出的申诉,不完全是为了阿姆鲁兹,而是为了宪法的利益。”The three Bali bombers vow their followers will avenge their execution, but most terrorist experts agree Jemaah Islamiyah is no longer capable of launching major terrorist attacks. 这三名巴厘爆炸案制造者扬言说,他们的追随者会对他们遭处决而进行报复。但是多数恐怖问题专家都认为,伊斯兰祈祷团已经没有能力发动重大恐怖袭击了。Also on Tuesday, police raided a house in Jakarta seizing weapons and bomb-making materials from the site, but did not give further details. 此外,警察星期二突袭了雅加达的一座房屋,在那里缴获了武器和制造炸弹的材料。但是警方没有提供更多详情。200810/53609

“Life and Fate”《生活与命运》War, peace and love战争、和平与爱情Vasily Grossman’s epic novel is transformed for the radio瓦西里#8226;格罗斯曼史诗般的小说被改编成广播剧Sep 10th 2011 | from the print edition Vasily Grossman vindicated 无辜的瓦西里·格罗斯曼FEW novels have the foes and fans of “Life and Fate”, Vasily Grossman’s vast book about the Nazis and Soviets at war. The Soviet Communist Party’s ideology chief said it would be more damaging even than Boris Pasternak’s “Dr Zhivago”. That was a high accolade. Another was that the book itself was arrested. In 1961 the KGB confiscated the typescript and even, for good measure, the typewriter ribbon. Grossman, once a loyal party man and an acclaimed war correspondent, was spared jail. But he died four years later, fearing that his sprawling work would never be published (the authorities had said mockingly that it might happen in 200 years). Many years later Andrei Sakharov, a Soviet dissident, helped smuggle a microfilm copy to the West, where it was eventually published in English in 1985.《生活与命运》是瓦西里#8226;格罗斯曼描写纳粹和苏联战争的宏篇巨著,很少有小说有着它这样的书迷和敌人。苏联共产党的意识形态负责人说,这本书甚至比鲍里斯#8226;帕斯捷尔纳克的《日瓦戈医生》更具破坏力。这是高度的称赞。另一个高度称赞是这本书本身的被查抄。1961年克格勃没收了打字稿,为了更加严防,甚至没收了打字机色带。格罗斯曼曾经是一名忠诚党的人,以及一名广受赞誉的战地记者,他幸免入狱。但四年后他去世时,仍在担心他散乱的作品永远不会出版,因为当局曾嘲讽地说,这本书的出版可能会在200年后。多年后,苏联持不同政见者安德烈#8226;萨哈罗夫帮着走私了缩微胶片拷贝到西方,最后这本书于1985年以英文在西方出版。The book was not an immediate success. For some years it was overshadowed by the better known work of Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn and by the excitement of reform and then collapse in the Soviet Union. It is also intimidatingly long, with a swirling cast of scores of confusingly named characters. Hundreds of pages sometimes separate their appearances. The sweep of Grossman’s pen can exhaust the er. True to its title, “Life and Fate” mixes gritty battlefield descriptions with acute psychological insights, wrenching dilemmas and deep philosophical reflections about the nature of good and evil. It is at once funny, gruesome, tragic, informative, romantic and disconcerting. The central message of horror jars with the simplistic but widely held notion that the war was a black-and-white struggle between beastly Nazis and their valiant adversaries.这本书并没有立即获得成功。在出版后的几年,亚历山大#8226;索尔仁尼琴的作品比较出名,人们对改革感到兴奋,接着是苏联解体,这些都使该书黯然失色。这本书也长得令人生畏,人物众多,名字容易混淆,让人昏乱。有时读过几百页才能搞清人物的来龙去脉。格罗斯曼下笔的拖沓可能会令读者厌烦。《生活与命运》文如其名,将敏锐的心理洞察力、痛苦的困境以及对善恶本质的深刻哲学思考与坚韧不拔的战场描述揉合在一起。本书集滑稽好笑、阴森可怕、悲剧色、内容翔实、罗曼蒂克和仓惶失措于一身。本书始终秉持苏德战争是残忍的纳粹和他们英勇的对手之间你死我活的斗争这样的观念,除此之外,中心思想就是恐怖,处理过于简单,产生了不和谐之感。201109/153855

Donor's Pledge .48 Billion in New Gaza Aid捐助国承诺为加沙提供45亿美元 Representatives from donor nations meeting in Egypt have pledged more than .4 billion in new aid to help rebuild the war-torn Gaza Strip after the recent conflict between Israel and Hamas. 在埃及参加捐助国会议的代表筹集了44亿多美元,帮助重建加沙。加沙在以色列和哈马斯最近发生的冲突中受到战争的摧毁。Egyptian Foreign Minister Ahmed Aboul Gheit said international donors meeting in Sharm el-Sheikh have pledged more than billion for Gaza reconstruction. 埃及外交部长艾哈迈德.阿布.盖特说,国际捐助国会议在沙姆沙伊赫为加沙重建筹集了50多亿美元。The Egyptian foreign minister says the participants at the conference pledged the sum of .481 billion dollars in fresh money at Monday's session ... and he says if you add previous pledges that some donor nations have reiterated, the figure comes to .2 billion, a figure that well exceeded expectations. 这位埃及外长说,参加会议的各国代表星期一在会议上表示愿意捐助44亿8千1百万美元。他说,如果加上此前一些捐助国已经表示要赠与的款项,总数达到52亿美元,这个数字大大超过了原来的预期。It is nearly twice the amount sought by Palestinian Authority President Mahmoud Abbas. 这个数字几乎是巴勒斯坦领导人阿巴斯寻求援助资金数额的两倍。U.S. Secretary of State Hillary Clinton stressed aid money for Gaza must be accompanied by a "comprehensive peace between Israel and its Arab neighbors."  美国国务卿希拉里.克林顿强调说,为加沙提供资金的同时也必需要在“以色列和它的阿拉伯邻国之间实现全面的和平”。"By providing humanitarian assistance to Gaza, we also aim to foster conditions in which a Palestinian state can be fully realized," said Hillary Clinton. "A state that is a responsible partner, is at peace with Israel and its Arab neighbors, and is accountable to its people. A state that Palestinians everywhere can be proud of, and is respected worldwide. This is the Palestinian state we all envision. This is the Palestinian state we have an obligation to help create." 她说:“在向加沙提供人道主义援助的同时,我们还要取得一个目标,那就是为充分建立一个巴勒斯坦国创造条件。这个国家应该是一个负责任的伙伴,一个同以色列以及它的阿拉伯邻国能够和平共处的国家,能够对自己的人民负责,一个各地巴勒斯坦人都能引以自豪的国家,一个在世界范围受到尊敬的国家。这才是我们希望看到的巴勒斯坦国, 这才是我们有义务帮助创建的巴勒斯坦国。”Clinton said the ed States 0 million in humanitarian aid for Gaza, in addition to 0 million for the Palestinian Authority, which is expected to use it to help pay the salaries of civil servants.  克林顿国务卿说,美国为加沙提供3亿美元的人道主义援助,除此之外,还向巴勒斯坦当局提供6亿美元的捐款,用以付公务员的工资。Saudi Foreign Minister Saud al Faisal told al Arabiya TV that rebuilding Gaza would be "difficult and fool-hardy, so long as peace and security do not prevail" in the territory. 沙特外交大臣费萨尔在接受阿拉伯语新闻频道的采访时说,要是在这片土地上不能实现和平与安全,那么重建加沙既是艰巨的,也是很傻的。Conference host Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak said it is his "priority to reach a truce between Israel and the Palestinians," despite the multiple setbacks in negotiations Egypt has been mediating. 主持会议的埃及总统穆巴拉克说,以色列和巴勒斯坦人达成和平协议这一点是他的重点,尽管埃及帮助调停的谈判受到了重挫。He says Palestinians, as well as Arab and Muslim states, can not bear the climate of limbo, in which peace never quite arrives, for much longer. The situation in the region, he emphasizes, is alarming and could explode, more than at any time in the past, abetted by terrorism that thrives on delayed peace and regional forces that seek to drag the region into the abyss. 他说,巴勒斯坦人以及阿拉伯和穆斯林国家不能再容忍这种和平永远不会到达的气氛。他强调说,这个地区的形势比过去任何时候都更加危险,而且可能爆炸。这是由于恐怖主义只有在推迟和平的情况下得逞,也由于地区武装力量试图把整个地区拖入深渊。Israel threatened Sunday to launch a punishing new round of retaliatory strikes against Gaza if there is not a halt to rocket attacks against Israeli territory that have continued since the Israeli incursion ended in January. French President Nicholas Sarkozy said making peace with Israel was the duty of all "responsible Palestinians" and excuses are no longer acceptable. 法国总统萨科齐说,和以色列制订和平协议是所有负责任的阿拉伯人的义务,任何借口都是不能接受的。"It is a matter of will," he said. "Do we want to meet, just to talk or do we want to take the risk of making peace? Some tell me that the conditions [for peace] are not ripe, he argues. Well, if we wait for the conditions to be ripe to talk peace, we will be waiting a long time, and in the meantime we will be giving the initiative to extremists, everywhere." 他说,这是一个意愿问题。我们举行会议是仅仅为了会谈,还是要冒险来实现和平? 有人告诉我说,和平的条件还不成熟。那么如果我们等待和平谈判的条件成熟,我们将等待很长的时间,同时也就给各处的激进份子有可乘之机。Among the extremists Mr. Sarkozy was referring to is the Islamic Hamas movement, which controls Gaza. International donors want Hamas to play no part in spending funds pledged to rebuild Gaza. 萨科齐所说的激进份子包括伊斯兰组织哈马斯运动,这个激进组织控制着加沙。国际捐助国在使用重建加沙的资金方面不要哈马斯参与。03/63685

Dream vacations may become a reality once again for European travelers. Scientists in Iceland report the volcanic eruptions that have disrupted air travel across Europe for more than a month appear to be calming down and the ash cloud that has threatened the continent's airspace is dissipating. The announcement is welcome news for would-be travelers and the airline industry, which lost an estimated .6 billion in last month's six-day shutdown of air space. But scientists say the volcano is still rumbling deep within the earth and could erupt again. Plus, scientists warn of a larger neighboring volcano that could also erupt at any time.  Missing out on tourists during peak travel season is just what Frances Tuke, spokeswoman for the Association of British Travel Agents, would like to avoid.  "We cannot control the eruptions of a volcano, but what we can do is change and adapt our reaction to it, which is what the U.K. travel industry is endeavoring to do in order to make sure that flying is safe, but that there is minimum disruption," she said. At the height of the volcanic eruptions last month, airlines grounded their planes for fear the ash could interfere with jet engines and make flying unsafe. Tuke says research since the initial flight ban is helping experts to minimize no-fly zones by identifying which air space is dangerous for travel, and which may be safely used. She says even renewed volcanic eruptions should affect far fewer travelers.  The disruptions of April have cost the travel industry dearly, says economist Linda Yueh. She says fear could further slow Europe's aly sluggish economic recovery.  "Especially with a busy summer and autumn, having this kind of uncertainty is likely to shave off a few-billion dollars or euros from the European economies at a time when really these countries could certainly use that additional revenue," she said.  Though some may still be wary about booking flights, the potential of new eruptions is not enough to keep Annette Mansford out of the skies. She and her family are jetting off for a long-awaited island getaway. Mansford's advice for other travelers? "Just go! Make the most of it," she said. "Make sure you have got travel insurance, though!" For travelers to and from Britain, there is an additional factor to worry about - British Airways cabin crews have begun a five-day strike, resulting in hundreds of canceled flights at London Heathrow, Europe's busiest airport.201005/104740

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