原标题: 三峡大学仁和医院阳痿早泄价格QQ面诊
Piracy off the coast of Somalia, one of the world#39;s crucial shipping lanes, has plunged this year because of aggressive military and intelligence steps that have made it too costly for seafaring bandits to operate, regional diplomats and naval officials said. 索马里地区的外交人士和海军官员说,索马里附近海域的海盗活动今年大幅减少,原因是力度极大的军事和情报举措使得海盗团伙运营起来费用太高。索马里海域是世界上的重要航道之一。 The success, however, has had an unintended consequence: The Somali crime lords behind the pirate networks have shifted to other illicit trade, sometimes in partnership with al Qaeda-linked militant groups like al-Shabaab, aiding terrorism in the Horn of Africa, diplomats and intelligence officials said. 不过,外交人士和情报官员说,打击海盗行动的成功产生了一个意想不到的后果:海盗网络背后的索马里黑帮头目转向了其他非法活动,有时与青年党(al-Shabaab)等跟基地组织(al Qaeda)有关系的军事组织合作,向非洲之角的恐怖活动提供援助。 #39;None of these operations exists in a vacuum,#39; said a regional intelligence official who traces terrorism financing across Gulf states. Al Qaeda and smugglers #39;trade off the same connections, the same sea routes and the same protection rackets.#39; 一位跟踪海湾国家恐怖活动资金来源的地区情报官员说,这些活动都不是存在于真空中的。基地组织和走私者使用的是同样的关系网,同样的航道,向同样的组织交保护费。 In 2011, there were 237 piracy-related events in the waters off Somalia, according to the International Maritime Bureau, which monitors piracy and the effect on commercial shipping. In 2012, the figure dropped to 75. This year, as of Oct. 14 there were 10 incidents--only two of them hijackings. 据国际海事局(International Maritime Bureau)说,2011年,索马里附近海域发生237起与海盗有关的事件。该组织监控海盗活动及其给商业航运活动带来的影响。2012年这类事件减少至75起。今年截至10月14日,发生了10起事件,其中只有两起是劫船事件。 The ed Nations reports similar figures. U.N. Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon said last week there had been 17 attacks in the first nine months of 2013 in the Arabian Sea, compared with 99 in the same period last year. 联合国(ed Nations)发布了类似的数据。联合国秘书长潘基文(Ban Ki-moon)上周说,2013年前九个月阿拉伯海发生了17起袭击事件,相比之下,上年同期发生了99起。 Most of the piracy in the Gulf of Aden and the adjacent Arabian Sea and Indian Ocean has been controlled by Somali organized crime lords whose business networks stretch between their homeland and Gulf Arab nations including Saudi Arabia, Yemen, the ed Arab Emirates and Iran, according to U.N. and regional diplomats who follow crime and terrorism issues. 据联合国及该地区跟踪犯罪和恐怖活动的外交人士说,亚丁湾及邻近的阿拉伯海和印度洋上的大部分海盗活动是由索马里组织的黑帮头目控制的,他们的业务网络从他们自己的国家延伸至海湾阿拉伯国家,包括沙特、也门、阿联酋和伊朗。 The Somalis have helped finance pirate ships and have laundered an estimated 0 million in ransom paid by shipping companies between April 2005 and December 2012, regional diplomats and U.N. investigators said. 该地区的外交人士和联合国调查人员说,索马里人帮助为海盗船只提供资金,2005年4月至2012年12月期间,将航运公司付的约4亿美元赎金洗白。 Their profits began to slip in 2012 when navies and shipping companies began beefing up military defenses. 2012年海军和航运公司开始加大军事防御力度后,海盗们的利润开始下滑。 The international naval force known as Task Force 151 stepped up its use of drones and other intelligence gathering resources, allowing them to better position warships to intercept pirates, said Commodore Jeremy Blunden, the British naval officer currently in charge of the fleet. 英国海军准将布伦登(Jeremy Blunden)说,被称为“联合行动部队151”的国际海军部队加大了对无人机和其他情报收集资源的使用,使他们能够更好地部署战舰拦截海盗。布伦登目前负责“联合行动部队151”。 Meanwhile, the commercial shipping industry has standardized the use of armed guards on vessels carrying oil and valuable products through the waterways. The practice had been controversial because it contravened common seafaring ways. But it proved cost-effective, say shipping company executives who are reaping the advantages of lower insurance rates as a result. 与此同时,商业航运业已经把在经由这些航道运输石油和有价值产品的船只上配备武装警卫作为标准做法。这一做法曾饱受争议,因为它有违通常的航运做法。但航运公司高管说,事实明这种做法性物有所值。这些高管可以因此享受保险费率降低的好处。 Countries have also stepped up legal prosecution of pirates in recent years, adding risk for Somali pirate financiers, who face loss of crews and ships. On Wednesday, a Spanish court handed multiple-year sentences to six Somalis convicted of piracy and arms possession, according to the Associated Press. 各国近年来也加大了对海盗的法律追究力度,令为索马里海盗提供资金的人风险增大,这些人可能面临失去船员和船只的风险。据美联社(Associated Press)报道,上周三,一家西班牙法庭裁决六名索马里人犯有海盗及非法携带武器罪,判处其多年徒刑。 The only surviving pirate who attacked the Maersk Alabama merchant vessel in 2009--the story on which the Hollywood movie #39;Captain Phillips#39; is based--is serving a 33-year sentence in a U.S. prison. 2009年攻击“马士基亚拉巴马号”(Maersk Alabama)商船的唯一一名幸存下来的海盗目前正在美国刑,其刑期为33年。好莱坞影片《菲利普斯船长》(Captain Phillips)就是取材于这个故事。 The aggressive military response changed the risk-reward ratio for Somali piracy financiers, who must pay upward of 80% of their earnings to corrupt Somali officials, local warlords and other middlemen, military officials and diplomats said. 军事官员和外交人员说,这种积极的军事反应改变了为索马里海盗提供资金者的风险回报率,他们必须将至多80%的收入用来贿赂索马里官员、地方军阀和其他中间人。 In 2012, Somali pirates only managed to rake in million in payments, or about three quarters of the annual average received since 2005, according to a World Bank report. 世界的一份报告显示,2012年,索马里海盗只获得了3,700万美元的报酬,仅为2005年以来年平均收入的四分之三左右。 #39;We#39;ve put a fire blanket over the problem,#39; said Capt. William Nault, the chief of staff for the international naval force taking the lead on counterpiracy patrols in the area. #39;We#39;ve raised the cost [analysis] for them.#39; 在该地区牵头反海盗巡逻的国际海军部队参谋长诺特(William Nault)说,我们已经压制住了这个问题,增加了海盗的成本。 Somali piracy bosses, however, have proven nimble businessmen. As piracy profits decreased, they refocused resources on other long-standing illicit operations, including arms smuggling and region#39;s lucrative trade in charcoal made from Acacia trees, according to diplomats and law-enforcement officials in the region who monitor illicit activity. 然而,索马里海盗的老板明了自己是活络的商人。外交人员和该地区监控非法活动的执法官员说,随着海盗业务的利润下降,他们重新将资源投入到其他长期非法活动中,包括军火走私和该地区利润丰厚的金合欢木炭贸易。 In a report issued to the U.N. Security Council this summer, diplomats watching violations of U.N. sanctions in Somalia provide evidence of alleged links between the Somali businessmen suspected of running the pirate networks and smuggling rings and al-Shabaab. The militant group is battling Somali government forces and African peacekeepers to try to establish a fundamentalist Islamic government. 在今年夏天提交给联合国安理会的一份报告中,外交人员提供了涉嫌经营海盗网络和走私集团的索马里商人被指与青年党有关的据。这些外交人员关注违反联合国对索马里制裁措施的情况。武装组织青年党正与索马里政府军和非洲维和部队交战,试图建立原教旨主义的伊斯兰教政府。 The U.N. report presents telephone records and other surveillance that links alleged Somali financiers of piracy with business partners in Iran, Saudi Arabia and the ed Arab Emirates in the charcoal-smuggling network. 联合国的报告提供了电话记录和其他监听内容,表明被指资助索马里海盗者在木炭走私网络中与伊朗、沙特阿拉伯和阿联酋的商业伙伴有关联。 The report also alleges similar business links between these same actors and weapons smuggling into Somalia. Most weapons sales to Somalia are prohibited under U.N. sanctions, as is the charcoal trade there. 报告还指出,这些人与走私进入索马里的武器也有类似的商业关联。按照联合国的制裁措施,大多数武器都禁止向索马里销售,木炭贸易也是禁止的。 Counterterrorism officials say that the charcoal trade is one of the main avenues that al-Shabaab finances its terrorism operations and pays for the weapons they use to fight the Somali government and African peacekeepers. The business has grown from roughly million a year in the late 2000s to a business now worth an estimated 0 million-0 million a year, according to the U.N. 反恐官员说,木炭贸易是青年党的主要收入来源之一,青年党以此为其恐怖活动提供资金,并购买武器用于对抗索马里政府和非洲维和部队。联合国数据显示,这项业务的规模上世纪末约为每年3,000万美元左右,现在已经增长至每年约3.4亿至3.8亿美元。 The White House slapped a trade ban on Somali-sourced charcoal in 2012 because of the alleged trade links to al-Shabaab. 2012年,白宫方面以涉嫌与青年党存在贸易关系为由,针对来自索马里的木炭实施贸易禁令。 The U.N. investigators complain that while regional governments understand the threat of terrorism financing, there has been no political will to arrest the men at the top of the Somali crime networks. 联合国调查人员抱怨说,虽然地区政府明白为恐怖主义提供资金的威胁,但政界毫无意愿逮捕索马里犯罪网络的高层。 The majority of recent pirate trials involve men at the midrange of these organizations or foot soldiers suborned into piracy for their sailing knowledge, a regional counterterrorism official said. 一位地区反恐官员说,最近受审的海盗大多数都是这些犯罪网络的中层,或是因其航海知识而被收买从事海盗行为的底层士兵。 U.N. investigators have recommended adding these Somalis to an international sanctions list, and some diplomats argue that they should be prosecuted for sanctions violations or terrorism ties. 联合国调查人员建议将这些索马里人添加到一个国际制裁名单上,一些外交人员认为,这些人应当为违反制裁或与恐怖主义有关联而被起诉。 /201311/263589

"We wish you a merry Christmas, we wish you a merry Christmas…"Have you heard that song? Yup! It's Christmas time! This Christmas, I stayed with my "host family"1. It was an amazing experience to see how a typical American family would celebrate the biggest western festival of the year.   Christmas, like our Spring Festival, has a meaning in itself. Christmas Day, which is on December 25, is the birthday of Jesus Christ--the son of God. That's why it is called Christmas. On that day, Christians would get together with their families to celebrate the birthday of Jesus. But nowadays, the religious meaning of Christmas has become less emphasized. To many families, it is just a time of family reunion and the ever-exciting present-giving.  Our school had been on winter vacation since December 11. I stayed at my friend, Stephen Stapczynski's house--his family was my "host family". Although Christmas was still more than ten days ahead, the festive spirit had aly been teeming everywhere. The Christmas tree had aly been set up, and on every windowsill, there were Christmas lights. On the first day I arrived at their house, Stephen and I helped Mrs. Stapczynski put decorations on the Christmas tree. The tree looked so nice with all the lights on and the beautiful ornaments dangling from its branches.  As Christmas came closer, the whole neighborhood had made preparations too. Some people would hold parties at their houses, inviting all their neighbors to come. So every night, if you went out, you would see a long line of cars parked in front of some house--a party's on!  What's more, the Christmas decorations that some people put on their windows and in gardens were just amazing. On one night, we went out in our car for a "tour of lights". There was one street that was so famous for its lights that it got its way into the local paper. We had a hard time finding the well-hidden street, but it turned out to be worth the effort. Lights shone brightly in front of nearly every house, on trees, bushes, doors, windows…everywhere, taking different shapes, making it seem almost like daytime. Huge inflatable figures in the front gardens were waving to us: there were Santa Clauses2, of course, chuckling merrily away; and there were also other Christmas figures, like Rudolph3--the red-nosed reindeer--with his red nose gleaming ever so brightly; even Bart Simpson--a character in the famous comedy The Simpsons--had joined the jolly party, wearing a Santa's hat. The street set off a lot of "ooh"s and "aah"s inside the car.4 When we left, there was a line of cars in the street, all there to see the lights.  Christmas is the time for exchanging presents. Stephen and Niko had been thinking about their Christmas lists (a list of things they wish "Santa"to give them for Christmas) for a long time. I didn't want to ask for anything, but the Stapczynskis were so kind to "force"me make one list as well (Mr. Stapczynski told me if I didn't make one he would chop off my legs). So I wrote down a couple of things that I would like to have, and gave the list to them--sorry, my mistake--to Santa.   Finally, Christmas Eve came. There was a special Christmas service at the church at 6 p.m. It was certainly a very interesting experience for me. The priest started the service ing and sang out extractions from a holy book--The Divine Liturgy. For several times, we would stand up and pray. Sometimes, the church choir would start singing. The atmosphere was very quiet and holy. Then there was a ceremony called "The Receiving Communion". People waited in line to "receive"a spoonful of food from the priest. It was a very special Christmas tradition. The food was made from b and wine. The b represents the body of Jesus, and the wine represents his blood. After this ceremony, the priest had a speech. He reminded us not to forget the true meaning of Christmas, and let Jesus really live inside us--that is, to love the people around us wholeheartedly. I think that no matter if you are a Christian or not, this principle should be part of our lives. After the priest finished his speech, the part that I enjoyed most came: Christmas carols5. Christmas carols are songs that people sing at Christmas, such as "Jingle Bells", "We Wish You a Merry Christmas", "Silent Night"and so on. Some were very merry, others sounded quite holy, but all of them were beautiful. I closed my eyes, and let all the peacefulness and happiness that were in the songs flow through me. What a feeling it was!  We went to sleep earlier that day for we had to get up early on Christmas Day to open our presents. Sure enough, when I was still half-way during a sweet dream, Stephen burst into my room and told me to get up and open presents. There were a huge pile of presents under the Christmas tree, and there was such a mysterious mist shrouding them that made me eager to see what they all were. So one by one, we went through all the presents. Mr. and Mrs. Stapczynski had bought me everything I had written on my Christmas list--and a lot more! I got music CDs, film DVDs, clothes, books… I was very happy, and I didn't know how to express my appreciation for what they had done for me. Stephen and Niko had gotten a lot of presents too, and they had aly been trying out their new games!  In the afternoon, we went to Mrs. Stapczynski's brother, Uncle Stan's house. They had prepared a marvelous meal for us. A lot of their friends and relatives also came. I saw Stephen and Niko's grandparents, Yiayia and Papou (words of grandma and grandpa in Greek--Mrs. Stapczynski's parents came from Greece, so they like the boys using Greek words to call them). They were very kind to me, and treated me just like one of their family members. We had a very luxurious meal, consisting of turkey, beef, pork, and all sorts of other food.   After the meal, when all the stomachs were full and everyone was feeling drowsy6 from all the food, we just sat around the table and chatted, just like what we Chinese people do at the Spring Festival. After all, Christmas, like the Spring Festival, is a time for us to get away from our busy lives, a time for family gathering, and a time to have some fun.  Notes:  1. host family: 寄住家庭或接待家庭。学校安排那些圣诞节仍留在美国的国际学生住在当地的寄住家庭中。  2. Santa Claus: 圣诞老人。  3. Rudolph: 每到圣诞节,圣诞老人乘坐驯鹿雪撬给孩子们送礼物,其中指路的驯鹿的名字叫Rudolph,它的鼻子是红色的,所以称其为"red-nose reindeer"。  4. 街上的景象使车中响起一片惊奇的声音。set off: 激起,引起。   5. carol: (圣诞)颂歌。   6. drowsy: 困倦的。 /200803/29061

Meals at the family dinner table could be the key to preventing a generation of teenage girls from developing eating disorders.New research shows girls who regularly have family meals are much less likely to adopt extreme weight control behaviors such as vomiting, using laxatives or diet pills.A study surveying more than 2500 American high school students found that girls who ate five or more family meals a week had a much healthier relationships with food in later life.The research, published in international journal Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, polled students aged 13 to 17 in 1999 who were followed up five years later. Regular family meals were found to have a protective effect regardless of the girls' age, weight, socio-economic status, dieting habits or relationship with her family.Experts say doctors should encourage families to have dinner at the table instead of on the couch in front of the television to protect against serious eating disorders such as anorexia and bulimia.Belinda Dalton, director of eating disorders clinic The Oak House, said eating with family helped "normalise" young people's relationship with food."When adolescents are feeling that they're not coping they turn to something that they can control and food is something available and accessible for them to control. Clearly, if they're sitting with their family on a regular basis then their family can be more in control of their eating," Ms Dalton said."It's about young people feeling connected with their family and that builds self-esteem and sense of worth and that works very actively against someone developing an eating disorder."An eating disorders expert, Kirsty Greenwood, said meal times were often difficult for sufferers. "It's typical that they feel very ashamed of their eating habits and often won't eat with other people. Perhaps it's because they haven't experienced the importance of the family meal in their growing up," she said. 与家人一起吃饭对于预防少女患上饮食紊乱症具有重要作用。最新研究显示,经常与家人一起吃饭的女孩采用极端减肥法的可能性较小,比如:催吐、用泻药或减肥药。一项针对2500多名美国中学生的调查发现,每周与家人一起吃饭达到五次或五次以上的女孩日后的饮食习惯要健康得多。该项在《儿科与青少年医学档案》国际期刊上发表的调查开始于1999年,调查对象为13岁至17岁的中学生,他们接受了为期五年的跟踪调查。调查发现,定期与家人一起吃饭具有“保护”作用,而这与女孩的年龄、体重、社会经济地位、饮食习惯以及与家人的关系都无关。有关专家称,为了预防厌食和贪食等严重的饮食紊乱症,医生应鼓励人们都到餐桌上吃饭,而不要坐在电视机前吃。“橡树屋”饮食紊乱诊所主任比琳达#8226;达尔顿说,与家人一起吃饭有助于促进年轻人的饮食“正常化”。她说:“当青少年遇到烦恼时,他们会去寻求一些他们能控制的东西,食物就是个很好的选择。显然,如果他们能定期与家人一起吃饭,他们的饮食会得到更好的控制。”“这会让年轻人感到自己与家人紧密相连,有助于他们建立自尊和自我价值感,而这对预防饮食紊乱具有十分重要的作用。”厌食紊乱专家克斯蒂#8226;格林伍德说,吃饭时间对于饮食紊乱症患者来说总是很痛苦。“他们会为自己不正常的饮食习惯感到十分羞愧,而且很少与别人一起吃饭。这可能是因为他们在成长过程中没体会过与家人一起吃饭的重要性。” /200803/32756

Ivan came home with a bloody nose and his mother asked, ;What happened?;;A kid bit me,; replied Ivan.;Would you recognize him if you saw him again?; asked his mother.;I#39;d know him any where,; said Ivan. ;I have his ear in my pocket.;伊凡鼻子流着血回到家里。他妈妈问,“发生了什么事?”“一个男孩咬了我一口,”伊凡说。“再见到他你能认出来吗?”妈妈问。“他走到哪里我都能认出他,”伊凡说。“他的耳朵还在我衣兜里呢。”

这是关于一个女孩、女人、女性的成长漫画On A Claire Day:亲情、友情、爱情;家庭,朋友、婚姻,工作,生活……一切的一切~今日嘱咐:常回家看看,回家看看…妈妈准备了一些唠叨,爸爸张罗了一桌好饭;生活的烦恼跟妈妈说说,工作的事情向爸爸谈谈……哪怕麻烦,即使无奈,也要常回家看看!!译者:kooglePaul Cusma manages his clients#39; money cautiously, so the retirees among them #39;don#39;t have to go back to work, #39; says the Tampa, Fla., financial adviser. In the investment realm, #39;I#39;m always planning for a rainy day, #39; he says.来自美国佛罗里达州坦帕市(Tampa)的财务顾问保罗·库斯玛(Paul Cusma)说,他在打理客户资金的时候非常谨慎,为的是保他们中间的退休者“不必重返工作岗位”。他还说,“我一直都是未雨绸缪。”But off the job -- watch out. Mr. Cusma, 36, rides one of the fastest motorcycles on the highway for #39;an adrenaline boost, #39; he says, adding: #39;If you lose focus for one second, you crash and burn and die.#39; He also traveled to Russia to ride in a MiG fighter jet at more than 1, 000 miles per hour, soaring as high as 70, 000 feet. #39;I don#39;t want to wake up one day and realize I forgot to live my life, #39; he says.但是对下班以后的库斯玛,你可要当心喽。36岁的他在高速路上骑的是当今世界上最快的一种托车,他说这样做是为了“寻求刺激”。库斯玛还表示,“如果你走神一秒钟,你就可能会撞车、着火,甚至死亡。他还专程去过俄罗斯,为的是乘坐时速超过1,000英里(约1,600公里)、飞行高度高达70,000英尺(约213,360米)的米格(MiG)战斗机。他说,“我不想哪天一觉醒来,却突然发觉自己并没有真正活过。”You might not think of yourself as a risk-taker. Think again. Recent studies using new experimental tools are upending the old belief that a person#39;s appetite for risk is mostly inborn and unchanging. In fact, the reasons people take crazy gambles are far more complex. People who are cautious in some contexts may embrace risk in others, depending on factors such as their familiarity with the setting and their emotions at the time. The findings are exploding old stereotypes -- that women are innately more cautious than men, for example, or that teenagers are inevitably risk-seekers.你可能并不认为自己是一个冒险家。那么再仔细想想吧!虽然传统观念认为,一个人的风险偏好在很大程度上是与生俱来并且一成不变的,但是通过运用最新的实验工具,近期的研究正在着颠覆这一观念。事实上,促使人们做出疯狂冒险行为的原因要复杂得多。在某些环境下谨小慎微的人,在不同的环境下可能会勇于挑战风险,这具体取决于很多因素,比如人们对所处环境的熟悉程度以及他们当时的情绪。研究结果推翻了很多固有观念,比如,女人天生就比男人谨慎,以及青少年一定是追求刺激的人等。#39;It has been surprising to learn what a wide variety of reasons people have for risk-taking, #39; says Elke Weber, a professor of international business at Columbia University and a leading researcher on risk. Understanding the roots of risk-taking can guide people in making better decisions, she says. Some long to advance in their careers or have new adventures but overestimate the hazards. Others race quickly and without thinking into dangerous risks.美国哥伦比亚大学(Columbia University)国际商业管理学教授、风险领域的前沿学者埃尔克·韦伯(Elke Weber)表示,“得知促使人们采取风险行动的原因是如此多种多样真令人惊讶。”她还表示,搞清楚冒险行为产生的根源能够引导人们做出更好的决定。有些人渴望在职业上取得发展或开启新的冒险旅程,但他们却高估了风险。还有一些人行事草率,根本就没有考虑可能存在的危险。Getting to know your surroundings can change how you size up a risk. #39;Most people overestimate the probability of something going wrong#39; when they venture into unfamiliar turf, says Margie Warrell, a Melbourne, Australia-based authority on risk-taking who has coached many U.S. executives and employers. #39;They also overestimate the consequences of things going badly, #39; says Ms. Warrell, author of #39;Stop Playing Safe.#39; With experience, they become more realistic, and learn they can handle the consequences of failure. #39;The more often we step out of our comfort zone, the more we build our tolerance for risk-taking, #39; she says.了解你周边的环境可以改变你对风险程度的评估。来自澳大利亚墨尔本、研究风险承担方面的权威玛吉·沃勒尔(Margie Warrell)表示,当人们来到不熟悉的环境时,“多数人都会高估事情可能会出差错的概率”。沃勒尔曾经指导过很多美国的公司高管和雇主,并著有《别再打稳妥牌》(Stop Playing Safe)一书。她说,“人们同时也会高估事情出差错后所带来的后果。”随着经历的累积,人们会变得越来越切合实际,并且意识到他们能够掌控失败所带来的后果。她说,“我们越经常踏出我们感觉踏实的地带,我们对风险的容忍度就会越高。”Mr. Cusma is an athlete who practices martial arts and works out regularly, lending him confidence in handling physical risks. Adventures like taking the MiG flight, set up in 2009 through a Sarasota, Fla., travel company called Incredible Adventures, provide an emotional outlet, he says.库斯玛是一名武术健将,并且经常健身,这让他具备了处理人身风险的自信。他说,搭乘米格战斗机这样的历险经历,为他提供了发泄冒险情绪的出口。库斯玛搭乘米格战斗机的行程是由位于佛罗里达州萨拉索塔(Sarasota)的、一家名为“不可思议探险公司”(Incredible Adventures)的旅游公司安排的。Sometimes an environment can shape risk-taking behavior. Jennifer Bellinghausen of Austin, Texas, a full-time caregiver to her disabled mother, isn#39;t a risk-taker and never thought of getting a tattoo. The 39-year-old mother of two is terrified of needles and devotes her time to her family. But when she ventured into Mom#39;s Tattoos in Austin several years ago with a friend who was getting one, the atmosphere in the shop changed her mind. Owner Deborah Obregon was so friendly that #39;it was like we were instant best friends, #39; Ms. Bellinghausen says. Ms. Obregon and another tattoo artist chatted with her for more than an hour, and Ms. Bellinghausen eventually took the plunge and got a 3-inch ankle tattoo of #39;a little kitty cat, #39; she says. #39;It surprised me; I#39;m not a risk-taker, #39; she says.有些时候,环境能够塑造冒险举动。来自德克萨斯州奥斯汀(Austin)的詹妮弗·别林斯豪森(Jennifer Bellinghausen)全职在家照顾她残疾的母亲,她不是一个爱冒险的人,也从来没想过去纹身。这位39岁、两个孩子的母亲害怕见针,她把全部时间都奉献给了家人。但是,数年以前,当她陪着一个想要纹身的朋友走进奥斯汀一家名为“妈妈纹身”(Mom#39;s Tattoos)的店铺时,她的观念便被这家店铺的气氛改变了。别林斯豪森表示,店主黛拉·奥夫雷贡(Deborah Obregon)是那么友善,“我们瞬间就变成了要好的朋友”。别林斯豪森说道,奥夫雷贡和另一位纹身师花了一个多小时和她面谈,最终她鼓起勇气,在脚踝处纹上了一只3英寸(约7.6厘米)大的“小猫”。她还说,“我自己也很吃惊;我并不是个爱冒险的人。”Effects of #39;Culture of Honor#39;“尊荣文化”的影响Strong emotions also spur risk-taking, research shows. Men who subscribe to a #39;culture of honor#39; and believe they must defend their manhood or keep others from pushing them around are more likely to start an argument or attack a fellow motorist in a fit of road rage, says a 2012 study in Social Psychological and Personality Science. Other research shows that experiencing discrimination or rejection leads people to take more chances.研究表明,强烈的情绪也会激发冒险行为。2012年发表在《社会心理和人格科学》(Social Psychological and Personality Science)上的一篇研究表明,那些崇尚“尊荣文化”、笃信自己的男性尊严不容侵犯或者认定自己必须避免被别人摆布的男性,更容易在发生驾驶纠纷时出言不逊或对其他司机大打出手。另有研究表明,遭到歧视或者拒绝也会让人们铤而走险。Ione Fletcher Kleven was annoyed one spring night in 2010 when she heard a fight break out in the front yard of her Castro Valley, Calif., home. She was determined to protect a garden she and her grandson had just planted there.2010年一个春日的夜晚,家住加利福尼亚卡斯特罗谷(Castro Valley)的艾奥尼·弗莱彻·克列文(Fletcher Kleven)听到她家前院有打架的声响。她很生气,并且决意要保护她和她的孙辈刚刚耕种不久的花园。The 67-year-old portrait artist isn#39;t usually a risk-taker. She dislikes flying, never gambles and has been married to her husband Oliver for 49 years. When she opened the door, her eyes met those of a helpless, screaming 14-year-old boy who was being beaten and stabbed by two burly men. #39;I felt a rush of heat up my spine, #39; says the 5-foot-6-inch grandmother, #39;and I started running#39; straight toward the assailants. #39;I got so mad I scared myself.#39;这位67岁的肖像画家通常不是个爱冒险的人。她讨厌坐飞机,从没去过,嫁给她丈夫奥利佛(Oliver)已经49年。当她打开门,一个孤独无助、正在喊叫的14岁男孩把目光投向了她,两个健壮的男子正在殴打这个男孩,甚至还用刀刺伤了他。这位5英尺6英寸高(约1.68米)的祖母说,“我顿时火冒三丈,我立即冲向”那两个袭击者。“我是那么疯狂,连我自己都被吓到了。”She grabbed the boy#39;s wrist and pulled him from under his attackers, screaming in their faces, #39;Get out of here!#39; Her husband, a 6-foot former Marine, stepped onto the porch, and the attackers fled. The wounded teen recovered after surgery and several months#39; rehabilitation. Ms. Kleven is still surprised at the gamble she took, she says. #39;I don#39;t want to hurt anybody. But that night I would have ripped their heads off.#39;她一把抓过那个男孩的手腕,把他从那两个袭击者的身旁拉开,并对他们大喊“走开!”这时,她的丈夫─一位身高6英尺(约1.83米)的前海军陆战队士兵来到了门廊上,袭击者逃跑了。这个受了伤的男孩经过手术治疗和数月的复原后最终得以痊愈。克列文表示,直到现在,她仍然对自己的见义勇为之举感到惊讶。“我不想伤害任何人。但是,那个晚上,我甚至可以把他们的头拧下来。”Past studies typically measured people#39;s appetite for risk by asking them to make choices in a laboratory setting between receiving a set amount of cash and playing a lottery with varying odds of winning different amounts of money. Men tended to make riskier choices in these experiments, which led researchers to conclude the women in general have less appetite for risk. The reality may have been that men typically are more used to taking financial risks.以往的研究通常是通过下面的方式来衡量人们的风险偏好的:研究人员会设置一个实验性的场景,然后要求测试对象在获得一笔固定金额的现金和几率不同、奖金金额不同的抽奖之间做出选择。男性倾向于在这类实验中做出更冒险的选择,研究人员便由此得出了女性一般来讲风险偏好更低的结论。而事实可能是,男性通常只是更习惯于承担财务风险。Researchers have developed new tools to measure the nuances of risky behavior, and their findings have dashed that stereotype. A scale developed at Columbia University gauges risk-taking not only in the financial domain but in social, ethical, recreational and health areas. Researchers have found risk-takers in one realm may be timid in others.研究人员已经开发出了衡量风险行为差异的最新工具,而相关的研究成果则打破了上述固有印象。哥伦比亚大学研发出的一套标准不仅能够衡量人们在财务领域的风险行为,也能衡量人们在社会、道德、和健康领域的风险行为。研究人员发现,在某一领域爱冒风险的人可能在其他领域却颇为小心谨慎。Women feel more comfortable than men taking social risks, such as moving to a new city or wearing unconventional clothes, according to studies using this new, domain-specific risk-taking scale. When researchers factor in differences in how men and women perceive various kinds of risks, women are no more risk-averse than men, Dr. Weber says.根据使用了这一全新的、分领域风险行为衡量标准的研究,女性在承担社会风险的时候比男性更加游刃有余,这类风险包括搬至一个新的城市或者穿着前卫的饰。韦伯表示,当研究人员综合考虑男性和女性应对不同种类的风险的差异后发现,女性的避险观念并不比男性强烈。#39;Cold#39; vs. #39;Hot#39; Decision-Making“冷静”和“冲动”决策Another experimental tool, called the Columbia Card Task, enabled researchers to discover that teens aren#39;t always the dangerous risk-takers they are believed to be. The task presents subjects with a computer image of several rows of cards face down. They earn money by turning over a winning card with a smiley face, but they lose a lot of money if they turn over a losing card with a frowning face. A #39;cold version#39; of the task invites calm, rational decision-making by having participants decide all at once how many cards to turn over. A #39;hot version#39; arouses more tension and emotion by requiring subjects to turn cards over one by one.另一项名为哥伦比亚卡片任务(Columbia Card Task)的试验工具令研究人员发现,青少年并不像大家通常认为的那样总是不计后果的冒失鬼。这项任务的每位测试对象都会看到一个电脑画面,画面上排列着几排全部正面朝下的卡片。当测试对象翻过画着笑脸的得分卡时便可以赢钱,但当他们翻过画着皱眉脸的失分卡时就会输掉很多钱。这项任务的“冷静”版本需要测试对象运用镇定、理性的决策方式立即决定他们想要翻过多少张卡片。而这项任务的“冲动”版本则要求测试对象一张一张的翻过卡片,令测试过程更加紧张、刺激。The task#39;s creator, Bernd Figner, an assistant psychology professor at Radboud University in the Netherlands, likens the cold version of the test to making a single decision about car-insurance policies with varying deductibles and coverage limits. The hot version is like going out to a bar for a drink, then deciding with each new round whether to have another, he says. #39;In the hot state, people are more likely to do risky things they will later regret.#39;这项任务的创造者是贝恩德·菲戈内(Bernd Figner),他是荷兰内梅亨大学(Radboud University)的心理学助理教授。菲戈内把“冷静”版本的任务比作根据不同的免赔金额和覆盖范围,做出一个关于汽车保险的决定。而“冲动”版本就像去酒吧喝酒,在一轮酒刚倒上的时候就决定跟不跟着喝下一轮,他说。“在冲动状态下,人们更经常做以后会后悔的冒失事儿。”Teens take plenty of risks during the hot version of the task, Dr. Figner#39;s research shows. But even a reckless teenager becomes sober as a judge during the cold version of the task in a laboratory. Helping teens understand how emotions can affect their choices -- for instance when they#39;re feeling peer pressure or the pull of a strong temptation during a night out -- could help reduce risk-taking.菲戈内的研究表明,青少年在执行“冲动”版本的任务时常常铤而走险。但是,当在实验室中执行“冷静”版本的任务时,即使是最鲁莽的青少年都会变得像法官一样冷静。帮助青少年了解情绪怎样影响他们的行为选择─比如在感觉到来自同伴的压力或者晚上外出情绪激动时─可以帮助他们减少冒险举动。 /201306/243926

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