2019年06月16日 14:39:48|来源:国际在线|编辑:养心乐园
So, there#39;s an actor called Dustin Hoffman.有一个叫达斯汀·霍夫曼的演员And years ago, he made this movie which some of you may have heard of, called ;The Graduate.;十几年前 他拍摄了一部叫《毕业生》的电影 你们某些人可能听说过And there#39;s two key scenes in that movie.在那个电影里有两个主要的场景The first one is the seduction scene.一个是勾引的画面。I#39;m not going to talk about that tonight.但是我今天不是来讨论那个的The second scene is where he#39;s taken out by the old guy to the pool,在第二个场景中,他被一位长者带到游泳场边and as a young college graduate, the old guy basically says one word, just one word.作为一位毕业生,长者只对他说了一个词,仅仅一个词。And of course, all of you know what that word is. It#39;s ;plastics.;当然 你们都知道那个词 就是“塑料”。And the only problem with that is, it was completely the wrong advice.但现在问题是,他给出的建议完全错了。Let me tell you why it was so wrong. The word should have been ;silicon.;让我来给你们讲讲为什么错了。因为这个词应该是“硅”。And the reason it should have been silicon is because the basic patents for semiconductors had aly been made, had aly been filed, and they were aly building them.为什么说应该是硅呢?因为那时半导体的专利已经得以注册,人们已经建立了半导体产业城。So Silicon Valley was just being built in 1967, when this movie was released.所以硅谷就是在1967年建立的 正好是这部电影发行的那一年。And the year after the movie was released, Intel was founded.在电影发行的第二年 因特尔公司成立了。So had the graduate heard the right one word, maybe he would have ended up onstage oh, I don#39;t know maybe with these two.所以说如果这位毕业生听到了正确的,或许他就会和这两位一样出现在台上。So as you#39;re thinking of that, let#39;s see what bit of advice we might want to give那么,想想看我们现在会给出什么建议,so that your next graduate doesn#39;t become a Tupperware salesman.不要让我们的毕业生最后沦落为特百惠的销售员。So in 2015, what word of advice would you give people, when you took a college graduate out by the pool在2015年,当你把一位毕业生带到游泳池边你会说什么词呢,只说一个词,and you said one word, just one word?你给人们的建议会是什么词呢?I think the answer would be ;lifecode.;我想这个应该是“生命密码”。So what is ;lifecode?;到底什么是“生命密码”呢?Lifecode is the various ways we have of programming life.生命密码是我们为生命编程的各种各样的方式。So instead of programming computers, we#39;re using things to program viruses or retroviruses or proteins or DNA or RNA or plants or animals, or a whole series of creatures.也就说我们并非在电脑上编程,而是运用工具来编译病毒逆转录病毒、蛋白质DNA、RNA 动植物以及一系列的生物。And as you#39;re thinking about this incredible ability to make life do what you want it to do,如各位所想,这项惊人的能力可以让生命按照程序编写的一样what it#39;s programmed to do, what you end up doing is taking what we#39;ve been doing for thousands of years,做你想让它做的事得到你想得到的结果。那些已经进行了上千年的事情:which is breeding, changing, mixing, matching all kinds of life-forms, and we accelerate it.各种生命形式的繁殖、改变杂交、匹配 我们加速了这一过程。And this is not something new.这并不是一件新鲜事This humble mustard weed has been modified so that if you change it in one way, you get broccoli.这株芥菜经过了基因修饰,如果你以某种方式进行改变,它就变成了西兰花。And if you change it in a second way, you get kale.如果你换一种方式,它就变成了甘蓝。And if you change it in a third way, you get cauliflower.如果用第三种方式,得到的就是花椰菜。So when you go to these all-natural, organic markets, you#39;re really going to a place所以当你去纯天然的有机菜场时,你所看到的蔬菜where people have been changing the lifecode of plants for a long time.的生命密码在很久以前就被改变了。The difference today, to pick a completely politically neutral term如今所不同的只是挑一个政治立场上完全中性的词来形容它。We#39;re beginning to practice intelligent design.我们正在进行智能设计的实践That means that instead of doing this at random and seeing what happens over generations,这意味着我们不能随意地进行试验然后看看几代后会发生什么。we#39;re inserting specific genes, we#39;re inserting specific proteins,我们需要插入特定的基因和特定的蛋白质,and we#39;re changing lifecode for very deliberate purposes.然后根据我们的目的修改生命密码,And that allows us to accelerate how this stuff happens.从而加速试验的结果。Let me just give you one example.让我举个例子。Some of you occasionally might think about sex.你们当中可能有人会偶尔产生性欲。And we kind of take it for granted how we#39;ve changed sex.我们已经对性爱的改变习以为常。So we think it#39;s perfectly normal and natural to change it.所以我们认为这种改变非常正常和自然。What#39;s happened with sex over time is normally, sex equals baby, eventually.过去,性爱的发生通常来讲,最后就意味着孩子。But in today#39;s world, sex plus pill equals no baby.但是,在今天的社会,性加药等于没有孩子And again, we think that#39;s perfectly normal and natural,再次强调我们认为这是很自然很正常的but that has not been the case for most of human history.但在人类历史中几乎没有这样的例子发生,And it#39;s not the case for animals.动物身上也没有。What it is does is it gives us control, so sex becomes separate from conception.这样的改变让我们摆脱了束缚因此性和怀不再有必然联系。And as you#39;re thinking of the consequences of that, then we#39;ve been playing with stuff that#39;s a little bit more advanced, like art.你可以想象到这样的结果接着我们开始使用一些技术一些先进的技术,比如“艺术”。Not in the sense of painting and sculpture, but in the sense of assisted reproductive technologies.不是在绘画和雕塑意义上的艺术,是指辅助生殖技术。So what are assisted reproductive technologies?什么是辅助生殖技术呢?Assisted reproductive technologies are things like in vitro fertilization.这是一种类似体外受精的技术。And when you do in vitro fertilization, there#39;s very good reasons to do it.有时可能有人无法怀Sometimes you just can#39;t conceive otherwise.那么选择体外受精无疑是一个好选择。But when you do that, what you’re doing is separating sex, conception, baby.但是通过体外受精性、怀和孩子就完全分离开来。So you haven#39;t just taken control of when you have a baby,所以你不仅可以决定生孩子的时间,you#39;ve separated when the baby and where the baby is fertilized.还可以将受精的时间和地点分离开来。So you#39;ve separated the baby from the body from the act.所以你可以把孩子和身体和性爱都分开。And as you#39;re thinking of other things we#39;ve been doing, think about twins.再举个例子 比如双胞胎。So you can freeze sperm, you can freeze eggs, you can freeze fertilized eggs.你可以冻结精子,可以冻结卵子你也可以冻结受精卵。And what does that mean?这意味着什么呢?Well, that#39;s a good thing if you#39;re a cancer patient.如果你是一位癌症患者,这绝对是一件好事。You#39;re about to go under chemotherapy or under radiation, so you save these things.你即将要接受化疗和放疗 所以你需要保存生殖细胞或受精卵You don#39;t irradiate them.这样它们就可以免遭辐射。But if you can save them and you can freeze them,但是,如果你可以保存它们,冻结它们,and you can have a surrogate mother, it means that you#39;ve decoupled sex from time.甚至可以找一位母亲,这就意味着你可以使性脱离时间的束缚。It means you can have twins born -- oh, in 50 years?也就是说你可以生下一对相差50岁的双胞胎?In a hundred years? Two hundred years?或许相差100年?200年?And these are three really profound changes that are not, like, future stuff.这些影响深远的改变这并不是将来的东西,This is stuff we take for granted today.这是我们今天认为理所当然的事情。So this lifecode stuff turns out to be a superpower.因此生命密码蕴含强大的力量。It turns out to be this incredibly powerful way of changing viruses, of changing plants, of changing animals, perhaps even of evolving ourselves.它以一种难以置信地方式改变病毒,改变植物,改变动物 甚至可以让我们自己进化。It#39;s something that Steve Gullans and I have been thinking about for a while.史蒂夫·加兰和我对于生命密码有过一些思考。Let#39;s have some risks.我们先说一些危险的情况。Like every powerful technology, like electricity, like an automobile, like computers, this stuff potentially can be misused.就像所有有力的科技一样,比如电力、汽车还有电脑,And that scares a lot of people.这吓坏了很多人。And as you apply these technologies, you can even turn human beings into chimeras.当你在使用这些科技时你甚至可以把人变成怪物。Remember the Greek myth where you mix animals?大家记得希腊神话中动物互相交配么?Well, some of these treatments actually end up changing your blood type.有一些治疗的结果甚至会让你改变血型Or they#39;ll put male cells in a female body or vice versa, which sounds absolutely horrible或者他们会把男性细胞和女性细胞放入对方体内,听起来无比可怕。until you realize, the reason you#39;re doing that is you#39;re substituting bone marrow during cancer treatments.其实你发现这就是你在癌症治疗过程中替换骨髓的过程。So by taking somebody else#39;s bone marrow,从别人身体上得到的骨髓you may be changing some fundamental aspects of yourself, but you#39;re also saving your life.也许会改变你自己的基本情况,但同时也救了你的命。And as you#39;re thinking about this stuff, here#39;s something that happened 20 years ago.如果你仔细想想,这个技术已经存在20年了。This is Emma Ott. She#39;s a recent college admittee. She#39;s studying accounting.这是艾玛·奥特 她是个在校大学生。她主修会计。She played two varsity sports. She graduated as a valedictorian.她是两种体育的校队成员还作为学生代表进行了毕业演讲。And that#39;s not particularly extraordinary, except that she#39;s the first human being born to three parents.这都没有什么特别的,但是她是第一个三亲家庭的孩子。Why? Because she had a deadly mitochondrial disease that she might have inherited.为什么 因为她很可能通过遗传得了一种线粒体疾病。So when you swap out a third person#39;s DNA and you put it in there, you save the lives of people.当你把第三个人的DNA植入这些人的体内,他们就可以活下来。But you also are doing germline engineering, which means her kids, if she has kids, will be saved and won#39;t go through this.同时使用生殖工程学的技术,如果她有孩子,她的孩子也将永远免于这种疾病的侵害。And kids will be saved, and their grandchildren will be saved, and this passes on. That makes people nervous.她的后代,和她的后代的后代都会被挽救。这让人们紧张。So 20 years ago, the various authorities said, why don#39;t we study this for a while?所以20年前,很多专家表示为什么我们不先研究一下There are risks to doing stuff, and there are risks to not doing stuff,使用这些技术是有风险的但是不用这些技术问题就会继续,because there were a couple dozen people saved by this technology,我们已经使用这些救了很多人。and then we#39;ve been thinking about it for the next 20 years.我们已经思考了20年。So as we think about it, as we take the time to say, ;Hey, maybe we should have longer studies,这期间我们不停地说:“也许我们需要更长时间的研究”,maybe we should do this, maybe we should do that,;“也许我们要做这个也许要做那个”,there are consequences to acting, and there are consequences to not acting.凡事都是有两面性的。用科技治愈致命的疾病也不例外。Like curing deadly diseases which, by the way, is completely unnatural.治愈致命的疾病其实是非常反常的。It is normal and natural for humans to be felled by massive epidemics of polio, of smallpox, of tuberculosis.如果人类死于大量的传染病比如脊髓灰质炎,天花,肺结核,那是非常正常的。When we put vaccines into people, we are putting unnatural things into their body在人体体内疫苗就是一件很不正常的事,because we think the benefit outweighs the risk.但是我们认为利大于弊。Because we#39;ve built unnatural plants, unnatural animals, we can feed about seven billion people.因为我们培养了特殊的植株特殊的动物,我们才可以养育这70亿人。We can do things like create new life-forms.我们可以创造新的生物And as you create new life-forms, again, that sounds terribly scary and terribly bothersome,乍一听创造新生物实在太恐怖太可怕,until you realize that those life-forms live on your dining room table.其实你在餐厅的桌子上就可以看到那些新生物。Those flowers you#39;ve got on your dining room table餐厅桌子上买回来的鲜花there#39;s not a lot that#39;s natural about them,和自然完全沾不上边,because people have been breeding the flowers to make this color, to be this size, to last for a week.因为人类一直在选育固定的颜色固定的尺寸,以及强大的生存能力。You don#39;t usually give your loved one wildflowers because they don#39;t last a whole lot of time.你通常不会放野花在这因为它们活不了多久。What all this does is it flips Darwin completely on his head.这一切的一切都完全颠覆了达尔文的理论。See, for four billion years, what lived and died on this planet depended on two principles: on natural selection and random mutation.40亿年前,地球上生物能否生存取决于两个原则:自然选择和基因突变。And so what lived and died, what was structured, has now been flipped on its head.而这两个原则现在已经被完全颠覆了。And what we#39;ve done is created this completely parallel evolutionary system我们正在创造一个完全并行的进化系统where we are practicing unnatural selection and non-random mutation.这个系统里我们尝试着非自然选择和定向变异。So let me explain these things. This is natural selection. This is unnatural selection.让我来解释一下:这是自然选择。这是非自然选择。So what happens with this stuff is,we started breeding wolves thousands of years ago in central Asia to turn them into dogs.这个物种实际上是几千年前的中亚人通过驯养狼得到的物种。And then we started turning them into big dogs and into little dogs.然后我们开始把培育成大或者小。But if you take one of the chihuahuas you see in the Hermès bags on Fifth Avenue但是如果你带着一只第五大街上的某个爱马仕包里的吉娃娃and you let it loose on the African plain, you can watch natural selection happen.去非洲平原放生 你就可以看到自然选择的发生。Few things on Earth are less natural than a cornfield.地球上没有比玉米地更不自然的了。You will never, under any scenario, walk through a virgin forest and see the same plant growing in orderly rows at the same time, nothing else living there.如果你进入原始森林你永远不可能看到同一种植株When you do a cornfield, you#39;re selecting what lives and what dies.你在种植玉米的时候,你决定了什么生什么死。And you#39;re doing that through unnatural selection.你在进行非自然选择。It#39;s the same with a wheat field, it#39;s the same with a rice field.麦田也一样,稻田也一样,It#39;s the same with a city, it#39;s the same with a suburb.城市也一样,郊区也一样。In fact, half the surface of Earth has been unnaturally engineered事实地球上一半的地区都是人工控制的结果so that what lives and what dies there is what we want,这些地区我们决定物种的生死。which is the reason why you don#39;t have grizzly bears walking through downtown Manhattan.所以你不可能在曼哈顿的街区看到灰熊走来走去。How about this random mutation stuff? Well, this is random mutation.基因突变是什么呢?这就是基因突变。This is Antonio Alfonseca. He#39;s otherwise known as the Octopus, his nickname.这是安东尼奥·艾方塞卡,他还有一个外号叫做章鱼He was the Relief Pitcher of the Year in 2000.他是2000年的最佳替补投手。And he had a random mutation that gave him six fingers on each hand, which turns out to be really useful if you#39;re a pitcher.他的基因发生了随机突变使得他的每个手掌都长出了六个手指 结果明六个手指的手掌对于一个投手来说是很有利的条件How about non-random mutation? A non-random mutation is beer. It#39;s wine. It#39;s yogurt.非随机突变是怎样的呢 啤酒 葡萄酒 酸奶 都属于非随机突变。How many times have you walked through the forest and found all-natural cheese?你在森林里走的时候看见一块纯天然的奶酪的几率有多大呢Or all-natural yogurt? So we#39;ve been engineering this stuff.纯天然酸奶呢?这些都是非随机突变的结果。Now, the interesting thing is, we get to know the stuff better.有趣的是,现在我们对于突变了解的更多了。We found one of the single most powerful gene-editing instruments, CRISPR, inside yogurt.我们在酸奶中发现了基因编辑的有力武器CRISPR。And as we start engineering cells,我们开始控制细胞we#39;re producing eight out of the top 10 pharmaceutical products,利用这个工具制造十种最常用药物中的八种including the stuff that you use to treat arthritis, which is the number one best-selling drug, Humira.包括治疗关节炎的特效药,修美乐。So this lifecode stuff. It really is a superpower.生命密码就是这些东西。它真的超级强大。It really is a way of programming stuff, and there#39;s nothing that#39;s going to change us more than this lifecode.真的就像在编码生物一样,再也不会有比生命密码对于人类的改变更大的改变了。So as you#39;re thinking of lifecode, let#39;s think of five principles as to how we start guiding, and I#39;d love you to give me more.所以在思考生命密码的时候 在开始准备使用它的时候 我们要遵守五个原则。我希望各位可以给我更多启发。So, principle number one: we have to take responsibility for this stuff.原则一:我们要承担对生命密码的责任。The reason we have to take responsibility is because we#39;re in charge.之所以我们要肩负起责任是因为我们是使用者。These aren#39;t random mutations.这不是随机的突变。This is what we are doing, what we are choosing.这是我们的选择,我们的工作It#39;s not, ;Stuff happened.; It didn#39;t happen at random.这不是“事情就这样发生了” 这既不是随机发生的。It didn#39;t come down by a verdict of somebody else.也不会随着别人的决定而消失。We engineer this stuff, and it#39;s the Pottery Barn rule: you break it, you own it.我们制造了它,根据珀特里·巴恩的原则:你破坏了规则,你就要对它负责。Principle number two: we have to recognize and celebrate diversity in this stuff.原则二:我们必须明白并且鼓励物种的多样性。There have been at least 33 versions of hominids that have walked around this Earth.曾经至少有33种原始人存在于这个世界上。Most all of them went extinct except us.除了我们之外绝大多数已经灭绝。But the normal and natural state of this Earth is we have various versions of humans walking around at the same time,但是正常情况下的地球应该有不同种的人类同时存在which is why most of us have some Neanderthal in us.这也是为什么很多人有尼安德特人Some of us have some Denisova in us.和丹尼索瓦人的特征。And some in Washington have a lot more of it.一些华盛顿的政客好像有更多类似的特征。Principle number three: we have to respect other people#39;s choices.原则三:尊重他人的选择。Some people will choose to never alter.有人选择不改变,Some people will choose to alter all.有人选择改变,Some people will choose to alter plants but not animals.有人选择改变植物但是不改变动物,Some people will choose to alter themselves.有人选择改变自己。Some people will choose to evolve themselves.有人选择进化自己。Diversity is not a bad thing, because even though we think of humans as very diverse,多样性是好的 尽管我们认为人类多样性已经很丰富了,we came so close to extinction that all of us descend from a single African mother但是因为我们来自同一位非洲母亲的基因 我们也有灭绝的危险。and the consequence of that is there#39;s more genetic diversity in 55 African chimpanzees than there are in seven billion humans.而且它的后果是 55只非洲黑猩猩的基因的多样性都比70亿人类丰富得多。Principle number four: we should take about a quarter of the Earth and only let Darwin run the show there.原则四:我们应该让四分之一的世界遵循达尔文的原则。It doesn#39;t have to be contiguous, doesn#39;t have to all be tied together.这四分之一的世界不用连在一起,也不用被绑定在一起看待。It should be part in the oceans, part on land.但是要有部分的海洋和部分的陆地。But we should not run every evolutionary decision on this planet.我们不应该决定地球上每一个物种的进化。We want to have our evolutionary system running.我们需要我们的进化系统的运行。We want to have Darwin#39;s evolutionary system running.我们也需要达尔文进化系统的运行。And it#39;s just really important to have these two things running in parallel and not overwhelm evolution.我们需要两个系统并行而不是压倒性的人工进化。Last thing I#39;ll say. This is the single most exciting adventure human beings have been on.最后我想提的是 这是人类经历过的最刺激的一次冒险This is the single greatest superpower humans have ever had.这是人类拥有过的最大的超能力It would be a crime for you not to participate in this stuff because you#39;re scared of it, because you#39;re hiding from it.由于你的恐惧和逃避 而没有参与进来 你会有很大的愧疚感You can participate in the ethics. You can participate in the politics.你可以从伦理的角度参与进来你可以从政治的角度参与进来You can participate in the business.你可以从商业的角度参与进来You can participate in just thinking about where medicine is going,你可以仅仅通过思考制药业和工业的未来where industry is going, where we#39;re going to take the world.通过思考我们和世界如何共处而参与进来。It would be a crime for all of us not to be aware when somebody shows up at a swimming pool如果有人出现在游泳池告诉我们了一个词,仅仅一个词如果那个词是“生命密码”and says one word, just one word, if you don#39;t listen if that word is ;lifecode.; Thank you very much.如果我们没有听,没有注意那么这将是全人类的遗憾。非常感谢。 Article/201706/515349Come on, man. Let#39;s go. Let me see a little bit.来孩子们,让我看看你们的绝活。One, two. One, two, three. One, two, three. Oh, yeah. Come on. Come on, boy. Yeah.一二,一二三,一二三。棒极了!棒极了!One, two, three. Yeah, come on, boy. Yeah. One, two, three, four.一二三。太酷了!一二三四。Ohh. Nice. Yeah. Let#39;s go, boy. Yeah. Ta-ta-ta-ta-ta. That#39;s nice. Touch him.棒极了!太棒了!Ta-ta-ta-ta-ta。太棒了!打他。Come on, baby. Let him have something. Yeah!太酷了!让他打你。耶!Yeah! I like that, man. Let me see that. Let me see that. Ta-ta-ta-ta-ta-ta.耶!我喜欢这个!让我试试。Ta-ta-ta-ta-ta-ta。Let me take this watch off, man. Let me get some of that. Let#39;s go.让我把手表摘了。让我也来试试,开始。No, no. Oh, where you going to?不不不,你去哪?Oh, I don#39;t need no gloves. These gloves ain#39;t going to fit, man.我不需要手套。手套不太适合我。No, these. They do. They ain#39;t going to fit me.这些不行。你能戴上。它们不合适孩子。Look at my hands. What you doing?看看我的手。你要干嘛?Messing around with me? I#39;m the champ.你们要在这儿捣蛋?我可是冠军。The champ is here! The champ is here!冠军在此!冠军在此!Ooh! Let#39;s go. Come on, man. Let me get loose.好了,开始吧!Let me go. Hold tight, hold tight, hold tight. Let me slip on over here.来吧,等一下,等一下。等我戴上它。Come on, man. Let me get nice with it.来吧孩子。看看我的。Come on, man. Let me get some.来吧,看我的。Swing at my head. Swing at my head.朝我的头打,朝我的头打。Yo! I was nice. Used to be nice. I used to be nice. Boy, I#39;m so tired right now.哟!我曾经是非常出色的拳击手,非常出色。哦,累死我了。Boy. Come lay down on the coach if you#39;re sleepy.天啊,如果你困了可以在沙发上躺一会。Boy, come on over here. I want to see you do something else, too.过来孩子们。我想让你们展示点别的。So, fellas, check this out.朋友们,看这个。We got us a little gym over here.小型健身房。Let#39;s go on and do a little work.走,去展示身手吧。Yeah. Okay, fellas. So what we going to do first?好,接下来我们先做什么?The pull-up bar. We going to do pull-ups.向上引体。我们要做引体向上。Come on. Let#39;s go. Here. Let#39;s turn around this way.好吧,动起来。让我们转过身来。Can#39;t reach it. You can#39;t reach it? Lift me up.爬不上去。你爬不上去?帮我放上去。You doing it wrong.你做错了。Huh? You got your feet on the ground. You cheated. I didn#39;t have my feet on the ground. Yes, you did.什么?你脚落地了。你犯规了。我没有。你有。If you was on your bar, you had your feet on the ground. You get on your bar. You was doing it like this. I was not doing like that.你才是脚着地的那个。你上去。你刚才这么做来着。我没有这么做。You stay on your bar.你上去。Okay, so what we doing next?那么,我们接下来做什么?The jump rope. Boy.跳绳。天啊。You not tired now.你休息好了吧。We doing 20. You doing 20. You, too. 20 seconds.我们做20个。你做20个。你也是!20秒。Yeah, my rope too short. Ready, set, go. Go. 20, 19, 18, 17, 16, 15, 14, 13, 12, 11, 10, 9, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1.好的,我的绳子太短了。好了吗,开始。20, 19, 18, 17, 16, 15, 14, 13, 12, 11, 10, 9, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1。Here, come on over here and let me show you something. Let me show you what this is right here.来过来,我给你们看样东西。看看这是什么。Sit down over here.坐下来。That right there, see, this is where you get, put in some serious work.坐在这里,你们要真正地了解一些事情。Oh, don#39;t look bored.哦,别显得那么无聊。This is where you get educated about the game of boxing. Unh-unh.这里是你们了解拳击的地方。恩恩。This is where you sit down on a bench.你现在坐在长椅上。And you get lazy. You get lazy?你偷懒了。你偷懒了?Yeah, you get lazy on the bench.你们在长椅上偷懒。That#39;s why I brought you over here, so you could see what it#39;s like. I#39;m not getting lazy! So you don#39;t get lazy.我带你们过来,是让你们看看偷懒是怎么样的。我没偷懒!这样你们才不会偷懒。This is where lazy people sit.这儿是懒人坐的地方。Then if you#39;re saying this is where lazy people sit, you#39;re sitting on it.你说这是懒人坐的,那你现在就坐在上面。You#39;re lazy. I#39;m not lazy. I#39;m,I#39;m coaching. I#39;m coaching.你偷懒。我没有。我是教练,教练。Here, man. They told me.他们告诉我说,I bet you sit down now.这回你们该坐下了吧。Now, Uh-huh. Now, if you sit down, you get ice cream. I done.现在,谁坐下,谁有冰激凌吃。我坐下了。Yeah, that#39;s what I thought. One more time, for Daniel and Steven!这是我想要的。为丹尼尔和史蒂芬鼓掌! Article/201706/514953新英语900句视频版 第16课:览会 文本如下:Hi, Ali. Where are your parents today?嗨, 阿里, 你爸妈今天到哪儿去了?They#39;re eating in the Italian restaurant again.他们又上意大利餐馆去了.I like hot dogs more than spaghetti.我喜欢热甚於意大利面,And ice cream is the most delicious thing in the world.然而冰淇淋又是世界上最美味可口的东西了.It#39;s not fair.那是不公平的.What isn#39;t fair, Ali?什麽不公平, 阿里?They can eat as much spaghetti as they want.他们高兴吃多少面条就能吃多少,But I can#39;t eat as many hot dogs and ice cream sandwiches as I want. Do you have children?但我想吃多少热和冰淇淋三明治却不能. 你有孩子吗?I have two boys and two girls,我有两男两女,but they are all older than you.不过他们都比你大.How old are the boys?男孩有多大?Bill, Jr., the oldest, is seventeen. Jack is sixteen.小比尔最大, 他十七岁, 杰克是十六岁.Do they play baseball?他们打棒球吗?They sure do. Do you play baseball?当然了, 你也打棒球吗?Not yet. But I#39;m going to learn soon. I#39;m almost seven years old.还没. 不过, 我很快会去学的, 我差不多七岁了.Ali! I#39;m sorry, sir. Is my son bothering you again?阿里! 很抱歉, 先生, 我的孩子又来打扰你了吗?Not at all. He#39;s a fine boy.哪里, 他是个乖巧的孩子.Thank you, Mr...谢谢你, 先生...O#39;Neill.奥尼尔.Father, Mr. O#39;Neill#39;s sons play baseball.爸, 奥尼尔先生的孩子都打棒球.That#39;s nice, Ali.阿里, 那很好啊!I want to learn, too.我也要学,But nobody wants to teach me.但是没人教我.You#39;re too young, Ali.阿里, 你太小了.You always say that.你老是那麽说,I#39;m pretty big for my age.就年龄来说, 我已经很大了.Excuse me, there#39;s a big crowd over there. Business before pleasure.对不起先生, 那边有一大群人, 我先去做生意了.Certainly.那当然, 当然.Good-bye, Mr. O#39;Neill.再见, 奥尼尔先生.Bye, Ali. See you soon.再见, 阿里, 待会见.You know, Father, he isn#39;t really an ice cream man. He#39;s just pretending. He#39;s really a secret agent.爸, 你知道吗? 他不是真的冰淇淋小贩, 他是伪装的, 其实他是个密探.What an imagination you have, Ali!阿里, 你真会想象!More imagination than sense.想象超过常识.Don#39;t spoil it for him, dear. Childhood is the happiest time of life.不要责怪他, 亲爱的, 童年是一生中最快乐的时期.Hello.哈.Hi, Bill.嗨! 比尔.Oh, no. But it#39;s Saturday night!噢, 不, 今天是周末晚上!Yes, I know. But we never see each other these days. The children never see you, either.是的, 我知道, 但这几天我们彼此都没见面, 孩子也没见过你.And what about dinner? It#39;s almost y.那晚餐怎麽样? 我都快弄好了.I know. That#39;s the way it is. I#39;m just disappointed.我知道, 就是这样, 我只是很失望.Around 9:00? Well, OK. Wait. Why don#39;t you let me type your report? Then you could come home now.九点左右? 好罢, 等等, 何不将你的报告让我来打字? 那麽你现在就可以回来了.No. We don#39;t need any. We have lots of paper at home.不, 我们不需要, 家里还有很多纸.OK. Good. See you around 8:15. Bye, dear.好罢, 八点十五分再见, 拜拜, 亲爱的. /200809/47179

TED演讲视频:黑客--网络的免疫系统近些年,黑客在社会中的角色在不断的改变。美女网络安全专家Keren Elazari将在此课程中为你娓娓道来:在她看来,黑客是电子网络世界中的“免疫系统”。 Article/201705/510368

A few years ago, I broke into my own house.几年前,我闯入了自己的家。I had just driven home, it was around midnight in the dead of Montreal winter,我开车回到家,在蒙特利尔的寒冬,大约午夜时分,I had been visiting my friend, Jeff, across town, and the thermometer on the front porch minus 40 degrees我开车从城镇一边到另一边,去看望我的朋友Jeff,门廊上的温度计显示零下40度and don#39;t bother asking if that#39;s Celsius or Fahrenheit, minus 40 is where the two scales meet -- it was very cold.不需要知道是摄氏度还是华氏度, 到了零下40度,两个温度显示都一样--天气非常冷。And as I stood on the front porch fumbling in my pockets, I found I didn#39;t have my keys.当我站在门廊,摸索着我的口袋时,我发现找不到钥匙了。In fact, I could see them through the window, lying on the dining room table where I had left them.实际上,我透过窗户能看到我的钥匙,我把它们留在了餐桌上。So I quickly ran around and tried all the other doors and windows, and they were locked tight.我赶紧围着房子转,找能进去的门和窗户,而它们都被锁紧了。I thought about calling a locksmith -- at least I had my cellphone,我想到打电话给锁匠,至少我还有手机,but at midnight, it could take a while for a locksmith to show up, and it was cold.但在午夜,锁匠要过来可能需要一段时间,并且天气真的很冷。I couldn#39;t go back to my friend Jeff#39;s house for the night because I had an early flight to Europe the next morning,当晚我又不能回朋友Jeff的家,因为第二天我要坐早班机到欧洲,and I needed to get my passport and my suitcase.我必须要进屋里拿护照和行李。So, desperate and freezing cold, I found a large rock and I broke through the basement window,因此,在绝望和寒冷中,我找到一块大石头,打破了地下室的窗户,cleared out the shards of glass, I crawled through, I found a piece of cardboard and taped it up over the opening,清理了玻璃碎片后,我爬进屋里,找到了一块硬纸板,用胶带把它封贴在打破的窗户上,figuring that in the morning, on the way to the airport, I could call my contractor and ask him to fix it.我想着早晨去机场的路上可以打电话给承包商,请他来修理窗户。This was going to be expensive, but probably no more expensive than a middle-of-the-night locksmith,修理费会很昂贵,但不会比在午夜时找锁匠来开锁更贵,so I figured, under the circumstances, I was coming out even.所以我觉得,在这种情况下,即使打破了窗户也还划得来。Now, I#39;m a neuroscientist by training and I know a little bit about how the brain performs under stress.我是一个职业的神经科学家,我大概知道在压力下大脑是如何工作的。It releases cortisol that raises your heart rate, it modulates adrenaline levels and it clouds your thinking.大脑会释放皮质醇引起你的心率加速,它调节你的肾上腺素水平,并阻碍你的思维能力。So the next morning, when I woke up on too little sleep, worrying about the hole in the window,第二天早晨,我醒来的时候严重睡眠不足,还在担心窗户上打破的洞,and a mental note that I had to call my contractor, and the freezing temperatures, and the meetings I had upcoming in Europe,心里想着必须打电话给承包商,还有,天气非常寒冷,在欧洲有个会要开,and, you know, with all the cortisol in my brain, my thinking was cloudy,还有,因为我大脑释放的皮质醇,我的思维变得混沌,but I didn#39;t know it was cloudy because my thinking was cloudy.但我没觉察到它很混沌,因为我的思维很混沌。And it wasn#39;t until I got to the airport check-in counter, that I realized I didn#39;t have my passport.直到我在登机手续办理柜台时,才意识到我忘了带护照。So I raced home in the snow and ice, 40 minutes, got my passport, raced back to the airport, I made it just in time,于是,我在冰天雪地中用了40分钟赶回家,拿了护照后,又赶回机场,刚好赶上了飞机,but they had given away my seat to someone else, so I got stuck in the back of the plane,但他们已把我的座位给了别人,我不得不坐在飞机最后一排,next to the bathrooms, in a seat that wouldn#39;t recline, on an eight-hour flight.紧挨着洗手间,在八个小时的飞行中,我的座椅都不能往后倾。Well, I had a lot of time to think during those eight hours and no sleep.于是我就有了很多时间去思考,因为我在八小时中无法睡觉。And I started wondering, are there things that I can do, systems that I can put into place, that will prevent bad things from happening?我开始想,我能做些什么,有什么切实可行的方法可以防止不好的事发生呢?Or at least if bad things happen, will minimize the likelihood of it being a total catastrophe.或者至少,就算不好的事情真的会发生,也能把损失降到最小。So I started thinking about that, but my thoughts didn#39;t crystallize until about a month later.所以,我开始思考这个问题,但我没有想出来,直到一个月后。I was having dinner with my colleague, Danny Kahneman, the Nobel Prize winner,我和同事,也是诺贝尔奖的获得者Danny Kahneman,去吃晚餐,and I somewhat embarrassedly told him about having broken my window, and, you know, forgotten my passport,我有点尴尬地告诉他,我打破窗户爬进屋里,还有忘记拿护照的事,and Danny shared with me that he#39;d been practicing something called prospective hindsight.而Danny和我分享了他一直在练习的称为“预测后见之明”的东西。It#39;s something that he had gotten from the psychologist Gary Klein,这是他从心理学家Gary Klein那里学到的。who had written about it a few years before, also called the pre-mortem.Gary前几年已经写了这个理论,也称为“事前剖析”。Now, you all know what the postmortem is.你们都知道事后剖析是什么意思。Whenever there#39;s a disaster, a team of experts come in and they try to figure out what went wrong, right?每当有灾难,一个专家小组就会前去调查,尝试找出导致灾难的原因,对吧?Well, in the pre-mortem, Danny explained, you look ahead and you try to figure out all the things that could go wrong,而Danny解释,在事前剖析中,你要预测、尝试想出可能出错的所有事情,and then you try to figure out what you can do to prevent those things from happening, or to minimize the damage.然后你要尝试可能的方法来防止这些错误发生,或将损失降到最小。So what I want to talk to you about today are some of the things we can do in the form of a pre-mortem.所以,今天我想和你们谈谈关于在事前剖析中我们能做的一些事情。Some of them are obvious, some of them are not so obvious. I#39;ll start with the obvious ones.有些方式是显而易见的,而有些则不那么明显。我先谈显而易见的方式。Around the home, designate a place for things that are easily lost.在家里,指定一个地方,放容易丢失的东西。Now, this sounds like common sense, and it is,这听起来就像是常识,也的确是,but there#39;s a lot of science to back this up, based on the way our spatial memory works.但这符合我们空间记忆的工作原理,有很多科学依据持这一点。There#39;s a structure in the brain called the hippocampus, that evolved over tens of thousands of years,在我们大脑里,有一个叫海马体的结构,已经进化超过数万年了,to keep track of the locations of important things -- where the well is, where fish can be found,它可以追踪重要东西的位置--例如,水井的位置,能够发现鱼的地方,that stand of fruit trees, where the friendly and enemy tribes live.果树的位置,以及友好物种和敌对物种分别居住在哪里。The hippocampus is the part of the brain that in London taxicab drivers becomes enlarged.海马体是大脑的一部分,伦敦出租车司机的海马体结构通常比常人要大。It#39;s the part of the brain that allows squirrels to find their nuts.松鼠能找到坚果,也要归功于它们大脑的海马体。And if you#39;re wondering, somebody actually did the experiment你们可能对这点感到疑惑,但有人的确做了一个实验。where they cut off the olfactory sense of the squirrels, and they could still find their nuts.他们切掉了松鼠的嗅觉器官,松鼠仍然能找到它们的坚果。They weren#39;t using smell, they were using the hippocampus, this exquisitely evolved mechanism in the brain for finding things.它们不是用嗅觉,而是用大脑的海马体,这个进化完美的大脑机制是用来找东西的。But it#39;s really good for things that don#39;t move around much, not so good for things that move around.但只是对找固定的东西比较有效,找会移动的东西却不是很管用。So this is why we lose car keys and ing glasses and passports.这就是为什么我们会常常找不到车钥匙、老花镜和护照。So in the home, designate a spot for your keys -- a hook by the door, maybe a decorative bowl.所以,在家里指定一个地点存放你的钥匙--门上的挂钩,或是一个装饰碗。For your passport, a particular drawer. For your ing glasses, a particular table.在一个特定的抽屉存放你的护照。你的老花镜要放在特定的桌子上。If you designate a spot and you#39;re scrupulous about it, your things will always be there when you look for them.如果你指定了特定的地方,并且一丝不苟地做这些事,当你寻找它们时,这些东西总是会在那里。What about travel? Take a cell phone picture of your credit cards, your driver#39;s license, your passport,关于旅行呢?用手机拍下你信用卡的照片,还有你的驾照和护照,mail it to yourself so it#39;s in the cloud.把这些照片发到你的电子邮箱,储存在数据云端。If these things are lost or stolen, you can facilitate replacement.如果一旦丢失或被盗了,你可以很方便地用电子件代替它们。Now these are some rather obvious things. Remember, when you#39;re under stress, the brain releases cortisol.这些是一些显而易见的事前剖析方法。记住,当你有压力时,大脑会释放皮质醇。Cortisol is toxic, and it causes cloudy thinking.皮质醇是有毒的,它会导致思维不清晰。So part of the practice of the pre-mortem is to recognize that under stress you#39;re not going to be at your best,所以,做事前剖析的练习,是要认识到在压力下,你不是在最佳状态,and you should put systems in place.你还应该把事情做到井然有序。And there#39;s perhaps no more stressful a situation than when you#39;re confronted with a medical decision to make.不过也许没有什么比你要做医疗决策更紧张的情况了。And at some point, all of us are going to be in that position,有时,我们都会经历这种事情,where we have to make a very important decision about the future of our medical care or that of a loved one, to help them with a decision.我们必须要做出一个很重要的决策,为我们自己或自己爱的人做医疗决策。And so I want to talk about that. And I#39;m going to talk about a very particular medical condition.所以,我想谈谈这个话题。我要说一个非常特殊的医疗情况。But this stands as a proxy for all kinds of medical decision-making,但它代表了各种决策:医疗决策,and indeed for financial decision-making, and social decision-making当然还有财政决策和社交决策any kind of decision you have to make that would benefit from a rational assessment of the facts.任何你必须做的决策,可以让你从理性的事实评估中受益。So suppose you go to your doctor and the doctor says, ;I just got your lab work back, your cholesterol#39;s a little high.;假设你去看医生,而医生说,“我刚拿到你验血结果,你的胆固醇有点高。”Now, you all know that high cholesterol is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, heart attack, stroke.你们都知道,胆固醇高会增加患心血管疾病、心脏病和中风的风险。And so you#39;re thinking having high cholesterol isn#39;t the best thing, and so the doctor says,所以,你会想高胆固醇不是一件好事,那么医生会说:;You know, I#39;d like to give you a drug that will help you lower your cholesterol, a statin.;“我给你开点药,帮助你降低胆固醇,他汀类药就可以。”And you#39;ve probably heard of statins, you know that they#39;re among the most widely prescribed drugs in the world today,你可能已经听说过他汀类药物,现如今是医生开的最多的处方药之一。you probably even know people who take them.你甚至可能认识用这药的人。And so you#39;re thinking, ;Yeah! Give me the statin.;于是你想,“好吧,给我他汀类药。”But there#39;s a question you should ask at this point,但这个时候,你必须问一个问题,a statistic you should ask for that most doctors don#39;t like talking about, and pharmaceutical companies like talking about even less.一个许多医生不愿谈论,制药公司更不喜欢谈论到的一个统计数字。It#39;s for the number needed to treat. Now, what is this, the NNT?这个统计数字就是治疗所需人数。NNT是什么意思呢?It#39;s the number of people that need to take a drug or undergo a surgery or any medical procedure before one person is helped.它是指多少人用了某种药,或接收了手术或其他任何治疗方式,才会有1人收益。And you#39;re thinking, what kind of crazy statistic is that? The number should be one.你心说,这是哪门子统计数字?这数字应该是1啊。My doctor wouldn#39;t prescribe something to me if it#39;s not going to help.如果这药对我没有帮助,那医生就不会开给我。But actually, medical practice doesn#39;t work that way.但实际上,医疗实践不是这样运行的。And it#39;s not the doctor#39;s fault, if it#39;s anybody#39;s fault, it#39;s the fault of scientists like me.这不是医生的错,如果是某些人的错,那就是像我一样的科学家的错。We haven#39;t figured out the underlying mechanisms well enough.我们还没有想出足够好的运作机制。But GlaxoSmithKline estimates that 90 percent of the drugs work in only 30 to 50 percent of the people.但据葛兰素史克制药公司估计,90%的药品只对30%到50%的人有用。So the number needed to treat for the most widely prescribed statin, what do you suppose it is?所以,这种最广泛的处方药的治疗所需人数,你们猜是多少?How many people have to take it before one person is helped? 300.多少人要用它才会出现一个受益的人?300。This is according to research by research practitioners Jerome Groopman and Pamela Hartzband, independently confirmed by Bloomberg.com.这是根据研究工作者Jerome Groopman和Pamela Hartzband做的、由Bloomberg.com权威网站独立实过的研究得出的数据。I ran through the numbers myself.我自己想了一下这个数字。300 people have to take the drug for a year before one heart attack, stroke or other adverse event is prevented.必须有300人用此药一年,才能预防一起心脏病、中风或其他疾病。Now you#39;re probably thinking, ;Well, OK, one in 300 chance of lowering my cholesterol. Why not, doc? Give me the prescription anyway.;现在你可能在想,“好吧,还有300分之1的机会可以降低我的胆固醇。为什么不用呢?医生,给我开这个药。”But you should ask at this point for another statistic, and that is, ;Tell me about the side effects.; Right?但是你应该问医生,有关这药的另一个统计数字,那就是,“告诉我这药的副作用。”对吧?So for this particular drug, the side effects occur in five percent of the patients.那么针对这种药,副作用会发生在5%的患者身上。And they include terrible things -- debilitating muscle and joint pain, gastrointestinal distress这些副作用包括一些可怕的情况--肌无力、关节疼痛和肠胃不适but now you#39;re thinking, ;Five percent, not very likely it#39;s going to happen to me, I#39;ll still take the drug.;但你可能觉得:“才5%的比例,不太可能发生在我身上,我还是会用它。”But wait a minute. Remember under stress you#39;re not thinking clearly.但是,请等等。记住在压力下,你可能思维混乱,不能考虑清楚。So think about how you#39;re going to work through this ahead of time,所以,要提前思考一下你该如何做,so you don#39;t have to manufacture the chain of reasoning on the spot.这样你就不用事到临头时再去进行一连串的推理了。300 people take the drug, right? One person#39;s helped, five percent of those 300 have side effects, that#39;s 15 people.300人要用这药,才会有一个人受益,对吧?300人中5%的人会受药物副作用的影响,也就是15人。You#39;re 15 times more likely to be harmed by the drug than you are to be helped by the drug.你受药物副作用伤害的可能性是你受益于药物的15倍。Now, I#39;m not saying whether you should take the statin or not.我并不是想表明 你该不该用他汀类药物。I#39;m just saying you should have this conversation with your doctor.我只是说,你应该咨询你的医生。Medical ethics requires it, it#39;s part of the principle of informed consent.医德要求我们这样做,这是知情同意原则的一部分。You have the right to have access to this kind of information to begin the conversation about whether you want to take the risks or not.你有权力要求知道这类信息,有权和医生谈你是否愿意承担这样的风险。Now you might be thinking I#39;ve pulled this number out of the air for shock value,现在你可能会想,我为了制造震撼的效果凭空捏造了这个数字,but in fact it#39;s rather typical, this number needed to treat.但实际上,这个治疗所需人数是相当具有代表性的。For the most widely performed surgery on men over the age of 50, removal of the prostate for cancer, the number needed to treat is 49.对于50岁以上的男性,做的最多的手术是为治疗前列腺癌而切除前列腺,治疗所需人数是49。That#39;s right, 49 surgeries are done for every one person who#39;s helped.是的,49个患者做了手术才会出现一个受益的人。And the side effects in that case occur in 50 percent of the patients.而这种情况手术的副作用会发生在50%的患者身上。They include impotence, erectile dysfunction, urinary incontinence, rectal tearing, fecal incontinence.这些副作用包括阳痿、勃起功能障碍、尿失禁、直肠撕裂、大便失禁。And if you#39;re lucky, and you#39;re one of the 50 percent who has these, they#39;ll only last for a year or two.如果你“有幸”成为了50%受副作用影响的人中的一个,这些副作用通常只会持续1-2年。So the idea of the pre-mortem is to think ahead of time to the questions that you might be able to ask that will push the conversation forward.所以,事前剖析是要提前想好你想问医生的问题,这样会深入推进你和医生的对话。You don#39;t want to have to manufacture all of this on the spot.毕竟你不想事到临头再来思考所有事情。And you also want to think about things like quality of life.而且你也需要考虑一下生活质量。Because you have a choice oftentimes, do you I want a shorter life that#39;s pain-free,因为通常你是有选择的,你是想要较短的没有痛苦的人生,or a longer life that might have a great deal of pain towards the end?还是想要较长的最终要承受巨大痛苦的人生呢?These are things to talk about and think about now, with your family and your loved ones.这些都是现在需要谈论和思考的问题,和你的家人、爱人一起。You might change your mind in the heat of the moment, but at least you#39;re practiced with this kind of thinking.你可能会在事发时改变你的想法,但至少你练习了这种思维方法。Remember, our brain under stress releases cortisol,请记住,我们的大脑在压力下会释放皮质醇,and one of the things that happens at that moment is a whole bunch on systems shut down.在那一刻发生的一件事是你整个思维系统似乎停工了。There#39;s an evolutionary reason for this.这里有一个进化方面的原因。Face-to-face with a predator, you don#39;t need your digestive system, or your libido, or your immune system,和一个捕食者面对面时,你不需要你的消化系统、性欲或者免疫系统的帮助。because if you#39;re body is expending metabolism on those things and you don#39;t react quickly,因为如果你的身体忙着在这些事情上进行新陈代谢,你就不能迅速作出反应,you might become the lion#39;s lunch, and then none of those things matter.那么你可能会成为狮子的午餐,然后那些事情也就不重要了。Unfortunately, one of the things that goes out the window during those times of stress is rational, logical thinking,不幸的是,在紧张时,其中一件会出错的事情是理性地、有逻辑地思考。as Danny Kahneman and his colleagues have shown.Danny Kahneman和他的同事已经明了这点。So we need to train ourselves to think ahead to these kinds of situations.所以,我们需要培养自己超前思考的习惯,去面对这类事情。I think the important point here is recognizing that all of us are flawed.这里很重要的一点是,要认识到我们所有人都不是完美的。We all are going to fail now and then.我们都会不时地经历失败。The idea is to think ahead to what those failures might be,事前剖析就要超前思考可能的失败会是什么,to put systems in place that will help minimize the damage, or to prevent the bad things from happening in the first place.井然有序地做事有助于把伤害减到最小,或者在第一时间防止糟糕的事情发生。Getting back to that snowy night in Montreal, when I got back from my trip,说回到我在蒙特利尔那个冰天雪地的晚上,当我从欧洲返程回到家时,I had my contractor install a combination lock next to the door, with a key to the front door in it, an easy to remember combination.我的承包商在门旁边安装了密码锁,还有一把钥匙以及一个简单易记的密码。And I have to admit, I still have piles of mail that haven#39;t been sorted, and piles of emails that I haven#39;t gone through.我不得不承认,我还是有一堆没有分类的信件,以及一堆没有处理的邮件。So I#39;m not completely organized, but I see organization as a gradual process, and I#39;m getting there. Thank you very much.所以,我还没能完全做到井然有序,但我把井然有序做事看成是一个渐进的过程,也正在慢慢实现这个目标。谢谢。 Article/201706/514856

As we know, the Superme Court decision on Friday in favour大家都知道 最高法院周五通过了of sex marriage. It#39; s a controvert to some people just unlike it, they don#39; t believe in it.同性婚姻合法的提案了 有些人 不喜欢 不相信They don#39;t think it#39;s right.他们觉得这是错误的One of the most common arguments you hear is how do I explain this to my kids.我们最常见的一个争议话题就是 我要怎么跟我的孩子解释呢And it#39;s a good question at the very least it#39;s a fair question.这是个很好的问题 也是个很公正的问题You wonder if children are sophisticated enough to wrap their hands around, something like this你想知道孩子是否足够成熟 能理解这种事情So we went on the streets here to ask the kids what they think and what they know and于是 我们去了街头 问问看孩子 对于同性婚姻的了解和想法And here they are, kids share their thoughts on same sex marriage.下面就是采访内容 孩子们对于 同性婚姻的看法Could you tell me what gay marriage is?你能说说什么是同性婚姻吗It#39;s one... two men and two women get married.就是 两个男性和两个女性结婚It#39;s so it#39;s one four people get married? No...所以是四个人结婚吗不是啦Could you tell us what gay marriage is? I know nothing about that.你能告诉我们 什么是同性婚姻吗 这个我可不知道You don#39;t know anything about it? Why you would anyone want to get married?你不知道这个啊 你觉得人们为什么要结婚Em...Because they love each other and they just feel a connection? Believe?因为他们相爱了 彼此吸引Do you think it#39;s a good thing? Yeah. Do you know what makes somebody gay?你觉得这是好事吗是的 你知道为什么有人是同志吗知道 为什么呢I got broken leg. No. When should two people get married? End at the afternoon?我腿摔断了 你说错啦 你觉得两个人什么时候应该结婚 下午结婚It#39;s a good time to get married. Do you know what marriage is?确实是个结婚的好时间 你知道婚姻是啥吗知道What is it? It#39;s one husband and wife get married. What is a gay marriage is?是什么呢 就是丈夫和妻子结婚 那你觉得同性婚姻是什么啊When a boy and boy get marriage and a girl and girl get marrige.两个男生或者两个女生结婚Oh, you are right, do you think that#39;s very hard to understand?你说的没错啊 你觉得这样会很难理解吗For some kids. But not for you? No, not really.有些孩子是很难理解吧 但你不是对 我还好Do you think any body should be on to get married?你觉得每个人都该有结婚的权利吗If she#39;s old enough. Ah, very wise! Do you want to get married?只要他年纪足够大就行 非常明智啊 你想结婚吗Yes. When? When I am thirty.想啊什么时候结呢 等我30了吧Why do you think they want to get married? Because they are pregnant.为什么人们想结婚呢 因为怀了Because they are pregnant? Could you tell us what gay marriage is?因为她们怀了啊 你能告诉我们 同性婚姻是什么吗Em...one boy marrige in another boy.呃 就是男生和男生结婚Ok, and could be one girl makes her marrige with another girl? Oh, no.好吧 那不可以是女生跟女生吗 呃 不行Just a boy meeting in another boy?只能是男生和男生啊 对Wow, what would be called if a girl married another girl? Lesbianism. Wow...呃 那 要是女生和女生结婚了 那叫什么呢 拉拉关系 哈哈哈哈Do you think anybody should be on be married if they want to?你觉得每个人都该有想结婚就结婚的权利吗Yes! Em..How come? All because if they want to, they should be able to.是的 为什么呢 就是因为 如果他们愿意结婚 就应该有权利去结婚Would you wanna get married? Em..not really. How come?你以后想结婚吗呃 并不太想 怎么不想呢Because em..when you get married em...因为 你要是结婚了the other person is entitle to any money on the other person has.对方就能随便花你的钱了So it#39;s a financial issue for you? Yeah. Hey, he is visionally conservative.所以 对你来说就是财产问题不想结婚对 这个孩子还真是财产保护主义者啊I am Jimmy Kimmel, thanks for watching, if you#39;d like to see more, click bellow just to subscribe our Youtube channel.我是吉米·坎莫尔 如果喜欢 请订阅我们的油管频道And if not, do nothing at all.不喜欢 就算了 啥也别干 Article/201707/515960

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