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  • 5.Not Really My Style5.不是我的风格In the middle of our list, we must address a more universal issue than simply how to use ;hopefully; or sentence-starting conjunctions. As we#39;ve said, English grammar rules are unruly. While we (mostly) agree to follow a (mostly) set list of how to write or speak, we can#39;t discount the myriad exceptions.在这10个语法规则名单的中间位置,我们列出一个更普遍的问题,这一点要比前面我们提到的“如何使用#39;有希望地(hopefully)#39;这个词”或者“以连词开头造句”这种简单问题更普遍。正如我们所说,英语语法规则是难以驾驭的。尽管我们都认可沿用一系列的规则“如何写或说”,但也不得不考虑无数的例外。Even more troubling: sometimes the exceptions are even accepted and standardized, becoming ... rules. How many times have you fought tooth and nail to prove that correct usage calls for the Oxford (or serial) comma? That#39;s the one that puts a comma after every item in a list, including the one before ;and.; We hope never. Surely there#39;s something on TV you could watch instead of picking grammar fights. But it#39;s not just a waste of time; it also isn#39;t wrong. The Chicago Manual of Style (which is commonly used in academics and publishing) says serial all the way, but the Associated Press Stylebook (used in journalism or Web copy) says to take that final comma out. The point is that sometimes we confuse ;grammar rules; with the style we prefer. If you want to make a scene with someone about their usage, just make sure you#39;re not simply imposing your personal favorite on your adversary.更麻烦的是:有时候这些例外其实是被允许的或者标准化的,也变成了规则。有多少次你竭尽全力去明使用“牛津(或系列)逗号”才是正确的语法?“牛津语法”指的是在英语中列举多个对象时,在最后的“和(and)”前也加上一个逗号。我们希望你永远都不要去明这个问题。电视里总有精节目可看,你不一定非要“打语法战”。但是周旋于语法问题也不是纯粹浪费时间,更没什么不对。学术和出版业普遍使用的《芝加哥格式手册》持使用“系列逗号”,而新闻报道或者网页文案普遍使用的《美联社写作指南》则认为应该把最后一个逗号去掉。关键是,有时我们会把“语法规则”和“语法风格”搞混。如果你想和某个人因为语法问题当众争论,那么请尽量保不要将自己的个人喜好强加在对方身上。4.I Could Care Less About Grammar4.不必那么在意语法Oh, to be at the grocery store with grammar jerks. Not only are they frowning at every handwritten sign to suss out split infinitives in the weekly sales, but they also refuse to use the express lane. ;Ten items or less,; they sniff. ;Incorrect. Should be 10 items or fewer. Let#39;s get in the other line to protest.; You#39;re pretty sure you heard that rule as well, so you hang your head in shame and follow your friend to the next line, behind the guy with 70 coupons and a checkbook. Not anymore. Centuries ago it started to become accepted that less would be used for items that couldn#39;t be counted (;I ate less food,; ;There should be less contempt for my greed;) and that fewer applied to countable objects (;I ate fewer cakes,; ;There should be fewer mean looks from people about the cakes I did eat;). Unfortunately, this has less to do with an actual ;rule; and more to do with the preference of an author, one Robert Baker, that became widely disseminated. So go ahead and jump lines again to get out of the store as fast as possible. Try to lose the rude friend while you#39;re at it.嘿,跟你的“语法混蛋”朋友去逛超市吧!他们不仅会对“每周特价”标语里被拆分的不定式嗤之以鼻,而且还会拒绝使用超市的快速结算通道。在表达“购买十件商品以内”这句话时,超市会用“less”来形容商品,这些朋友就会抱怨道,“这是错误的,应该是用#39;fewer#39;来形容商品,我们去另外一条通道结算以示抗议吧。”你也知道有这么一条语法规则,所以你会羞愧地低下头,跟着朋友排到另一条结账队伍里、排到一个手拿着七折优惠券和票簿的人后面。可是这样的事情不会再发生了。很久之前,“less”这个词用来形容不可数名词,比如“I ate less food”、“There should be less contempt for my greed”(译为“我饭量变小了”、“人们不该因为我贪食就如此鄙视我”);而“fewer”是用来形容可数名词,比如“I ate fewer cakes”、“There should be fewer mean looks from people about the cakes I did eat”(译为“我很少吃蛋糕”、“人们不该因我爱吃蛋糕就投来如此多的白眼”)。遗憾的是,这已经跟真正的“语法规则”相差甚远,而是跟作家“罗伯特·贝克”的偏好有关,这已经被传得家喻户晓了。所以走吧,重新换一条结账队伍,尽快付钱离开超市吧!如果你也有那种粗鲁的“语法混蛋”朋友,那么甩掉他吧!3.It#39;s the Sound, Not the Letter3.是发声导致的错,并不是字母的错If you#39;re feeling a little shell-shocked about all the grammar rules you thought you knew but don#39;t really, things are looking up: You probably know half of what you should about when to use ;a; versus ;an.;如果你正被上述这些本以为了解、但事实上不了解的语法规则弄得头晕脑胀,那么现在情况会有所改善:你可能大概了解什么时候该使用“a”和“an”。Most of us learned (or at least have the vague memory) that we use the article ;a; before a consonant and ;an; before a vowel. If you#39;re a native English speaker, this probably comes naturally to you, so naturally that you are wondering why it#39;s even on this list. Again, we harken back to exceptions. Sure, when you walk into a restaurant you#39;re going to have to wait ;an; hour for a table, but you#39;re going to hear that from ;a; hostess. What in the world? It#39;s not the vowel itself that makes the difference; it#39;s the vowel sound. If the word starts with a vowel sound, add an ;n; to that ;a.; If it#39;s a consonant sound, it#39;s an easy ;a.;很多时候我们知道(或至少有一个模糊概念)在辅音单词前使用冠词“a”,在元音前使用冠词“an”。如果你母语是英语,这对你来说是一件很自然的事情,自然到你想知道本文为什么会列出这一条语法规则。那就让我们再来看一下这种特例。当你走进一间餐厅,你必须要等一个小时才能有空位子,但是你需要一个务员来通知你。这究竟是为什么?并不是因为元音本身导致了这种区别,而是因为发元音的音标。如果一个单词的首字母发元音,就要加“an”,如果首个字母发辅音,那就是一个简单的“a”。2.To Infinitives and Between2.不定式和中间插入语While ;splitting infinitives; sounds like something Superman would do to save Metropolis, our English teachers might#39;ve had us believe that it was only fit for villains.虽然“分裂不定式”听起来很像是超人拯救城市时会做的伟大举动,但是英语老师让我们相信它只适用于反派人物。The full infinitive is the ;true; form of the verb; that is, the verb without conjugation. To go, to eat, to do, to split an infinitive -- you get the idea. When we talk about splitting infinitives, we mean we stick an adverb in the middle of the full infinitive. To bravely ask. To boldly go. To tediously list. Scandalized, aren#39;t you? How dare we ... put those adverbs there. Exactly. It doesn#39;t sound wrong. But in the 19th century, an English grammar book argued that it wasn#39;t common usage. In addition, you can#39;t split infinitives in Latin since they#39;re one word (currere) rather than two (to run), and Latin was still a big deal back then. Accordingly, people went along with the decree forbidding split infinitives . But it didn#39;t entirely catch on because pesky ;common usage; really did win out. We split infinitives, with perfect comprehension, all the time. Now we can choose to keep them together or to split them smugly, knowing we#39;re on the right side of grammar.带to的不定式是动词的“真正”形式,是没有词形变化的动词。去(某个地方),去吃,去做,去分裂一个不定式——你知道这些不定式的意思。当我们说到分裂不定式时,我们的意思是将一个副词插入到带to的不定式之中。“To bravely ask”、“ To boldly go”、“ To tediously list”(译为“去勇敢地问”、“向前大胆地走”、“沉闷地列出来”),这些表述让人觉得反感,不是吗?我们怎么能把这些副词放在那里呢?的确,它听起来没有什么错误。但是19世纪的一本英语语法书中曾指出,分裂不定式不是习惯用语。此外,拉丁语里的不定式不可分裂,因为在拉丁语中不定式是由一个单词(currere)构成而不是两个单词(to run)。而在那个时代,拉丁语的地位非常重要。因此,人们遵守着禁止分裂不定式这个规则。由于烦人的“习惯用语”说法真的胜出了,分裂不定式没有完全流行起来。但是,我们一直都运用着完美的理解能力来分裂不定式。现在我们知道,不管选择把它们放到一起还是得意地将它们分裂开来,在语法上都没有错。1.Don#39;t Preposition Me1.不要用介词难倒我This is a grammar myth that won#39;t die. More specifically, it#39;s a grammar myth that a billion well-meaning know-it-alls won#39;t let die. Ending a sentence with a preposition -- something like ;She#39;s not someone I would go to the batting cage with; -- is perfectly fine. The sentence is clear, and no one would argue its structure. (Although why you wouldn#39;t go to the batting cage with someone is more of a mystery. What will she do to you?!)这是永远不会消失的语法传奇。更具体地说,这是十亿善意的万事通们都不愿让之消失的语法传奇。用一个介词来结束一句话——比如“She#39;s not someone I would go to the batting cage with(译为我不会跟她一起去打棒球的)”——这样是很好的。句子清晰,没有人会质疑它的结构。(尽管为什么你不会和某人去打棒球更像是个谜。她会对你怎样啊?!)So why do we have this idea that ending a sentence with a preposition makes for an inexpert turn of phrase? It makes sense if you#39;re Julius Caesar but probably doesn#39;t apply to you or me. In Latin, ending a sentence with a preposition really was incorrect. In 1762, an Anglican bishop printed a book of grammar and basically co-opted the Latin rule for English. A good try, but English-speaking peoples had been ending sentences with prepositions for ages, and the practice persisted.所以,为什么我们会认为用介词结尾的句子看起来很笨拙呢?如果你是凯撒大帝,那么确实会有这样得的想法,但是显然它并不适合你我。在拉丁语里,用一个介词来结束一句话确实是错误的。1762年,英国的圣公会主教出版了一本关于语法的书籍,并为英语制定了拉丁语语法规则。虽然这是一个很好的尝试,但是说英语的人们已经用介词结束句子太久了,他们现在依然延续着这种惯例。审校:Freya然 编辑:Freya然 来源:前十网 /201603/433840。
  • These children have very comical responses to the question of what or who they want to be when they grow up.当被问及长大后想成为什么或想当什么样的人,这些孩子给出的回答非常好笑。Images circulating the web show some youngsters#39; dreams in life are either unrealistic or hilariously mundane.网上流传的图片向我们展示了一些小孩子的人生理想,要么不现实,要么平凡得让人忍俊不禁。From a large number of little boys hoping to become Batman to the wish to turn into an inanimate object - such as a potato - these children won#39;t let anything stand in the way of their ambitions, including all sense and reason.很多小男孩都希望成为蝙蝠侠,有的还希望变成静物——比如土豆,这些孩子不会让任何事物阻碍他们的雄心抱负,包括一切道理和理智。This blond boy is after the good life and lots of long walks, hoping to become a dog when he grows up这个金发小男孩追求的是美好生活和走很多很长很长的路,他希望长大后变成一条。Another little boy wishes nothing more than to grow up and work in this local supermarket另外一个小男孩仅仅希望长大后在当地这家超市工作。His goal s: #39;In 20 years I#39;ll be 32 years old and working in KMart#39;.他的目标是这样写的:“20年后我就32岁了,我会在凯马特工作”。This boy hope to tackle a lack of ethnic diversity in the Marvel Comics universe by becoming Black Spider-Man这个男孩希望能变成黑色的蜘蛛侠来解决漫威漫画世界中缺少种族多样化的问题。However, lofty ambitions aren#39;t for all of us. One child simply dreams of once day being a #39;potato#39;.然而,崇高的志向不是我们每个人都有的。一个小孩子仅仅希望有一天能成为一个“土豆”。It#39;s the simple life for this child too. ;I want to be a person who cleans tables.;这个孩子也想要简单的生活。他希望长大后变成擦桌子的人。Realist Warren refused to dignify this scientifically inaccurate question - instead opting for a morbid response现实主义者沃伦拒绝夸大这个在科学上并不严谨的问题——相反,他胡乱回答了一下。Edwin#39;s goals for 2013 included learning to fly, playing the accordion and getting his hands on an iPhone 5埃德温2013年的目标包括学习飞行,弹手风琴,并得到一部iPhone 5。Chris wanted to embody his hero in all ways. To become Michael Jordan he recognised that he would have to first get bigger, secondly shave his head and lastly be black克里斯想要全面模仿他的偶像。为了成为迈克尔#8226;乔丹,他意识到首先他得长大,其次得剃个头,最后得成为一个黑人。Alina hoped to be a customer when she grew up so that she could buy the ingredients to make soup艾丽娜希望长大后成为一名顾客,这样的话她就可以买配料做汤。When he becomes 100 this little boy vows to take his wife to Pizza Hut for dinner这个小男孩发誓,他100岁的时候要带他的妻子去必胜客吃饭。Another child had the simple dream of first getting a hat and then putting it on另外一个孩子的梦想也很简单,首先他要得到一顶帽子,然后再把它戴上。This adorable little boy hopes to become a truck driver and combine it with another passion, the Ninja Turtles这个可爱的小男孩希望成为卡车司机,并融入他对忍者神龟的热情。He wrote: #39;When I grow up I want to be a truck driver, I will load the trucks and wear a ninja turtle uniform.#39;他写道:“我长大了要当一名卡车司机,我会往卡车上装东西,穿着忍者神龟的衣。”This pizza loving child has their priorities in order, choosing the Italian dish over one million dollars这个热爱披萨的小孩给梦想排了个优先顺序,优先选择意大利披萨,然后才是一百万美金。He wrote: #39;If I had one wish I would wish for all the pizza in the world except for vegetable pizza and anchovie [sick] pizza, and if I had two wishes I would have one million dollars and that pizza.他写道:“如果我有一个愿望,那我就希望拥有除了蔬菜披萨和凤尾鱼(好恶心)披萨之外世界上所有的披萨,如果我有两个愿望的话那我就希望有一百万美元和那些披萨。#39;If I had three wishes I would have the one million dollars and that pizza and some dinosaurs that wouldn#39;t wreck the world.#39;“如果我有三个愿望,我就想要一百万美元和那些披萨还有一些不会毁灭世界的恐龙。”This food fan declared that their one wish would be for it to rain tacos这个食物爱好者称他的一个愿望就是下墨西哥卷饼雨。Another big eater said that someday they would have so much food to eat that they would explode另一个大吃货说,有那么一天他会有很多食物,都会吃“爆炸”。One youngster decided it was the single life for them and drew a picture of them relaxing to demonstrate一个小孩决定以后要过单身生活,还画了张画展示轻松的样子。An animal fan responded to the question of what they wanted to be by deciding the would be a wolf一位动物爱好者回答以后想成为什么的问题,决定要成为狼。Albert wanted to be #39;a person who stays home and does nothing#39; while David hoped to be #39;a fireman since I like explosions and fire#39;阿尔伯特想成为“一个待在家里什么都不干的人”,而戴维希望当“一位消防员,因为我喜欢爆炸和火”。This postal network enthusiast was determined to become a mailbox when they grew up这个邮政网络爱好者决定长大后变成一个邮筒。This high flyer made it their wish to have two quarters and three dollars这个有鸿鹄之志的人希望拥有3美元50美分。Ashanta was asked to share her dream like Dr King. She opted to work in Taco Bell with her mother阿珊塔被要求像金士(马丁#8226;路德#8226;金)那样分享自己的梦想。她选择的梦想是和妈妈一起在塔可钟餐厅工作。Four-year-old Jessica hoped to become a fire hydrant when she grew up四岁的杰西卡希望长大后能成为一个消防栓。Lila#39;s dream to watch more television while on the toilet is an unusual but hopefully achievable goal莱拉的梦想是上卫生间时看更多的电视,这个目标虽然不一般,但还是有希望实现的。One unlikely candidate for leader of the free world dreamed of destroying the Earth from outer space还有一个小孩不太可能成为自由世界的领导候选人,他的梦想是从外太空毁灭地球。This fun character will work with rock in the future, by throwing them into water a creating a splash这个有趣的小人儿未来要和石头一起工作,他要把石头扔进水里溅水花。This pessimist doesn#39;t want to look on the bright side, refusing to acknowledge the thought of life after school这个悲观主义者不愿看向积极的一面,拒绝承认他对上完学之后的生活有任何想法。Three-year-old Louisa wanted to have mint in her water and eventually to grow large and grow a beard三岁的路易莎希望在水里加点薄荷,并且最终长大,长出胡子。Graham had a rather ghoulish message for beyond the grave. He claimed he would break out of his tomb格拉哈姆要爬出坟墓的梦想可真是令人毛骨悚然。他声称他将会从自己的坟墓中逃出来。#39;When I grow up I will go to a vet to be a vet until I am 20 then I will be a Engineer#39; one child wrote“我长大了就去诊所当兽医,直到我20岁,然后我就会成为一名工程师,”一个孩子写道。Another frightening message came from this child who wanted to become a werewolf in their adult life这个小孩的梦想也很恐怖,他希望成人后变成一个狼人。One sports fan dreamed that some day he would be renowned for his awesome bicycle kick goals一个体育迷梦想有一天他将以出色的倒勾球技术而闻名。In a class of 13 boys six wanted to be Batman. Only one wanted to be Spider-Man在一个教室里有13个男孩,六个想成为蝙蝠侠。只有一个想成为蜘蛛侠。Another#39;s personal goal was to beat Super Mario Bros 3另外一个小孩的人生目标是打通《超级马里奥3》。#39;When I grow up I want to be like mommy!#39; one child wrote, drawing a sweet picture of their mother working in Home Depot selling shovels... although it looks like something entirely different“当我长大后,我想像妈妈一样!”一个小孩写道,他画了张可爱的画,画上在家得宝工作的妈妈在卖铲子……尽管看起来完全不一样。 /201606/449690。
  • The graft case of a popular former news anchor of China Central Television (CCTV) will soon be heard, reports said.近日,一则报道指出,中国中央电视台前新闻主播芮成钢涉嫌贪腐一案即将进入审理程序。Rui Chenggang#39;s case is among 34 corruption-related cases at CCTV, and 29 of them have been assigned to judicial organs in Northeast China#39;s Jilin Province, Beijing-based weekly newspaper China Business Journal reported last Tuesday, citing an anonymous source close to the provincial judicial agencies.总部位于北京的《中国商报》上周二援引一位省级司法机构匿名人士报道称,芮成钢一案是中央电视台34起与贪腐有关的案件中的一例,其中29起已经交送给中国东北吉林省的司法机关审理。Rui, a popular host of financial and news programs on CCTV, was taken away by prosecutors on July 11, 2014 together with Li Yong, deputy director of the business channel and another unnamed producer, following the detention of Guo Zhenxi, director of CCTV#39;s business channel, for allegedly receiving bribes in June 2014.芮成钢是央视财经和新闻节目备受欢迎的主持人,于2014年7月11日被检察机关带走,被带走的还有业务部的副总监李勇以及另一位没有透露姓名的制片人。这是在央视财经频道主任郭振玺涉嫌收受贿赂于2014年6月被带走之后发生的。Rui, 36, joined CCTV#39;s English Channel in 2003 and has been no stranger to controversy. He published two books on his successful life and made the rounds of the university speaking circuit.芮成钢今年36岁,于2003年进入中央电视台英语频道,是个颇具争议的人物。他出版了关于他成功人生的两本书,并在大学巡回演讲。He became a household name in China for his nationalistic stance, describing the opening of a Starbucks inside Beijing#39;s Forbidden City as an ;erosion to Chinese culture; in 2007, and later caused a stir when he claimed to ;represent the entire Asia; when trying to raise a question with US President Barack Obama during a G20 summit in 2010.他因自己的民族主义立场而在中国家喻户晓,曾于2007年评价星巴克进驻故宫为 “侵蚀中国文化”,此后,在2010年G20峰会上因向奥巴马总统提问时声称自己“代表整个亚洲”而引起了轰动。 /201604/437908。
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