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富阳无痛人流无痛人流费用美丽诊疗

2019年05月27日 03:12:00|来源:国际在线|编辑:飞晚报
Okay.好了So what is the daf-2 gene?那么daf-2基因到底是什么?Well as you know, genes, which are part of the DNA,正如大家所知,基因是DNA的一部分theyre instructions to make a protein that does something.它们是经编码的指令,用于制造特定功能的蛋白质And the daf-2 gene而daf-2基因的编码encodes a hormone receptor.对应了一类激素受体So what you see in the picture there图片上可以看到的是一个细胞is a cell with a hormone receptor in red以及红色的激素受体punching through the edge of the cell.插在细胞的边缘So part of it is like a baseball glove.受体的一部分就像棒球手套Part of its on the outside,外面的部分伸出去and its catching the hormone as it comes by in green.当绿色的激素靠近的时候抓住这个激素And the other part is on the inside另外的部分在细胞内where it sends signals into the cell.向细胞传递信号Okay, so what is the daf-2 receptor好了,那daf-2受体向细胞里telling the inside of the cell?传了什么样的信号?I just told you that, if you make a mutation in the daf-2 gene cell,我刚刚说过,如果突变细胞里的daf-2基因that you get a receptor that doesnt work as well;就能得到一个功能不太给力的受体the animal lives longer.并且动物的寿命变长So that means that the normal function of this hormone receptor这就意味着这个激素受体的正常功能is to speed up aging.是加速衰老Thats what that arrow means.就是图上箭头的意思It speeds up aging. It makes it go faster.总之会让衰老来得更快So its like the animal has the grim reaper inside of itself,就好像动物的身体里有个死神speeding up aging.一直在加速衰老So this is altogether really, really interesting.总之这个结论就非常有趣了It says that aging is subject to control by the genes,结论就是,衰老是受基因控制的and specifically by hormones.具体讲是受激素控制的So what kind of hormones are these?这些激素又是什么样的激素呢?Theres lots of hormones. Theres testosterone, adrenalin.有很多种激素,比如睾酮和肾上腺素You know about a lot of them.你肯定知道很多These hormones are similar这些激素和我们to hormones that we have in our bodies.身体里的激素差不多The daf-2 hormone receptordaf-2激素受体is very similar to the receptor与胰岛素和IGF-1的受体for the hormone insulin and IGF-1.非常像Now youve all heard of at least insulin.至少大家都听说过胰岛素Insulin is a hormone that promotes the uptake of nutrients胰岛素是一种激素,在饭后促进into your tissues after you eat a meal.身体的组织吸收营养And the hormone IGF-1 promotes growth.而IGF-1这种激素促进生长So these functions were known for these hormones for a long time,这些激素的功能是我们长久以来就知道的but our studies suggested但是我们的研究似乎暗示that maybe they had a third function that nobody knew about --有可能有第三种我们未知的功能--maybe they also affect aging.或许也能影响衰老And its looking like thats the case.而且看起来似乎的确是这样So after we made our discoveries with little C. elegans,所以在我们对秀丽隐杆线虫的小发现之后people who worked on other kinds of animals研究其他动物的研究员提出问题started asking, if we made the same daf-2 mutation,如果在其他动物身上造成同样的daf-2变异the hormone receptor mutation, in other animals,也就是激素受体变异will they live longer?它们也会更长寿吗?And that is the case in flies.在苍蝇身上,是的If you change this hormone pathway in flies, they live longer.如果改变苍蝇体内这种激素的传递方式,它们就会长寿And also in mice -- and mice are mammals like us.在老鼠身上也一样--而老鼠是像我们一样的哺乳动物So its an ancient pathway,所以其实这是一个古老原始的传递方式because it must have arisen a long time ago in evolution一定在很久以前的进化进程中就出现了such that it still works in all these animals.这样才会让所有动物身上都有这样的效应And also, the common precursor also gave rise to people.而且,这些共同的实验前兆也引向到人类的衰老问题上So maybe its working in people the same way.所以或许在人类中也同样适用And there are hints of this.确实有迹象表明这点So for example, there was one study that was done比如,曾有人针对纽约市in a population of Ashkenazi Jews in New York City.阿什肯纳兹犹太人做了研究And just like any population,和其他人群一样most of the people live to be about 70 or 80,大多数人活到70或80岁but some live to be 90 or 100.但是有的人活到了90或100岁And what they found研究人员发现was that people who lived to 90 or 100活到90或100岁的人were more likely to have daf-2 mutations --更有可能有daf-2变异--that is, changes in the gene也就是说,编码了IGF-1受体that encodes the receptor for IGF-1.的那段基因产生了变异And these changes made the gene not act as well这些变异让基因行为与正常基因相比as the normal gene would have acted.效果更弱一些It damaged the gene.相当于基因受损了So those are hints所以这些迹象suggesting that humans are susceptible表明人类对于控制衰老的激素to the effects of the hormones for aging.所带来的效果是很敏感的So the next question, of course, is:所以接下来的问题当然就是Is there any effect on age-related disease?这对与年龄相关的老龄病有影响吗?As you age, youre much more likely因为当年龄变老的时候,我们就更可能to get cancer, Alzheimers disease,患上癌症,老年痴呆症heart disease, all sorts of diseases.心脏病,等等一系列的疾病It turns out that these long-lived mutants结果这些长寿的变异体are more resistant to all these diseases.对于这些疾病更有抵抗能力They hardly get cancer,他们几乎不得癌症and when they do its not as severe.就算得了,也并不如本来应该的那样严重So its really interesting, and it makes sense in a way,所以这很有趣,而且这样想来确实有道理that theyre still young,他们的身体还年轻so why would they be getting diseases of aging until their old?所以为什么只有到老年,他们会得衰老的一些疾病So it suggests这就启发我们that, if we could have a therapeutic or a pill to take如果有疗法或者药片to replicate some of these effects in humans,来对人体复制这些减缓衰老的效应maybe we would have a way也许我们就有办法of combating lots of different age-related diseases一下子抵抗所有种类的all at once.老龄病201508/390452My second story is about love and loss.我的第二个故事是关于爱与失败。I was lucky. I found what I loved to do early in life.我很幸运,在人生很早的时期就找到了我所喜爱的东西。Woz and I started Apple in my parents garage when I was twenty.20岁时,我与 Woz 在父母的车库里建立了苹果公司。We worked hard and in ten years Apple had grown from just the two of us in a garage into a billion company with over 4,000 employees.我们很努力地工作,10年之内,苹果由最初车库中的两个人变成一家拥有4000多员工、价值20亿美元的公司。Wed just released our finest creation the Macintosh, a year earlier, and Id just turned thirty, and then I got fired.那个时候我们最棒的产品Macintosh 刚刚推出一年,而我刚刚30岁,之后我被解雇了。How can you get fired from a company you started?你怎么可能被你自己创立的公司解雇?Well, as Apple grew, we hired someone who I thought was very talented to run the company with me.随着苹果的壮大,我们请了一个在我看来非常有才能的人来和我一起管理公司。And for the first year or so, things went well.第一年一切都非常顺利。But then our visions of the future began to diverge, and eventually we had a falling out.但是后来我们对于未来的看法出现了分歧,最终我们之间起了争论。When we did, our board of directors sided with him.争执发生之后,我们的董事会站在了他那一边。And so at thirty, I was out, and very publicly out.就在三十岁那年,我被炒鱿鱼了,一次非常惹人注目的解雇。What had been the focus of my entire adult life was gone, and it was devastating.一直以来都是我成年生活核心的东西,忽然不复存在了,那感觉相当可怕。I really didnt know what to do for a few months.有几个月的时间,我完全不知道该干什么。I felt that I had let the previous generation of entrepreneurs down, that I had dropped the baton as it was being passed to me.我感到自己辜负了前辈企业家的期望,就像接力棒交到我的手里,而我却把它丢掉了。I met with David Packard and Bob Noyce and tried to apologize for screwing up so badly.我跟 David Packard 与 Bob Noyce 见面,为自己把事情弄得如此糟糕而道歉。I was a very public failure and I even thought about running away from the Valley.我成了一名众所周知的失败者,我甚至想过离开硅谷。But something slowly began to dawn on me. I still loved what I did.然而有一种东西慢慢地照亮了我。我依然爱着我所爱的东西。The turn of events at Apple had not changed that one bit.发生在苹果公司的事并没能改变这一点。Id been rejected but I was still in love. And so I decided to start over.虽然我被赶走了,但是我的爱依然还在,于是我决定重新开始。I didnt see it then, but it turned out that getting fired from Apple was the best thing that could have ever happened to me.我当时并不知道,实际上被苹果解雇是当时发生在我身上的最好的事了。201412/346730

I study the behavior of investors,how they react to policy and the economy. 我研究投资者的行为,研究他们如何应对政策和经济。It gives me a different angle on the aid issue.这在救助问题上给我新的启迪。But it took an innocent question from my then-four-year-old daughter to make me appreciate that.但是当时我年仅四岁的女儿问的一个童真的问题让我对此心有感激。Pia and I were on the way to a local cafe and we passed a man collecting for charity.当时皮娅和我正在去当地一家咖啡厅的路上我们经过了一个为慈善募捐的男人身边。I didnt have any change to give him,and she was disappointed.我当时没有给他零钱,她就有些失望了。Once in the cafe, Pia takes out her coloring book and starts scribbling.到了咖啡厅, 皮娅拿出她的图画本开始涂画。After a little while, I ask her what shes doing,and she shows me a drawing of a 5 note to give to the man outside.过了一会儿, 我问她在干什么,她给我看了她画的一张5欧元的钞票要给外面的那个男子。Its so sweet,and more generous than Dad would have been. 非常温馨,远比她爸爸要慷慨得多。But of course I explained to her,you cant do that; its not allowed.当然我跟她解释,你不能这么做,这行不通得。To which I get the classic four-year-old response:结果我得到的是四岁小孩经典的回答:Why not?为什么啊?Now Im excited, because I actually think I can answer this time.现在我有点激动了, 因为我觉得我现在可以回答这个问题了。So I launch into an explanation of how an unlimited supply of money chasing a limited number of goods sends prices to the moon.所以我开始解释无限量供应的货币去购买限量供应的商品,是会把价格抬高到离谱的地步的。Something about that exchange stuck with me,not because of the look of relief on Pias face when I finally finished, but because it related to the sanctity of the money supply,a sanctity that had been challenged and questioned by the reaction of central banks to the financial crisis. 这次的交流让我久久不能忘怀,并不是因为在我快要结束的时候皮娅脸上露出安心的表情,而是因为它涉及到货币供应的神圣性,这种神圣性一直被中央对财政危机的反应所挑战和质疑。To reassure investors,central banks began buying assets to try and encourage investors to do the same. 为了使投资方安心,中央开始购置资产尝试鼓励投资者也这么做。They funded these purchases with money they created themselves.他们用他们自己造出来的钱去投资这些购置。The money wasnt actually physically printed.而这些钱并没有真正被印刷出来。Its still sort of locked away in the banking system today.在今天这笔钱仍处于被锁在系统的状态。But the amount created was unprecedented.但造出来的这笔钱的数量却是空前的。Together, the central banks of the U.S.,U.K and Japan increased the stock of money in their economies by 3.7 trillion dollars.各国的中央,美国,英国和日本都一起增加了各自经济的货币存量增加了3.7万亿美金 (人民币约22.2万亿元)。Thats three times, in fact thats more than three times,the total physical stock of dollar notes in circulation.这是三倍,其实不止三倍,实际流通中的美金货币存量总和。Three times!三倍啊!Before the crisis,this would have been utterly unthinkable,yet it was accepted remarkably quickly. 在经济危机之前,这是完全不能想像的,但它还是非常快就被接受了。The price of gold,an asset thought to protect against inflation,did jump,but investors bought other assets that offered little protection from inflation. 黄金的价格,黄金是被当作用来抵御通货膨胀的确实下跌了,但投资者购买了其他的资产,而这些资产却基本无法抵制通货膨胀。They bought fixed income securities, bonds.他们购买固定收益券,债券。They bought equities too.他们也买普通股。For all the scare stories,the actual actions of investors spoke of rapid acceptance and confidence.对于那些吓人的报道,投资者真正的行为显示出快速的接受和信心。That confidence was based on two pillars.这种信心建立在两个柱上。The first was that, after years of keeping inflation under control,central banks were trusted to take the money-printing away if inflation became a threat.第一个就是在控制通货膨胀的多年后,中央被人们所信任,如果通货膨胀构成威胁时他们可以停止钞票的印刷。201505/373588

Today,I wish to report to you that my talks with the government have been aimed at normalizing the political situation in the country. We have not as yet begun discussing the basic demands of the struggle. I wish to stress that I myself have at no time entered into negotiations about the future of our country, except to insist on a meeting between the ANC and the government.今天,我希望能向大家通报:我同政府进行的一些列会谈,其目的一直是使我国的政治局势正常化。迄今为止我们还没有开始讨论本次斗争的基本要求。我愿意强调一下,就我国的未来前途,我除了坚持要求在非国大和政府之间进行磋商以外,本人决不会介入和政府的谈判。Mr. De Klerk the has gone further than any other Nationalist President in taking real steps to normalize the situation. However, there are further steps as outlined in the Harare Declaration that have to be met before negotiations on the basic demands of our people can begin.在采取切实可行的措施使局势正常化方面,德·克勒克先生比以往任何一位民族主义总统走得都远。但是就如同《哈拉雷宣言》规划的那样,在就我们人民的基本需要展开谈判之前,我们还有更多措施需要实施。 /201305/242227

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