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2019年08月23日 17:29:49 | 作者:泡泡知识 | 来源:新华社
Eleven years ago, a shiny silver Boeing 727 airliner took off from Luanda, Angola, and became one of the few commercial jetliners to vanish and never be found.11年前,一架亮银色波音(Boeing) 727客机从安哥拉首都罗安达起飞后失踪,之后始终没有被找到,这使其成为了史上为数不多的几架失踪商用喷气式飞机之一。Massive jet airplanes disappear more often in fiction than in real life, but it does happen. In 1979, a Boeing 707 with six people aboard was lost in the Pacific Ocean after leaving Tokyo. And dozens of smaller planes have gone missing and never been located.现实中,大型喷气式客机的失踪事件并非小说里那样多见,但也确有发生。1979年一架载有6人的波音707飞机从东京起飞后消失在太平洋上空。还有数十架小型飞机在失踪后杳无踪迹。The so-far fruitless search for Malaysia Airlines Flight 370, which disappeared early Saturday with 239 people aboard, is unprecedented because of the plane#39;s size and because the widebody Boeing 777 had been in radio and satellite contact with multiple locations on the ground. It was also flying when it lost contact over the sea in one of the world#39;s most densely populated regions, Southeast Asia, not over remote jungle or open ocean.上周六早上,搭载有239人的马来西亚航空公司(Malaysia Airlines) MH370客机在起飞后失踪。而令人没有料到的是其搜寻工作迄今仍毫无进展。之所以这么说,是因为出事的波音777宽体客机体积庞大,在失踪之前与地面多个空管站保持着无线电和卫星联络;且失联时,客机正处于人口密集的东南亚的海域上空,而非某片偏远的热带雨林或大海上。Planes have fallen, never to be seen again, from the earliest days of aviation. Others have been found only after lengthy searches or by chance decades later. Radar, satellites and other technology have become powerful aids in such situations.在航空产业的发展初期就有过飞机失事后再未找到的案例。一些失事飞机在数十年后或因偶然、或经漫长的搜寻最终被找到,雷达、卫星等技术在其中起到了极大的帮助。But as Flight 370#39;s disappearance shows, technology still has limited reach in some swaths of the planet.然而此次马航客机失踪事件凸显出这些技术在世界一些地区仍不完备。#39;The fact is that, in many parts of the world . . . radar coverage is not complete,#39; said David McMillan, Chairman of the Flight Safety Foundation and former head of Eurocontrol, Europe#39;s air-traffic coordinator. #39;It#39;s clearly an area for further improvement.#39;欧洲航空安全组织(Eurocontrol)前主管、飞行安全基金会(Flight Safety Foundation)主席麦克米伦(David McMillan)说,实际上全球许多地区……的雷达覆盖都不完整,而该地区显然有待改善。In the same region in 2007, it took crews 10 days to find the first pieces of an Indonesian Boeing 737 that crashed in the sea near Sulawesi. Searchers needed 36 hours to locate the first wreckage of Air France Flight 447, which crashed over the Atlantic five years ago with 228 people aboard.2007年在这片地区,搜寻人员用了10天的时间才在苏拉威西(Sulawesi)附近海域找到了印尼波音737失事客机的首批残骸。五年前,载有228人的法国航空公司(Air France) 447航班在大西洋坠毁,搜寻队伍用了36个小时才首次找到客机残骸的位置。#39;If a plane goes down in the ocean, it#39;s very difficult to find it,#39; said Richard B. Stone, a former president of the International Society of Air Safety Investigators.国际航空安全调查员协会(International Society of Air Safety Investigators)前主席斯通(Richard B. Stone)说,如果飞机坠入海洋,则其搜寻工作将十分困难。The Aviation Safety Network, a database tracking accidents, lists 80 planes as #39;missing#39; since 1948. No trace of the planes or their occupants was ever found, according to ASN President Harro Ranter. The aircraft range from tiny one-seat propeller planes to jetliners and a U.S. Coast Guard Lockheed C-130 Hercules -- a four-engine turboprop transport -- that crashed off the California coast in 2009.追踪航空事故的数据库公司航空安全网络(Aviation Safety Network, ASN)列出了1948年以来的80架“失踪”飞机。据公司总裁Harro Ranter称,这些飞机的踪迹及机上人员都未曾被找到过。这其中既包括只有一个座位的螺旋桨飞机,也有2009年在加利福尼亚海岸附近坠毁的美国海岸警卫队(U.S. Coast Guard) C-130运输机。The 727 that vanished over Angola is believed to have had only two people aboard. At dusk on May 25, 2003, an American mechanic for Aerospace Sales amp; Leasing Co., the Florida-based lessor that owned the 18-year-old plane, boarded the jetliner in Luanda, according to press reports at the time. He was accompanied by a Congolese assistant. Neither was certified to pilot the plane, which normally required a crew of three.据信在安哥拉上空失踪的727飞机只载有两人。当时媒体报道称,2003年5月25日傍晚,佛罗里达租赁公司Aerospace Sales amp; Leasing Co.的一位美国机械师在罗安达登上了这架喷气式客机。该公司是这架机龄18年的飞机的所有者。伴他一起登机的还有一位刚果助理。这两人均无驾驶该飞机的资格,而该飞机执行飞行任务时一般要求须有三名机组人员。Without authorization or communication, the plane began taxiing, according to press reports. Its lights and transponder remained off as it took off and started to fly over the Atlantic.媒体报道称,在无授权也无通讯联络的情况下,这架飞机开始滑翔。在该飞机起飞并开始飞越大西洋时,其航行灯和雷达收发机仍处于关闭状态。The unauthorized departure, less than two years after the Sept. 11, 2001, attacks, sparked an international search. U.S. diplomats and African authorities visited airfields across the continent, seeking hints the plane had landed. U.S. national-security authorities including the Federal Bureau of Investigation and the Central Intelligence Agency scoured satellite images. The plane was never seen again.这次未授权的飞机离港事件距2001年9月11日的袭击还不到两年时间,国际社会对该飞机展开了搜索。美国外交人员和非洲国家政府部门查看了这块大陆上的机场,希望能找到727飞机落地的迹象。包括联邦调查局(Federal Bureau of Investigation,简称FBI)和中央情报局(Central Intelligence Agency,简称CIA)在内的美国国家安全部门还查找了卫星图像。但没有人再看见过这架飞机。#39;I have no idea#39; about what happened to the 727, it is #39;one of those things we#39;ve never understood,#39; said Maury Joseph, president of Aerospace Sales amp; Leasing. #39;It#39;s unheard of for something that large, and nothing to this day has ever shown up.#39;Aerospace Sales amp; Leasing总裁约瑟夫(Maury Joseph)说,他对这架727发生了什么一无所知,这是他们一直没搞明白的事件之一。他说,这么大的一个物体凭空消失,至今再未露面,这真是前所未闻。The FBI and CIA didn#39;t immediately respond to requests for comment.FBI和CIA未立即回应置评请求。Malaysia Airlines Flight 370 is one of the first jet planes since then to disappear for this long.此事发生后,马航370航班是失踪了如此长时间的首批喷气式客机之一。#39;The fact that it#39;s so rare is the reason everyone is paying attention to it,#39; said Bob van der Linden, chairman of the aeronautics department at the Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum.史密森尼国家航空航天物馆(Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum)航空部门主席范德林登(Bob van der Linden)说,这样的事太罕见了,所以大家都十分关注。Disappearances used to be more common. Amelia Earhart was notable as one of the first female aviators to set distance records in the 1930s. But she remains in the public conscience today more because she disappeared in her Lockheed Electra near New Guinea while attempting to circumnavigate the globe.失踪事件以前更为常见。埃尔哈特(Amelia Earhart)是在上世纪30年代创造飞行距离纪录的首批女飞行员之一,并且因此扬名。但她现在还为人们所记起的一个更大的原因是,她驾驶着洛克希德-伊莱克特拉(Lockheed Electra)飞机进行环球飞行时,在新几内亚附近失踪。Today, radar can generally track aircraft large and small. But even in an age of global satellite navigation and the perception of world-wide surveillance, significant areas of Earth are untouched by radar or regular observation.时至今日,无论飞行器大小,雷达通常都可对其进行追踪。但即使到了全球卫星导航和人们以为的监控遍布世界各地的时代,地球上仍有大片区域是雷达或常规观测无法监测到的。Empty spots are shrinking. In the 1970s, the #39;Bermuda Triangle#39; loomed in the American imagination after several military planes disappeared in the Atlantic Ocean region between Florida, Puerto Rico and Bermuda, and other planes and ships were said to have vanished there. Supernatural explanations were eventually debunked.不过其实,人类未触及的空白区域正在不断缩小。上世纪70年代,几架军用飞机在佛罗里达、波多黎各和百慕大之间位于大西洋的那个地区失踪后,“百慕大三角区”便引起了美国人的丰富联想。据说其它飞机和船只也曾消失于这个三角区。种种超自然的解释最终被揭穿。#39;The accident rate in the Bermuda Triangle is no better or worse than anywhere else, but it sounds really intriguing,#39; said the Smithsonian#39;s Mr. van der Linden.范德林登表示,百慕大三角区的事故率和其他地方基本相当,只不过相关事件听上去很神秘罢了。Rational explanations haven#39;t limited people#39;s imaginations. The hugely successful TV series #39;Lost#39; focused on passengers of a jetliner that crashed on a mysterious island not found on maps.合理的解释并未遏制人们的想像力。大获成功的美国电视连续剧《迷失》(Lost)就讲述了一架飞机在一个地图上没有的神秘小岛坠毁后,机上乘客的相关故事。Disappearances are often simply accidents in remote locations, based on an analysis of planes that eventually showed up. Air France Flight 447 vanished for more than a day before searchers found floating pieces of the Airbus A330.从对一些类似事件的分析来看,飞机消失往往是在偏远地区失事。法航447航班在消失了一天多以后,搜救人员才发现了这架空客A330客机的漂浮碎片。Millionaire adventurer Steve Fossett disappeared in September 2007 while flying a single-engine propeller plane near Yosemite National Park in California. It took more than a year to find the wreckage.2007年9月冒险家史蒂夫#8226;福赛特(Steve Fossett)在加利福尼亚州约塞米蒂国家公园(Yosemite National Park)附近驾驶一架单引擎螺旋桨飞机失踪,一年多以后人们才找到了飞机残骸。Other accidents are often too difficult to investigate, or the small number of people killed is deemed too low to merit a costly search. #39;It is very expensive to do,#39; said Mr. Stone, the accident investigator.其他一些事故往往难以调查,或者说由于遇难人数较少,兴师动众地去搜索被认为有点不值得。斯通表示,那样做成本太高。The Boeing 707 that crashed off Japan in 1979 had six people aboard. A Boeing 727 that sent distress messages and vanished after taking off from Reykjavik, Iceland, in 1990 had 18 people aboard. Neither was ever found.1979年一架载有6人的波音707飞机在从日本起飞后失踪。1990年一架从冰岛雷克雅维克起飞的波音727飞机发出遇险信息并消失,机上载有18人。这两架飞机均未找到。On rare occasions, disappearances are solved by passengers. On Oct. 13, 1972, a Fairchild FH-227D with 45 people aboard, including a Uruguayan rugby team, crashed in the Andes while flying from Argentina to Chile -- an incident later dramatized in the 1993 film #39;Alive.#39; Twelve passengers died immediately or were missing and the others waited in the freezing heights for rescue, some eventually resorting to cannibalism to survive.也有极少数情况下乘客自救生还。1972年10月13日,一架载有45人(包括一乌拉圭橄榄球队)的Fairchild FH-227D飞机在从阿根廷飞往智利的途中在安第斯山脉失事,此事后来被改编为1993年的电影《天劫余生》(Alive)。当时当场死亡和失踪的乘客有12名,剩下的乘客则在冰峰上等待救援,一些人不得不通过食人肉求生。When no help arrived, three of the 16 survivors in December set off for help. After one turned back to ration food, the remaining two men walked for seven days before they spotted a sign of civilization: an empty soup can and a horseshoe. Two more days passed before they found men on horseback who sent for help. Helicopters were dispatched to retrieve the remaining survivors.由于没有等来外界救援,同年12月16名幸存者中有3名开始动身寻找救援。当其中一人返回找食物时,另外两人继续行走了七日,最终发现了人迹:一个空的汤罐和一个马蹄铁。又过了两天,他们发现了骑马的人,这些骑马的人为他们找到了帮助。于是直升飞机开过来救走了这些劫后余生的人。Modern technology increases the chance the Malaysia Airlines flight will be found, the Air France crash suggests. While floating wreckage of that Airbus plane was found in less than two days, weeks of deep-sea searches turned up no sign of the fuselage or pings from beacons on its recorders.从法航那次事件来看,现代化的技术会使马航航班被找到的几率提高。虽然搜救人员在不到两天的时间内就找到了法航空客飞机的漂浮残骸,但在之后数周的深海搜索中都没有见到飞机机身,也没有收到记录仪所发出的信号。Two subsequent searches were conducted using progressively more-sophisticated remote undersea vehicles, advanced sonar equipment and computer modeling of tidal patterns. Within days of launching the third search, almost two years after the crash, the wreckage was discovered.之后的两次搜索动用了越来越复杂的水下遥控工具、先进的声纳设备以及计算机模拟洋流。在第三次搜索启动几天,也就是失事约两年后,法航的失事飞机残骸终于被找到。#39;There#39;s going to be a trace somewhere, it will be found,#39; the Smithsonian#39;s Mr. van der Linden said of the Malaysian plane. #39;It may be a surprise about where it#39;s found, but we don#39;t know what happened on the airplane.#39;范德林登在谈到马航失联客机时表示,一些地方势必会留有踪迹,会找到的;最后发现它的地点或许会出人意料,但我们不知道飞机上究竟发生了什么。 /201403/279771How much make-up do men really find attractive? Dating site discovers women with lipstick and blush are THREE TIMES more likely to be asked on a date化妆女性才对男人有吸引力,女性涂口红和腮红约会几率增三倍Men are three times more likely to ask a woman out online if she is wearing make-up in her dating profile picture, a new survey has discovered.一项最新调查发现:在约会网站上,男人看了化妆女性的照片,约会几率增三倍。Zoosk, a dating site and app, analyzed 1,200 women’s profiles and found that these individuals were three times more likely to be messaged if they were wearing make-up including eye shadow, lipstick and blush.Zoosk约会网站的应用程序对1200名女性的资料做了分析,发现涂眼影、口红和腮红的化妆女性,收到约会信息的几率增三倍。The site’s male users appear to prefer eye make-up the most, as women who were pictured with painted lids received 139 percent more first messages than those who did not.网站的男性用户最喜欢眼妆,涂眼影的女性比不涂眼影的女性收到的初次约会消息多出139%。Lipstick followed a close second, as women received 119per cent more notes than those who were shown with a bare pout.其次是涂口红的女性收到的约会消息比不涂口红的女性多出119%。Cheeks, however, appear the least important, as women wearing blush or bronzer only received 24 percent more notes than those who did not.不过,涂不涂腮红都无所谓,与不涂腮红的女性相比,涂腮红或用古铜色化妆品的女性中,只有高出24个百分点的女性收到约会消息。But there are some parameters involved in men’s preference for make-up –mainly that it has to ‘look’ natural.但也有一些参数体现出男性偏爱化妆女性:关键在于妆容“看上去”要自然。In surveying 1,800 male members, Zoosk found that 66per cent of them do not find dates who wear dark make-up attractive.Zoosk约会网站对1800名男性成员的调查发现,66%的受访者称,对化深色烟熏妆的女性不会提出约会请求。he same goes for red lipstick, as 57per cent of respondents found the color cosmetic to be an unattractive first-date choice.对涂红色唇膏的女性也一样不会提出约会要求,从男性调查者中发现,女性初次约会化妆时选择化颜色过于艳的妆容,57%的男性对过于艳的妆容都不怎么感兴趣。In terms of hair, it seems that natural is always the way to go. Natural styles were preferred by 84per cent of respondents, over follicles that had been dyed an unearthly color.关于头发的发型,相对把头发染成怪异颜色的女性,84%的男性受访者认为自然风格的发型才是首选。A natural wave is also appreciated, as only 9per cent of men preferred pin-straight, flat ironed locks to those boasting some form of texture.自然卷发也很受欢迎,只有9%的男性偏爱拉直的头发——因为那看上去很不自然。 /201407/311663This may be a statement of the obvious at Christmas, but our families can sometimes let us down. Evidence comes from a little-noticed survey published by the US Census Bureau in September.我们的家庭有时会让我们失望。美国人口普查局(US Census Bureau) 2013年9月发布的一项调查为这一观点提供了明,不过没引起多少关注。The findings are conveyed in a sad and simple graph. It reports a survey of “households experiencing hardship” in 2011 - and who helped them when times were tough. What counted as tough times? Having a phone disconnected, missing utility bill payments, falling into rent or mortgage arrears, or not seeing a doctor or dentist when needed.该项调查针对2011年“经历困境的家庭”,以及陷入困境时得到过谁的帮助,调查结果通过一幅简单而令人悲哀的图表呈现。那么怎样算是陷入困境呢?电话停机,漏缴公用事业账单,拖欠房租或房贷,或者生病了看不起医生或牙医。More than half of such households expected help from family members, as did almost half from friends. Rather fewer - about a fifth - hoped for help from a social agency, charity or church.一多半家庭期望得到家人的帮助,还有近一半则指望朋友帮助。只有很少一部分家庭(大约五分之一)希望得到社会机构、慈善团体或教堂的援助。The overwhelming majority were disappointed. It was rare for family members to provide help with rent arrears - about one time in six - and it was rarer still to receive financial help from other sources or for other purposes.结果绝大多数家庭的希望都落了空。家人极少帮忙付租金(大约六分之一),而从其他来源(或者为了其他目的)获得资金援助就更加罕见了。In short, hard-up Americans were confident of help in need from those close to them - and that confidence was misplaced. (If you#39;re looking for an explanation of the popularity of payday loans, this finding isn#39;t a bad start.)简言之,手头拮据的美国人相信能从亲友那儿得到帮助,但这种信任是没有根据的。(如果你想了解“发薪日贷款”为何如此流行,不妨从这份报告入手。)An optimistic ing of this research is that there are plenty of people whose families or friends did help them and thus never featured in the sample. Perhaps.这份研究当然也不乏乐观解读:也许有许多人得到了亲友的帮助,因此根本不在调查对象之列——或许吧。But as the economist Timothy Taylor comments, enough people experience disappointment to leave “lasting shadows”.但正如经济学家蒂莫西#8226;泰勒(Timothy Taylor)所言,生活中有太多人经历深切失望,这种失望给他们留下“持久的阴影”。This dispiriting stuff reminded me of Mark Granovetter#39;s work on “the strength of weak ties”, published in 1973. Granovetter, a sociologist, brought together two disparate strands of work: a survey of how people with professional or managerial jobs had found those jobs; and a theoretical analysis of the structure of social networks.这种令人沮丧的现实让我想起马克#8226;葛兰诺维特(Mark Granovetter)在1973年发表的《弱纽带的力量》(the strength of weak ties)。葛兰诺维特是社会学家,他将两项不相干的研究拉到一起:一个是关于人们怎样找到专业或管理工作的调查;另一个是对社会关系网结构的理论分析。Start with the theoretical observation first: the most irreplaceable social connections, paradoxically, are often rather weak or distant ones. A family group or clique of close friends all tend to know each other and know similar things at similar times. Their social ties are strong but also redundant, in the sense that there are many different paths through which information could pass from one member of that group to another.先谈理论观察:最不可取代的社会关系(听上去有点矛盾)往往是相当薄弱或者遥远的关系。家族或朋友圈成员倾向于在圈子内互相结交,他们在同一个时期知道的事情也大致相同。这种社会纽带虽强但也累赘,也就是说,信息在这些圈子内部的传播渠道非常多。By contrast, “weak ties” between one social cluster and another are valuable precisely because the social contact is unusual. Information passed along a weak tie will often be totally new - and if it doesn#39;t arrive through the weak tie, it is unlikely to arrive at all.与此形成反差的是,不同社会群体之间的“弱纽带”有价值,正是因为这样的社会联系不寻常。通过弱纽带传递的信息往往是全新的——换言之,如果不通过弱纽带,新信息可能压根传递不过来。Granovetter then supplemented this theoretical idea with his survey, showing that it was very common for people to find jobs - especially managerial jobs and jobs with which they were satisfied - through personal contacts. The old saw is true: it#39;s not what you know, it#39;s who you know. Or as Granovetter put it in his book Finding a Job, what matters most is “one#39;s position in a social network”.葛兰诺维特接着通过自己的调查对上述理论进行补充。调查显示,人们常常通过个人关系找到工作(尤其是管理工作,或者是称心如意的工作)。老话说得对:知道什么不重要,认识谁才重要。或套用葛兰诺维特在其著作《怎样找工作》(Finding a Job)中的说法,最重要的是“一个人在社会关系网中的位置”。But this is not because of crude nepotism: the key contacts who helped job-seekers find jobs were typically distant rather than close friends - old college contacts, perhaps, or former colleagues. Granovetter#39;s analysis made this finding make sense: it#39;s the more peripheral contacts who tell you things you don#39;t aly know.但这不同于裸的裙带关系:帮助求职者找到工作的关键联系人,一般关系并不密切,算不上老同学、前同事等密友。葛兰诺维特的分析为调查结果提供了合理的解释:比较的联系人才能提供你不知道的信息。More recent research - for instance, a “big data” analysis of millions of mobile phone records conducted by Jukka-Pekka Onnela, Albert-Laszlo Barabasi and others - has backed up Granovetter#39;s argument that the weaker ties are the vital ones.就拿最近一项研究为例,尤卡-佩卡#8226;翁内拉(Jukka-Pekka Onnela),奥尔贝特-拉斯洛#8226;鲍劳巴希(Albert-Laszlo Barabasi)等人分析了数以百万计的手机通话记录,用这些“大数据”对葛兰诺维特的观点提供了持,即弱纽带才是必不可少的。 /201401/273666

Prince George who celebrated his first birthday yesterday, has undeniably earned himself the title of Royal cutie but it looks like the one-year-old may grow up to be a real Prince Charming.乔治王子昨天刚度过了自己的一岁生日,并且当之无愧的赢得了“王室小可爱”的头衔,不过,待这个1岁的小婴儿长大后,似乎会变成白马王子哦。Hungarian graphic designer and illustrator, Nikolett Mérész has created an image of what young Prince George might look like at the age of 18.一位名叫尼克利特·梅瑞慈的匈牙利平面设计师和插图画家位小王子画出了一幅肖像,告诉人们乔治王子18岁的时候可能是什么模样。The artist referred to the genetic traits that George has developed from his mother and father when using a computer to generate the final image.这位画家通过参照乔治王子从母亲和父亲那里遗传的基因特征,用电脑生成了一幅成品图。She told the Herald Sun: #39;Prince George has a very similar face to William’s when he was a toddler. But, at the same time, his cheeks look a lot like baby Kate’s and that can’t be ignored. Especially as Kate has dimples, which are also a dominant trait, so it’s very likely George will have them as well.#39;她对《先驱太阳报》的记者说:“乔治王子和威廉幼时的的相貌十分相似。但同时,他在两颊的部位上也很像小凯特的模样,这一点不容忽视。尤其是凯特双颊上有酒窝,这是她幼时模样的一大特点,所以乔治很可能也会有小酒窝。”In order to make the final product the artist combined the current facial traits of both George#39;s parents.为了完成最终的效果图,画家将乔治双亲现有的面部特征进行了。#39;To create the remainder of the image, I merged Kate’s hairline, ears and edge of mouth with William’s nose, brows, forehead and lips.#39;“为了最终完成图像,我将凯特的发际线,双耳和嘴巴轮廓与威廉的鼻子,眉毛,额头,嘴唇加以综合。”Although we can expect George to develop the same enviable dimples of his mother and face shapes of his father there are some attributes that the Prince can expect to avoid.我们可以预期到,乔治会和母亲一样拥有羡煞旁人的小酒窝,以及父亲的面部轮廓,不过,我们也可以预见乔治将能够避免双亲的一些面部特点。Nikolett continued to say that she didn#39;t believe that George would suffer from the same hair thinning that we have recently noticed on his father Prince William.尼克利特接着说,她认为乔治不会受到脱发的困扰,而我们注意到,他的父亲威廉亲王正遭受这一苦恼。 /201407/315432

SAN FRANCISCO — Judging from the large bags of colorful Legos on the floor and dozens of plastic base plates piled on tables, this room could have been the activities station for a well-funded summer camp. And the five women and men drifting in and out, slicing open boxes and rooting around for the right size toy bricks, were young enough to pass as camp counselors.旧金山——从地上放着的大袋大袋色乐高积木和桌子上的几十个塑料底座判断,这个房间像一个经费充裕的夏令营活动站。五个男女忙进忙出,他们划开盒子,寻找大小合适的积木;这几个人年纪轻轻,很容易被人当成夏令营的辅导员。Only the place where they were working is the opposite of summer camp: Alcatraz, the notoriously bleak military prison turned maximum-security penitentiary turned national park. With its banks of small windows and a “gun gallery” for surveillance, this building is where inmates once laundered military uniforms. It’s usually off limits to tourists.只不过这里跟夏令营正好相反——这里是阿尔卡特拉斯,它起初是一座凄凉暗淡、臭名昭著的军方监狱,后来成了最高安全级别的监狱,最后又变成了国家公园。这栋建筑有成排的小窗口和一座用来监视犯人的“廊”,犯人曾在这里给部队洗军装。该楼平时禁止游客入内。But starting Sept. 27, visitors will be able to see for themselves, sp across the floor, where so many Legos were heading: an ambitious installation by the Chinese activist-artist Ai Weiwei, featuring 176 portraits of prisoners of conscience and political exiles around the world — from the South African leader Nelson Mandela and the Tibetan pop singer Lolo to the American whistle-blower Edward Snowden — composed of 1.2 million Lego pieces. The work is part of an exhibition running through April 26 called “@Large: Ai Weiwei on Alcatraz,” organized by For-Site, a San Francisco producer of public art, in the prison hospital, A Block cells, dining hall and that former laundry building.但是从9月27日起,游客们就可以入内一探究竟了——许多的乐高积木在地上铺陈开来:这件规模宏大的装置艺术是中国社会活动者、艺术家艾未未的作品,由176幅来自世界各地的政治犯与政治流亡者的肖像构成,从南非领导人纳尔逊·曼德拉(Nelson Mandela)、西藏流行歌手洛洛(Lolo)到美国的揭秘者爱德华·斯诺登(Edward Snowden),它们由120万块乐高积木制成。这件作品是截止至4月26日结束的展览“@Large: 艾未未在阿尔卡特拉斯”的一部分,展览由旧金山公共艺术制作机构Fore-Site承办,地点设在监狱医院、A区牢房、用餐大厅和这座以前的洗衣楼。Given Mr. Ai’s sharp critiques of the Chinese government and the tireless campaigning for freedom of expression that led to his own imprisonment in 2011, he could have included himself in the group portrait. He did not. But his 81-day detainment, a numbing and mostly solitary confinement, fueled some of the exhibition’s themes, and the seizure of his passport at that time — it was never returned — has shaped the making of this show.艾未未因为对中国政府的尖锐,以及为言论自由的奋力抗争,结果在2011年受到监禁,他本可以把自己的肖像也加入这组群像之中。但他并没有这样做。81天的关押经历——令人麻木而且基本上是单独监禁——启发了该展览中的若干主题;当时他的护照也遭没收,至今尚未归还,这也决定了该展览的制作方式。“Even now, I am still in a soft detention, my passport withheld by the state and my right to move freely across borders restricted,” he explained in a series of lengthy email exchanges.“直到如今,我还在软禁之中,我的护照被当局扣押,我自由出国的正当权利受到限制,”他在一系列很长的电子邮件往来中写道。His situation makes the “@Large” title seem wishful, if not ironic, and raises questions both practical and philosophical. How exactly did this outspoken artist manage to realize this site-specific exhibition without ever visiting the site and despite an ever-present risk of reincarceration? And to what extent are installations like this — which required more than 100 volunteers in San Francisco and For-Site staffers on Alcatraz Island helping with assembly, as well as Amnesty International contributing research — truly Mr. Ai’s work?他的处境令“@Large”这个展览标题显得即便不是充满讽刺,也如同一种愿望,并且提出了实务层面与哲学层面的问题。这位坦率直言的艺术家根本无法参观场地,还常常冒着再度遭到监禁的危险,他又该怎样实现这个在特定场地举办的展览呢?此外,这件装置作品需要旧金山的100多名志愿者与For-Site的员工到阿尔卡特拉斯岛拼装完成,大赦国际组织也协助进行了研究工作,那么,这样的装置作品在多大程度上真正是艾未未的作品呢?Certainly, the monumental Lego installation, “Trace,” has his fingerprints all over it. A few celebrity freedom fighters aside, most of the portraits showcase figures “forgotten by society,” he said. One is Shin Suk-ja, a South Korean prisoner of North Korea who was sent into penal labor with her two daughters in 1987 after her husband defected to Europe. Ms. Shin appears to have died in captivity, according to an information binder provided by For-Site.当然,这件丰碑式的乐高装置“Trace”上到处都有艾未未的痕迹。他说,除了几个著名的自由斗士,大多数肖像展现的是“被社会遗忘”的人。其中包括申淑子(Shin Suk-ja),她是一个被朝鲜关押的韩国人,1987年,因为丈夫叛逃欧洲,她和两个女儿一起被关进劳改营。根据For-Site提供的资料,申淑子似乎已在囚禁中死去。The new work recalls Mr. Ai’s responses to the Sichuan earthquake of 2008, which provoked him to identify students killed as a result of shoddy school construction and to create perhaps his most powerful installation, “Remembering.” His mural in Munich in 2009 used 9,000 custom-made children’s backpacks to spell out his message: “She lived happily in this world for seven years.”这件新作令人想起艾未未对2008年四川地震的反应。很多学生因质量低劣的校舍建筑在地震中死去,艾未未确认了这些学生的身份后,创作了可能是他最有力量的装置作品《记住》。这是2009年他在慕尼黑的墙体装置艺术,使用了9000个特别定制的学生背包,拼出了他的信息:“她在这个世界上开心地生活过七年”。His Lego work likewise provides a visual accounting, creating conceptually a community of prisoners too large to be ignored.他的这件乐高作品也同样提供了一种视觉记述,从概念上创作出一群巨大到无法忽视的囚犯。“I think it’s a big leap for Weiwei, addressing free speech issues and human rights violations not just in China but globally,” said Cheryl Haines, the founder of For-Site. Asked whether his broader focus could help protect him from retaliation or reincarceration by his own government, she responded: “I honestly don’t know the answer. The Chinese government is so unpredictable in its responses.”“我认为这是艾未未的飞跃,它表达出言论自由问题与对人权的侵犯不只在中国有,也是全球问题,”For-Site的创始人谢里尔·海恩斯(Cheryl Haines)说。在问到他这种更为广泛的关注是否会免遭中国政府的报复或再次监禁时,海恩斯答道:“我真的不知道。中国政府的反应太难预测了。”Mr. Ai, long a fan of clay bricks for their simplicity, said the idea of toy bricks came in part from witnessing his 5-year-old son’s “endless passion” for Legos. “They are very simple and straightforward, but can also be easily destroyed and taken apart, y to be remade and reimagined,” he wrote. “I like the idea of using this language and material as an expression of human nature and the hand of creation.”艾未未长期以来都喜欢砖块的简洁,他说使用玩具积木这个主意部分是来自他五岁的儿子对乐高积木“无穷的热情”。“它们简单直接,但可以轻易被摧毁和分解,随时可以进行重建和重新想象,”他写道。“我喜欢运用这种语言和材料来表达人性与造物主之手的想法。”He largely managed the assembly process from his Beijing studio. He made several sample Lego portraits before generating digital blueprints for the full suite, breaking down each portrait into four or more templates used by the volunteers. To keep details of the show under wraps until completion, volunteers were never shown images of the full artwork.他主要是在北京的工作室管理组装过程。他做了几个乐高肖像样品,之后又制作了整套作品的数码设计图,把每个肖像分解为四个或更多供志愿者使用的模版。为了在完成之前不泄露展览的细节,志愿者们都没有看过完整作品的图像。He also sent three assistants from his studio to California to coordinate the Lego project, and two others (“different skill sets,” he noted) to install near it a massive dragon kite made by Chinese artisans from traditional bamboo and fabric. The body of the kite features emblems of some 30 countries implicated in “Trace.”他还派遣工作室的三名助手到加利福尼亚协助完成这个乐高项目,并派另外两人(“不同的技能”他说)去安装旁边的一个巨大的龙风筝,它由传统的竹子和织物制成,由中国手工艺人制作。风筝的身体上有“Trace”中涉及的大约30个左右的国家的象征图案。The kite is “symbolic of freedom,” he wrote, even more so within a prison setting. The work also has personal associations, from his boyhood in the 1960s, when he built a kite with his father, the poet Ai Qing, who by then had been banished by Mao’s regime to the Gobi Desert and forced to clean toilets.艾未未写道,这个风筝是“自由的象征”,特别是它被放置在一个监狱的环境里。这件作品也有个人化的联想,涉及他的童年,那是20世纪60年代,他和父亲,诗人艾青一起做了一个风筝,艾青当时被毛泽东政府流放到戈壁沙漠,被迫做清扫厕所的劳动。The family lived in a hole dug in the earth. To build a kite, father and son obtained the bamboo rods from a neighbor’s door curtain and “collected string from all families nearby,” Mr. Ai wrote.全家人生活在一个地上挖出的洞里。为了做风筝,父子两人弄来邻居门帘上的竹篾,还“去附近所有人家讨来了线,”艾未未写道。“All materials were precious,” he continued. “I will never forget the first time I saw the kite hanging far from us in the wind, so far out that our eyes had to search for its position in the sky.”“所有材料都很珍贵,”他写道,“我永远不会忘记第一次看着风筝在风中高飞时的情形,飞那么高,我们只得在空中搜寻它的位置。”Another installation, set in the penitentiary dining hall, allows visitors to send postcards to many of the prisoners in “Trace,” a gesture inspired by Mr. Ai’s memory of his own acute loneliness when detained. Clusters of tiny porcelain flowers planted in toilets and sinks of the hospital examination rooms reflect his penchant for using this traditional material in unlikely ways.另一件装置放在监狱的犯人饭厅,参观者可以写明信片给“Trace”中涉及的许多囚犯,灵感来自艾未未对自己拘押期间极度孤独感的记忆。在医疗检查室内,有一簇簇小小的陶瓷花朵从马桶和水槽里生长出来,这反映出他以不太可能的方式使用传统材料的倾向。Though Mr. Ai, 57, is Internet-savvy, with more than 250,000 Twitter followers, he is blocked from visiting certain websites and has slow download times like other Chinese residents. He thus relied on For-Site as his collaborator on one research-intensive, permissions-heavy art work in particular: a sound installation in Cell Block A. The cells, usually closed to tourists, look decrepit, their paint peeling and plumbing corroded, but 12 will be opened for visitors to enter, sit on a stool and listen to recordings by famous political prisoners, from the music of Fela Kuti of Nigeria and Pussy Riot, the Russian feminist group, to poetry ings by Liao Yiwu of China and Mahjoub Sharif, who died in April in Sudan.艾未未57岁,精通互联网,在Twitter上有超过25万名关注者,但他和其他中国居民一样,某些特定网站无法访问,有时下载速度很慢。A区牢房的声音装置展品需要大量研究和许可工作,因此在这个展品上他需要依靠For-Site这个合作者。这些牢房,通常不对游客开放,它们看上去非常破旧,油漆斑驳,水管已遭腐蚀,但是其中12间将向参观者开放,允许他们入内,坐在一个凳子上倾听若干著名政治犯的录音,其中包括尼加拉瓜的费拉·库蒂(Fela Kuti)与俄罗斯的女性主义团体“Pussy Riot”的音乐,还有中国的廖亦武以及今年四月在苏丹去世的马乔布·谢里夫(Mahjoub Sharif)的诗朗诵。Ms. Haines of For-Site played a critical role in the project, raising .5 million from mainly private sources to cover expenses, including 0,000 for Legos. No government money was provided, but she worked closely on research and visitor logistics with the National Park Service, which oversees Alcatraz, and the Golden Gate National Parks Conservancy, a nonprofit group.For-Site的海恩斯女士在这个项目中起到了关键作用,她筹集了350万美元的经费,主要是来自私人,其中46万美元来自乐高公司。没有任何来自政府的资金。但她与负责监管阿尔卡特拉斯的美国国家公园与非盈利组织金门国家公园管理处密切合作,进行研究工作和游客接待工作。Back in 2011, while Mr. Ai was imprisoned, she was busy organizing an exhibition on the Golden Gate Bridge, tied to its 75th anniversary. It provided a good vantage for looking out at Alcatraz. “I kept thinking this would be a great place to activate with art,” she said.2011年,艾未未被监禁的时候,海恩斯正忙于在金门大桥组织一个和金门大桥落成75周年有关的展览。从那里可以很好地眺望阿尔卡特拉斯岛。“我一直都在想,这里会是一个进行艺术活动的好地方,”她说。Visiting Mr. Ai’s studio in Beijing after his release, Ms. Haines planted the seed with him. “I immediately accepted her offer,” he wrote.艾未未获释后,海恩斯去他的工作室拜访,为他带去了这个想法。“我立即接受了她的建议,”艾未未写道。On later visits, she brought him at his studio, which she describes as “very calm and well organized,” books and movies exploring the history and legends of Alcatraz, photographs of the prison, and site plans of buildings. In April, she carried in three conspicuous suitcases filled with Legos because his studio was unable to obtain enough for its prototypes. But customs officials never questioned her about them.海恩斯说,艾未未的工作室“非常安静,井井有条”,后来再去拜访时,她带去了有关阿尔卡特拉斯的历史与传奇的书籍和录像,监狱的照片,还有建筑的平面图。四月,她带去了三个引人瞩目的手提箱,里面装满乐高积木,因为他的工作室无法买到足够的做模型用的积木。但海关官员并未就这些积木对她进行询问。“In most cases, the authorities will not interfere with my art practice,” Mr. Ai explained. “Normally, interference only happens after the exhibition has aly begun.”艾未未说,“在大多数情况下,官方不会干预我的艺术实践;一般情况下,干扰是在作品开始展览后发生。”Conveying the physical facts of the prison to him was easy, she said. “What’s harder to communicate is the emotive or sensory content, the feeling you have walking into a room,” she said, describing the oddly calming light of the psychiatric ward, for example. “That’s something I tried more to do with him in person.”她说,向他传达监狱外观方面的资料并不难,“难的是传达情感或感知的内容,就是走进一个房间的感觉,”比如说,精神病人监护室里那种奇异而宁静的灯光,“这是我努力去亲身向他传递的东西。”She described her role as facilitator and curator, adding: “It’s Weiwei’s work. It’s his vision through and through.”她把自己的角色描述为协调者与策展人,并说:“这是未未的作品,从头到尾都是他的设想。”Richard Koshalek, who was director of the Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden when it organized its 2012 Ai Weiwei survey, said he, too, relied heavily on an outside curator — Mami Kataoka of Tokyo — as liaison because of the artist’s travel constraints.2012年赫希洪物馆和雕塑园主办艾未未展期间,理查德·科沙莱克(Richard Koshalek)担任馆长,他说,当时艾未未由于旅行受到限制,同样需要一位外部策展人,即来自东京的片冈美作为联络人。While Mr. Koshalek has not seen the Alcatraz exhibition, he described the concept as “very important for the city of San Francisco” for “going beyond museums and galleries to take universal issues of human rights directly into a public site, a site with a huge history of despair, penance and rage.”科沙莱克还没有看过阿尔卡特拉斯的展览,但他说这个概念“对于旧金山来说非常重要”,因为它“超越了物馆与画廊的范畴,把人权方面普遍存在的问题直接带入一个公共场所,而这个场所又有着失望、悔罪与愤怒的宏大历史。”The show is not designed to drive more tourist traffic to Alcatraz Island, which the National Park Service says is aly near capacity with 1.4 million to 1.5 million visitors a year. (Standard ferry tickets to Alcatraz, for adults, include access to the “@Large” exhibition at no extra charge.) Visitor numbers are capped to protect the site, a seabird habitat as well as a historic landmark.展览并非为了吸引更多游客来到阿尔卡特拉斯岛,国家公园说,公园每年的游客已接近140万人至150万人(到阿尔卡特拉斯岛的普通轮渡票是成人30美元,看“@Large”展览不另行收费)。为保护海鸟栖居地和历史建筑,设置了参观者人数上限。Initially, Mr. Ai envisioned visitors walking on the Lego portraits, not unlike the way museumgoers at the Tate Modern in London stepped on his carpet of one million hand-painted porcelain “sunflower seeds” in 2010 (until halted by hazardous levels of dust).艾未未最初的设想是让参观者在乐高肖像上走过,有点像2010年他在伦敦泰特现代艺术馆的展览,人们可以从地面上铺满的100万颗手绘的瓷质“葵花籽”上走过(后来因为行走扬起的灰尘达到危险程度而被中止)。This summer, the Alcatraz plans changed: Having 5,000 sightseers daily walking on “Trace” was ruled out, Mr. Ai said, for “technical and safety reasons.”今年夏天,阿尔卡特拉斯岛改变了计划,每日让5000名参观者从“Trace”上走过的方案被排除,艾未未说,是出于“技术与安全原因”。Then there is the change he would have made to “Trace” given a slightly different timeline — a reminder that any artwork about political dissidents is bound to be a work in progress.由于发生时间的微小差异,艾未未本来或许可以对“Trace”做出一个改动——这提醒人们,任何关于政治异见者的艺术作品都注定是不断发展的。He would have added an image of the Chinese civil rights lawyer Pu Zhiqiang, who represented Mr. Ai during his detention and was himself arrested in June as part of a broader push in China to punish even moderate reformers.他本来可以把中国人权律师浦志强的肖像加进去,在艾未未被拘禁期间,浦志强曾是他的律师。今年6月,浦志强亦遭到逮捕,这是中国打击较为温和改革者的广泛行动的一部分。“I did not put him in ‘Trace,’ because I believed he would be released right away,” Mr. Ai wrote. “Time has proven that I was wrong. He has committed no crime and is still in jail. It is a massive shame that an advocate with such a strong voice has been completely silenced.”“我没有把他加入‘Trace’,是因为我相信届时他应该已经被释放了,”艾未未写道,“时间明我是错的。他并没有犯任何罪,现在还被关在监狱。一个这样强大的声音被彻底噤声,这真是巨大的耻辱。” /201410/332592

Every time you enter the supermarket, you#39;re being manipulated. By design, all of the basics you#39;re just dropping by to pick up lie on the far side of a sea of temptation: the eggs, milk, and b are blocked by fruit snacks, those fancy new chips, and a display of artisanal beef jerky. If that wasn’t enough, your kids are targets too: all the cereal at the eye level of a child sitting in a shopping cart is pasted with cartoon blandishments, the better to lure them in with.每每进超市,你都控。你本来是来买鸡蛋、牛奶、面包这些必需品的,但是超市将这些东西都设计在很远的地方,要买到它们,你必须穿过无数诱惑:果蔬小吃、新款薯片、手工牛肉干摆放区。如果这样你都无动于衷,那还有你的孩子:坐在购物车里的孩子平视之处就是谷类食品,上面的卡通图案就像在“召唤”他们。But could we be manipulated for the better? The average food manufacturer has little reason to divert us from their high-fat, high-sugar, high-deliciousness products. Yet given that we are aly being influenced, one can wonder whether stores might eventually see the benefit – perhaps administered through public health-related tax cuts – to making the produce section into a wonderland that has the kids screaming for kale。但我们能不能控着去买更健康的食物呢?生产商没有理由劝我们不买大众偏爱的高脂、高糖、高香精食品。但既然我们已经被影响了,有人就想了,店家最终能否看清个中利益呢——或许,公众健康类税收优惠是个解决之道——把食品区变成一个乐园,让每个孩子都争着抢着要甘蓝菜。Even within our current stores, it isn#39;t difficult to nudge people in a better direction, at least in the short term. Esther Papies, a professor of social psychology at Utrecht University in the Netherlands, found that handing out recipe flyers at a store entrance that included words like ;healthy; and ;low-calorie; caused people who were overweight or dieting to subconsciously buy fewer snacks. They took a whopping 75% fewer snack items to the checkouts than those who received the control flier, which did not have the health-related terms on it. Seeing those words – being primed by them – activated people#39;s existing goals and reminded them what they could do now to meet them, without the shoppers really taking notice, says Papies。至少短期来看,即使在目前的商店内,要把顾客引往健康食品区也不是太难。荷兰乌得勒大学(Utrecht University)社会心理学教授埃斯特·佩皮斯(Esther Papies)发现,在商店入口发放印有“健康”和“低卡路里”字样的食谱传单,能让超重和节食人群下意识地少买些零食。比起那些拿到未印有健康信息传单的人来说,前者少买了75%的零食。佩皮斯说,看看这些词的魔力,它能潜移默化地激励人们从现在做起,提醒他们努力实现目标。Other tricks have been proposed by Brian Wansink, a professor of consumer behaviour at Cornell who#39;s well known for his research into the psychology of eating. Some of his latest work takes an earlier finding – that people increase their fruit and vegetable intake by 24% if they are told that half of their dinner plate should be reserved for these foods – and applies it to supermarket shopping. Wansink found that dividing a grocery cart in two, with half to be used only for fruits, vegetables, dairy, and meat, causes people to spend more than twice as much on fruits and vegetables than people without a partition – .65 versus .82 on fruits and .19 versus .17 on vegetables. The idea is that the partition implies the existence of a social norm that consumers try to meet。 因研究饮食心理而闻名的康奈尔大学消费者行为学教授布莱恩·文森克(Brian Wansink)也揭秘了一些小伎俩。他近期的一些研究也用到了早期的发现——如果告诉消费者,他们的餐盘要留一半放水果和蔬菜,人们会多吃24%的果蔬——超市购物亦是如此。文森克发现,将购物车一分为二,其中一半规定只能放水果、蔬菜、奶制品和肉制品,此类消费者会比一般人多买一倍多的水果蔬菜——水果:.65比.82,蔬菜:.19比.17。秘诀就是,划分让消费者觉得这是一种社会规范,他们就会尽量去做到。 /201410/336236

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