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上海市徐汇区宛平地段医院激光去掉雀斑多少钱飞度云乐园

2019年06月16日 14:44:20 | 作者:99知识 | 来源:新华社

In the past few decades, the fortunate among us have recognised the hazards of living with an overabundance of food (obesity, diabetes) and have started to change our diets. But most of us do not yet understand that news is to the mind what sugar is to the body. News is easy to digest. The media feeds us small bites of trivial matter, tidbits that don#39;t really concern our lives and don#39;t require thinking. That#39;s why we experience almost no saturation. Unlike ing books and long magazine articles (which require thinking), we can swallow limitless quantities of news flashes, which are bright-coloured candies for the mind.Today, we have reached the same point in relation to information that we faced 20 years ago in regard to food. We are beginning to recognise how toxic news can be.过去几十年,我们有幸认识到过量饮食的危害(例如导致肥胖和糖尿病),进而开始改变饮食结构。但是,大多数人并不知道新闻之于思维,如同糖类之于身体。媒体奉上的逸闻趣事、琐碎信息其实与我们的生活无甚关联,但易于理解,读起来并不费脑。因此我们对新闻从未有过饱足感。与阅读书籍和长篇杂志文章(这些都需要边读边思考)相比,无数闪现在眼前的小段新闻更加易于“吞噬”。对于思维,它们就像五缤纷的糖果。如今,新闻对于我们来讲如同20年前的食物一样,人们逐渐意识到,新闻可能也是有害的。News misleads. Take the following event (borrowed from Nassim Taleb). A car drives over a bridge, and the bridge collapses. What does the news media focus on? The car. The person in the car. Where he came from. Where he planned to go. How he experienced the crash (if he survived). But that is all irrelevant. What#39;s relevant? The structural stability of the bridge. That#39;s the underlying risk that has been lurking, and could lurk in other bridges. But the car is flashy, it#39;s dramatic, it#39;s a person (non-abstract), and it#39;s news that#39;s cheap to produce.News leads us to walk around with the completely wrong risk map in our heads.So terrorism is over-rated. Chronic stress is under-rated. The collapse of Lehman Brothers is overrated. Fiscal irresponsibility is under-rated. Astronauts are over-rated. Nurses are under-rated.新闻产生误导。下面借用纳西姆·塔勒布[1]的一个例子:一辆车驶过一座桥,结果桥塌了。这则新闻的重点是什么呢?是这辆车,是车里的人—他从哪里来,要到哪儿去?(如果他幸免于难)这场事故经过是怎样的?然而,这些都无关紧要。什么才是至关重要的呢?是大桥的结构稳定性。它暗含着重大风险,而同样的风险还可能存在于其他桥梁。但是新闻中却充斥着这辆车如何光鲜亮丽,遭遇如何扣人心弦的信息,甚至把它刻画成一个人物(非抽象的)。如此报道,毫无价值。新闻给大脑一张全然错误的风险地图,让我们偏离了重点。正因如此,恐怖主义、雷曼兄弟破产以及宇航员这类主题被过度渲染,而慢性精神压力、财政失责以及医护人员这类主题却报道不足。We are not rational enough to be exposed to the press. Watching an airplane crash on television is going to change your attitude toward that risk, regardless of its real probability. If you think you can compensate with the strength of your own inner contemplation, you are wrong. Bankers and economists – who have powerful incentives to compensate for news-borne hazards – have shown that they cannot. The only solution: cut yourself off from news consumption entirely.面对媒体,我们尚不够理性。看到电视里报道飞机失事,也不管这种概率实际有多大,人们很容易就改变自己对此类风险的看法。如果你以为能通过内心的深思熟虑抵消这种影响,那么你错了。事实表明,家和经济学家纵然利用强大的手段也无法弥补新闻导致的危害。唯一解决之道是:与新闻完全隔绝。News is irrelevant. Out of the approximately 10,000 news stories you have in the last 12 months, name one that – because you consumed it – allowed you to make a better decision about a serious matter affecting your life, your career or your business. The point is: the consumption of news is irrelevant to you. But people find it very difficult to recognise what#39;s relevant. It#39;s much easier to recognise what#39;s new. The relevant versus the new is the fundamental battle of the current age. Media organisations want you to believe that news offers you some sort of a competitive advantage. Many fall for that. We get anxious when we#39;re cut off from the flow of news. In reality, news consumption is a competitive disadvantage. The less news you consume, the bigger the advantage you have.新闻无关紧要。在你最近一年中阅读的上万条资讯中,很难找出这样一条新闻:因为读了它,让你面临人生、职场或事业的重大问题时做出了更好的决定。原因在于,你所读的新闻与你自身毫无关系。人们很难辨别哪些新闻与自己有关系,但是很容易知道哪些是新的。当今时代,关联度和新颖性是一对基本矛盾。媒体想让人们觉得新闻可以为之提供某种竞争优势,而许多人竟信以为真。一旦与新闻隔绝,我们就焦躁不安。而事实上,新闻只会令人在竞争中处于劣势。读的新闻越少,你的优势反而越多。News has no explanatory power. News items are bubbles popping on the surface of a deeper world. Will accumulating facts help you understand the world? Sadly, no. The relationship is inverted. The important stories are non-stories: slow, powerful movements that develop below journalists#39; radar but have a transforming effect. The more ;news factoids; you digest, the less of the big picture you will understand. If more information leads to higher economic success, we#39;d expect journalists to be at the top of the pyramid. That#39;s not the case.新闻无法解释世界。新闻不过是浮于表面的水泡,现实世界深藏其下。不断积累事实有助于你了解这个世界吗?很遗憾,不能。恰恰相反,真正重要的事实并没有报道出来。它们不为记者关注,发展缓慢,却拥有改变一切的强大能量。你对杜撰新闻消费得越多,你对现实宏图的了解就越少。如果资讯越多,经济就越繁荣,那我们真该期望记者们稳坐金字塔顶端。但事实绝非如此。News is toxic to your body. It constantly triggers the limbic system . Panicky stories spur the release of cascades of glucocorticoid (cortisol). This deregulates your immune system and inhibits the release of growth hormones. In other words, your body finds itself in a state of chronic stress. High glucocorticoid levels cause impaired digestion, lack of growth (cell, hair, bone), nervousness and susceptibility to infections. The other potential side-effects include fear, aggression, tunnel-vision and desensitisation.新闻毒害身体。它不断触动大脑边缘系统。令人恐慌的新闻使人体内糖皮质激素(皮质醇)呈级联式分泌,导致免疫系统紊乱,抑制生长荷尔蒙分泌。也就是说,使身体长期处于精神压力之下。高糖皮质激素水平还导致消化功能受损、(细胞、毛发和骨骼)生长缓慢、情绪紧张,让人容易感染疾病。其他潜在副作用还包括:恐惧感、攻击性、视野狭窄和麻木不仁。News increases cognitive errors. News feeds the mother of all cognitive errors: confirmation bias. In the words of Warren Buffett: ;What the human being is best at doing is interpreting all new information so that their prior conclusions remain intact.; News exacerbates this flaw. We become prone to overconfidence, take stupid risks and misjudge opportunities. It also exacerbates another cognitive error: the story bias. Our brains crave stories that ;make sense; – even if they don#39;t correspond to reality. Any journalist who writes, ;The market moved because of X; or ;the company went bankrupt because of Y; is an idiot. I am fed up with this cheap way of ;explaining; the world.新闻增加认知错误。新闻为“确认偏误”[2]提供养分,而后者正是一切认知错误的源泉。沃伦·巴菲特曾说“人类最擅长将所有新信息都解释一通,以确保先前的结论不受影响。”新闻则是这种缺陷的帮凶,使我们过于自信,盲目冒险,错判时机。此外,新闻还助长了另一种认知错误:新闻偏见。大脑渴望“有意义”的新闻,即便这些新闻与事实不符。弱智记者在稿子中解释“市场因为某某原因而波动”或者“公司因为某某原因而破产”,见解之拙劣,令我不胜其烦。News inhibits thinking. Thinking requires concentration. Concentration requires uninterrupted time. News pieces are specifically engineered to interrupt you. They are like viruses that steal attention for their own purposes. News makes us shallow thinkers. But it#39;s worse than that. News severely affects memory. There are two types of memory. Long-range memory#39;s capacity is nearly infinite, but working memory is limited to a certain amount of slippery data. The path from short-term to long-term memory is a choke-point in the brain, but anything you want to understand must pass through it. If this passageway is disrupted, nothing gets through. Because news disrupts concentration, it weakens comprehension. Online news has an even worse impact. In a 2001 study two scholars in Canada showed that comprehension declines as the number of hyperlinks in a document increases. Why? Because whenever a link appears, your brain has to at least make the choice not to click, which in itself is distracting. News is an intentional interruption system.新闻抑制思考。只有免受打扰才能集中注意力,进而潜心思考。新闻片段却似乎是专为打断思考而设计。它们如同病毒,为了一己之私分散人的注意力,令我们无法深入思考。更糟糕的是,新闻严重损害。记忆分两种:长期记忆和短期记忆。前者潜力近乎无限,后者却仅限于一定数量的不确切信息。短期记忆转化为长期记忆是大脑的一项瓶颈,但要形成对事物的理解,这一关不可逾越。如果这一过程中断,我们什么都学不会。新闻打断注意力,从而弱化了理解力。网络新闻的负面影响则更为严重。2001年,两位加拿大学者曾做过一项研究。他们发现,文章中链接越多,人们的理解力就下降得越快。原因何在?因为一旦出现链接,大脑就至少得做出是否点击的决定,这本身就是在分散注意力。可见,新闻是专门打断思维的机器。News works like a drug. As stories develop, we want to know how they continue. With hundreds of arbitrary storylines in our heads, this craving is increasingly compelling and hard to ignore. Scientists used to think that the dense connections formed among the 100 billion neurons inside our skulls were largely fixed by the time we reached adulthood. Today we know that this is not the case. Nerve cells routinely break old connections and form new ones. The more news we consume, the more we exercise the neural circuits devoted to skimming and multitasking while ignoring those used for ing deeply and thinking with profound focus. Most news consumers – even if they used to be avid book ers – have lost the ability to absorb lengthy articles or books.After four, five pages they get tired, their concentration vanishes, they become restless. It#39;s not because they got older or their schedules became more onerous.It#39;s because the physical structure of their brains has changed.新闻就像毒品。随着新闻事件发展,我们想知道接下来发生了什么。脑子里那几百种故事情节令好奇心愈发难以抗拒,挥之不去。过去,科学家们认为大脑内上千亿神经元间的紧密联系大部分在我们成年之前就固定下来。而今,我们发现事实并非如此。神经细胞之间不断打破旧联系,形成新联系,如同例行公事一般。接触的新闻越多,大脑就要越发频繁地启动用于略读和多重任务处理的神经回路,忽略用于深度阅读和专注思考的神经回路。多数新闻读者(即使他们曾经热衷读书)已经失去了理解长篇文章或书籍的能力,仅仅阅读四、五页,就无法集中注意力,且心生厌倦,烦躁不已。这并非因为年龄增长或者事务繁重,而是因为大脑生理构造发生了改变。News wastes time. If you the newspaper for 15 minutes each morning, then check the news for 15 minutes during lunch and 15 minutes before you go to bed, then add five minutes here and there when you#39;re at work, then count distraction and refocusing time, you will lose at least half a day every week.Information is no longer a scarce commodity. But attention is. You are not that irresponsible with your money, reputation or health. Why give away your mind?新闻浪费时间。如果你每天早晨、午餐时和睡觉前各花15分钟读新闻,工作中再不时抽出5分钟来看新闻,不妨计算一下注意力分散和重新找回所耗时间。你会发现每周至少半天时间就这么浪费了。新闻不再是稀缺商品,而注意力却是。你不会不在乎金钱、名誉和健康,可为什么却不把思维当回事呢?News makes us passive. News stories are overwhelmingly about things you cannot influence. The daily repetition of news about things we can#39;t act upon makes us passive. It grinds us down until we adopt a worldview that is pessimistic, desensitised, sarcastic and fatalistic. The scientific term is ;learned helplessness;. It#39;s a bit of a stretch, but I would not be surprised if news consumption, at least partially contributes to the widesp disease of depression.新闻令人消极。绝大多数新闻里讲述的都是我们无法改变的事。每天反复阅读新闻,因无法左右现实而饱受折磨,我们就会变得消极。久而久之,或悲观厌世,或麻木不仁,喜欢冷嘲热讽,凡事听天由命。这一现象在科学上称为“习得性无助”。也许这么说有点言过其实,但是新闻消费至少在一定程度上导致抑郁症流行。对此我并不感到意外。News kills creativity. Finally, things we aly know limit our creativity. This is one reason that mathematicians, novelists, composers and entrepreneurs often produce their most creative works at a young age. Their brains enjoy a wide, uninhabited space that emboldens them to come up with and pursue novel ideas. I don#39;t know a single truly creative mind who is a news junkie – not a writer, not a composer, mathematician, physician, scientist, musician, designer, architect or painter. On the other hand, I know a bunch of viciously uncreative minds who consume news like drugs. If you want to come up with old solutions, news. If you are looking for new solutions, don#39;t.新闻扼杀创造力。这是我要讲的最后一点。已知信息限制了创造力。这也是为什么数学家、小说家、作曲家和企业家最有创造力的成绩产生于年轻时期。他们脑海中有片广袤无垠、人迹罕至的天地,在这里他们可以大胆追求新奇想法。据我所知,那些有创造力的人,无论是作家、作曲家、数学家、科学家、音乐家、画家,还是医师、设计师或建筑师,没有谁是新闻“瘾君子”。另一方面,大量极度缺乏创造力的人却像吸毒一样对新闻成瘾。想墨守成规?看新闻吧。想别出心裁?还是别看了。Society needs journalism – but in a different way. Investigative journalism is always relevant. We need reporting that polices our institutions and uncovers truth. But important findings don#39;t have to arrive in the form of news. Long journal articles and in-depth books are good, too.社会需要新闻行业,但不是现在这种局面。调查性新闻报道往往能切中要害,而我们的报道就应该发挥监督各类机构和揭露事实真相的作用。不过,重大发现不一定非得以新闻形式体现。长篇杂志文章以及有深度的书籍也是上佳选择。I have now gone without news for four years, so I can see, feel and report the effects of this freedom first-hand: less disruption, less anxiety, deeper thinking, more time, more insights. It#39;s not easy, but it#39;s worth it.近四年,我摆脱新闻的束缚,转而选择去看,去感觉。我的切身体会是:内心不再焦虑彷徨,可以深度思考而不被打断,有了更多时间来洞察世事。虽得之不易,但物有所值。 /201401/271224

In recent years, a debate has raged on among publishing and advertising industry insiders over “sponsored content”—more recently called “native advertising” and once known as “advertorial”—the sort of advertising that looks very much like editorial content but is, in fact, directly paid for by an advertiser.近年来在出版和广告行业中,关于“赞助内容”或曰“原生广告”、“软广告”的争论甚嚣尘上。顾名思义,“赞助内容”指的就是那些看起来很像网友的热心,实质上却是由广告主直接付钱打造的广告。The approach has been embraced by newer digital ventures such as BuzzFeed and new digital efforts for very old publications like Forbes and The Atlantic. Industry peers watched and discussed: Is it deceptive? Is it ethical? Does it even work?现在,这种广告模式不仅被BuzzFeed等新兴的网络公司所采用,就连《福布斯》(Forbes )和《大西洋月刊》( The Atlantic)等老牌媒体也打上了软广告的主意。业内人士在观察之余不免议论纷纷:软广告是不是骗人的?是不是不道德?还有,它究竟有没有效果?Whatever the answers, there’s no denying that the approach is suddenly in vogue. Storied news organizations such as the Washington Post, Wall Street Journal and New York Times NYT have since taken the native plunge. (Fortune has also decided to engage in the practice.) Last year, advertisers spent .4 billion on native ads, a 77% jump over 2012. That same year, the Post’s CRO called native ads “a spiritual journey.” (Really.)不管这些问题的是什么,不可否认的是,这种做广告的方法眼下已经悄然时兴起来。《华盛顿邮报》(the Washington Post)、《华尔街日报》(Wall Street Journal)、《纽约时报》(New York Times )等大牌报刊也会隔三岔五发几篇软文。【《财富》(Fortune )也决定不再置身事外。】去年广告主们花在软广告上的金额达到了24亿美元,比2012年跃升了77%。同年,《华盛顿邮报》的研究总监将软广告誉为“一场心灵的旅程”。(这是真的。)Native ads may be popular with publishers, but consumers are not in love, according to a new survey conducted by Contently, a startup that connects brands with writers who then create sponsored content. (Yes, the survey runs counter to Contently’s mission; more on that in a moment.)根据Contently公司近日发表的一篇调查显示,软广告虽然受到了出版商的欢迎,但消费者却对它很不感冒。作为一家创业公司,Contently的主要业务就是给品牌和软文写手牵线搭桥,因此这篇调查的结果可以说简直与Contently的目标背道而驰。Two-thirds of the survey’s respondents said they felt deceived when they realized an article or was sponsored by a brand. Just over half said they didn’t trust branded content, regardless of what it was about. Fifty-nine percent said they believe that a news site that runs sponsored content loses credibility—although they also said they view branded content as slightly more trustworthy than Fox News.有三分之二的受访者表示,一旦他们意识到一篇文章或一段视频是由某个品牌赞助的,他们会觉得受到了欺骗。超过半数的受访者表示他们不会相信软广告,不管它是关于什么的。59%的受访者认为,一个新闻网站如果登载了软广告便会失去公信力——不过尽管如此,他们还是觉得软广告的可信度好歹要比《福克斯新闻》(than Fox News)强上那么一丁点。Publishers and advertisers tend to respond to concerns of confusion or credibility with the same response: “It’s clearly labeled!” Simple disclosure solves all conflicts, they suggest. Readers are smart enough to figure it out, and critics don’t give them enough credit.软广告是否会造成误解以及损害公信力?出版商和广告主们对这个问题经常用同一句话回答:“它已经标明是‘赞助内容’了!”以读者们聪明的智商是应该能看出来的,批评人士似乎也有点矫枉过正了。To wit: “They get the drill,” said Lewis Dvorkin, the True/Slant founder who led the massive expansion of the Forbes contributor network and its sponsored BrandVoice program, at an event last year. Likewise, Times publisher Arthur Sulzberger Jr. has said the native ads on the newspaper’s website are clearly labeled to ensure there are no doubts about “what is Times journalism and what is advertising.”也就是像新闻平台True/Slant的创始人刘易斯o德沃金所说的一样,它们都“打了标签”。在德沃金的领导下,《福布斯》的供稿人网络获得了极大的拓展,而且德沃金还负责了《福布斯》赞助的“品牌之声”(BrandVoice)项目。《纽约时报》出版人小亚瑟o苏兹伯格也表示,报刊网站上的软广告都清楚地打了标签,以便确保读者明白“什么是《纽约时报》的新闻报道,什么是广告”。But Contently’s findings, based on a survey of 542 people, throw cold water on the notion that ers “get the drill.” According to the study, ers are confused about what “sponsored” even means: When they see the label “Sponsored Content,” half of them think it means that a sponsor paid for and influenced the article. One-fifth of them think the content is produced by an editorial team but “a sponsor’s money allowed it to happen.” Eighteen percent think the sponsor merely paid for its name to be next to the article. Thirteen percent think it means the sponsor actually wrote the article. Even the U.S. Federal Trade Commission is perplexed; a panel on native advertising last year “raised more questions than it answered.”但Contently公司这份基于542人的调查却给两人的观点泼了一瓢冷水。据这份调查显示,读者一般并不明白“赞助”二字的含义,当他们看见“赞助内容”的标签时,一半人心中想的是,赞助商花钱买来写手吹捧自己,而且肯定影响了这篇文章。有五分之一的读者认为,这篇软文的内容是由一编辑团队打造的,但是“有了赞助商的钱才有了它。”18%的读者认为,赞助商只是花钱买下了文章旁边的冠名权。还有13%的读者认为文章干脆就是赞助商自己写的。就连美国联邦贸易委员会(the U.S. Federal Trade Commission)对软广告也是一知半解。去年,它的一个专门委员会开会讨论软广告,但是这次会议“提出的问题比解答的问题还多”。It gets worse. When ers do know what “sponsored” means, they still feel deceived. Fifty-seven percent of the study’s participants said they would prefer that their favorite news sites run banner ads over sponsored posts. (The irony: Native ads were supposed to be the highly engaging innovation to kill the lowly banner ad.) Only 18.7% of respondents said they prefer sponsored posts because they’re more interesting. Two-thirds of respondents said they are less likely to click on an article sponsored by a brand. From the perspective of a er, sponsored content doesn’t look like a spiritual journey at all.更糟糕的是,等到读者真正明白了“赞助”的含义,他们就会感到受到了欺骗。有75%的受访者表示,他们宁可自己喜欢的新闻网站打出横幅式广告,也不愿意看到广告软文。(讽刺的是,很多人都认为软广告是一种非常能得到消费者共鸣的创新,足以“杀死”低端的横幅广告。)只有18.7%的受访者表示喜欢软广告,因为他们觉得软广告更有意思。三分之二的受访者表示,他们不太可能点击一篇由某个品牌赞助的文章。从读者的角度看,软广告貌似根本就不是什么“心灵的旅程”。In fairness, people rarely cop to the fact that they enjoy advertising or that it works on them. This is why, every few years, a survey is released claiming that social media ads, particularly those on Facebook FB 3.52% , don’t work. That may be the case, but I doubt brands would continue to pour billions of dollars into social media advertising—.3 billion this year—if it were.平心而论,人们很少承认他们喜欢广告或是他们会受广告影响的事实。正因为如此,每隔几年都会冒出来一篇调查,声称社交媒体广告(尤其是Facebook上的)不管用。这或许也是实情,但若果真如此,我真不知道各大品牌为何还会每年狂洒几十亿美元在社交媒体上打广告(今年是83亿美元)。But there is no denying that ers’ response to sponsored content is negative and especially strong. The findings of Contently’s survey follow data released earlier this year by Chartbeat, a web analytics company, showing that only 24% of ers scroll through sponsored content, versus 71% for editorial content.不容否认,读者对软广告的反应是负面的,而且非常强烈。就在Contently的调查发布之前不久,网络分析公司Chartbeat也就这个问题进行了调查。调查显示,只有24%的读者有耐心看完一篇软文,而71%的读者会看完一篇正常编辑内容。You may wonder what all this means for a company like Contently, which is built on the premise that branded content will become a huge part of the marketing industry. Concluding its study, the company suggests with a dose of optimism that brands and publishers will eventually figure things out before they turn ers off completely.大家可能会问,以上所说的这些对于Contently这样的公司究竟意味着什么,因为只有软广告在营销市场上大有作为,Contently的业务才可能有钱赚。在调查报告的结尾处,Contently还是给传媒界打了一针强心剂,称各大品牌和传媒最终还是会在彻底惹怒读者之前,找到问题的解决办法。Contently points to the Times, Mashable, and BuzzFeed: Times ers spend as much time ing sponsored content as regular editorial, says the executive in charge of the Times’ sponsored content. The same goes for Mashable ers, says the site’sbranded content editor. And BuzzFeed, which popularized the native ad format, has numerous case studies showing how well its sponsored articles work.Contently举了《纽约时报》、Mashable和BuzzFeed等例。据《纽约时报》负责赞助内容的高管表示,《纽约时报》的读者阅读赞助内容和其它编辑内容的时间一样长。Mashable的内容编辑也表示,Mashable的读者对赞助内容也并不反感。至于软广告的“鼻祖”BuzzFeed,更是有数不清的案例能说明它的广告软文发挥了多么好的作用。There is hope for the native ad yet. But publishers should be careful: though ers may be increasingly looking at sponsored content, it doesn’t mean they like what they see.目前软广告仍然有继续发展的希望。但传媒界仍然需小心:虽然愿意看软广告的读者可能会越来越多,但这并不意味着他们肯定喜欢自己看到的东西。 /201407/312171

While much of the nascent civilian unmanned aircraft industry looks at ways to optimize small unmanned aerial systems (UAS) for specific tasks such facility security, infrastructure inspection, or precision agriculture, a New Mexico-based aerospace startup is thinking bigger and longer-term.眼下,当尚处襁褓中的民用无人机行业还在设法优化小型无人机(UAS),以执行设备安保、基础设施监控或精准农业之类的特定任务时,一家位于美国新墨西哥州的航空初创企业却已经有了更宏大、更长期的规划。Titan Aerospace, a one-year-old venture-backed aircraft designer, last week unveiled its Solara 50 and Solara 60 unmanned aircraft. These are two massive solar-powered, high-altitude vehicles the company plans to send aloft for weeks, months, and eventually years at a time without ever having to land.这家公司名叫“泰坦航空”(Titan Aerospace),是一家成立仅有一年、已获风资的航空器设计公司。它上周推出了两款无人机:Solara 50 和Solara 60。这是两架硕大无朋、靠太阳能驱动的高空飞机,这家公司计划让它们一次性升空后在空中巡航数周、数月直至数年,中途完全无须降落。Titan doesn#39;t refer to these concept aircraft as ;drones; or by the industry-preferred ;unmanned aerial system,; but instead calls them ;atmospheric satellites; for their ability to remain aloft for extended periods of time just as orbital satellites do. The company hopes to provide a sub- million platform that governments, private industry, and research institutions can put high into the atmosphere for extended periods of time for a fraction of the cost of a space satellite.泰坦并没有把这些概念机叫“遥控无人机”(drone),也不用这个行业所习称的“无人机系统”,而是叫它们“大气层卫星”。因为它们就像轨道卫星一样,能在空中长时间巡航逗留。这家公司希望将这个售价不到200万美元的平台卖给政府、私营企业和研究机构,让它们只需付出卫星成本的九牛一毛,就能在大气层拥有自己的航天器。The idea is that an atmospheric satellite can conduct most of the same operations as an orbital one: atmospheric observation and weather monitoring, communications relay, oceanographic research, and earth imaging. Other operations are impractical for space satellites, such as border security, maritime traffic monitoring and anti-piracy operations, disaster response, or agricultural observation. And with continuous flight time of up to five years, Solara#39;s aircraft would have endurance on par with many small satellites, making them a more attractive option for a range of these applications (not to mention that if a sensor or instrument goes down, you can land and relaunch).这家公司的理念是,这样一台大气层卫星就能执行轨道卫星的绝大多数任务:大气观测和天气监测,通讯转播,海洋研究和地球成像。而它所能完成的其他任务则是空间卫星无能为力的,比如边境安保、海上交通监控,打击海盗行动,灾害响应以及农业观测。另外,Solara的续航时间长达五年,使用寿命和很多小型卫星不相上下,使它们对上述应用来说成了一个更具吸引力的选择(更别提如果传感器或是仪表坏了,还能让它们降落,然后重新发射升空)。;If you have to go up to the satellite and rent that service, that#39;s a lot of money,; says Dustin Sanders, Titan#39;s chief electrical engineer. ;And launching a satellite, that can be in the billions of dollars. We#39;re trying to do a single-million-dollar-per-aircraft platform. And the operation cost is almost nothing -- you#39;re paying some dude to watch the payload and make sure the aircraft doesn#39;t do anything stupid.;泰坦首席电气工程师达斯汀#8226;桑德斯说:“租用卫星务要耗费巨资。发射卫星也会耗资数十亿美元。而我们要开发的是每台航空器仅百万美元级的平台,而且这个平台的运营成本几乎为零——只需要花不多的钱就能了解实际载荷情况,确保这台无人机不会出问题。”Other long-endurance solar UAS concepts -- including Aerovironment#39;s (AVAV) Global Observer and QinetiQ#39;s Zephyr, a demonstrator for a Boeing (BA) concept -- have had little success in generating the kind of long-term atmospheric satellite Titan envisions, but the company#39;s engineers think they#39;ve worked around some of the thornier problems that have grounded previous efforts. For one, 160-foot-plus wingspans of the Solara 50 and Solara 60 will be covered edge-to-edge with advanced solar cell technology that will provide enough energy for both day and night flight (batteries will store power during the day for use at night) with enough left over to power up to 70 pounds of sensors and instruments.而其他长航太阳能概念无人机——包括航空环境公司(Aerovironment)的“全球观察者”(Global Observer)和奎奈蒂克公司(一家英国国防科技公司——译注)为波音公司(Boeing)开发的展示概念机“西风”(Zephyr)——都没能造出泰坦设想的长寿命大气层卫星,但泰坦的工程师认为他们已经基于以前的努力解决了一些棘手问题。比如,Solara 50和Solara 60翼展长达160多英尺的机翼上密集覆盖着先进的太阳能电池板,它们提供的电力不仅足够白天黑夜飞行所用(电池白天存储电力供晚上用),还足以供重达70磅的传感器和仪器使用。But perhaps the most important part of the formula is not how it will fly, but where. To sustain such long flight durations, the aircraft will operate in an atmospheric sweet spot known as the tropopause, a zone at roughly 65,000 feet (or more than 12 miles) above sea level where winds are generally less than 5 knots. In this relative calm far above any turbulence or weather that would otherwise challenge its flight capabilities, Solara could linger for up to five years, Titan engineers say. It doesn#39;t hurt that the tropopause resides far above the weather that can damage conventional aircraft or, more critically for Solara, block out the sun.不过最关键的也许不是它的飞行方式,而是它到底在何处飞。为了维持这么长的飞行时间,这种飞行器将在大气层的最佳位置即所谓的对流层顶飞行。这个区域距海平面约65,000英尺(即12英里多),风速通常小于5节。泰坦的工程师称,这个空域相对平静,且远高于湍流或其他会影响其飞行性能的恶劣天气,Solara可以在其中飞上五年之久。对流层顶下的天气会损坏普通飞行器,对Solara来说更关键的还在于,它会遮蔽太阳,因此在远高于这种天气的对流层顶飞行Solara就不易损坏。With rather simple mechanical systems and enough solar power to run them indefinitely, the thing limiting flight duration right now is the batteries themselves, Titan engineers say, which deteriorate over time and must be swapped out every few years. To prove it, the company has two fifth-scale test aircraft currently conducting test flights and -- pending a round of Series B funding -- will have a full-sized prototype in the air by spring or summer of next year.泰坦的工程师称,由于这种飞行器机械结构简单,同时还有足够的太阳能驱动它长期运行,因此现在限制飞行时长的因素就只有电池了。而电池会随着时间推移而逐渐老化,每隔几年就必须更换。为了论这个问题,公司现在用两架五分之一大小的试验机进行试飞——同时推迟了B轮融资——到明年春季或夏季时才会让全尺寸机型上天。By the time the company delivers its first aircraft -- which could happen as soon as the end of next year -- solar cell and battery technology may have improved such that the aircraft can extend their flight durations or carry even more payload, Sanders says. ;We#39;re focusing on the simplest, most lightweight solution for this and trying not to get overly complicated,; he says. ;That#39;s really the key to keeping this thing affordable as well as to enable it to stay up there for years.;桑德斯表示,到公司交付首架飞机时——最快要到明年年底——太阳能板和电池技术也许已大幅提高,可让飞机飞行时间更长或携带更大载荷。他说:“我们正为了这个目标致力于开发最简单、最轻量化的解决方案,同时努力避免过分复杂化。这才是让这款无人机物美价廉、同时能够不间断飞行数年的关键所在。”Of course much of Titan#39;s success, at least in the U.S., hinges on the FAA clearing the aircraft to fly in the national airspace. While rules governing UAS integration into the national airspace are pending (delivery of a regulatory framework is slated for 2015), the rules attached to larger UAS like the planned Solara are expected to be fairly strict.当然,泰坦能否成功,至少在美国很大程度上取决于联邦航空(FAA)是否允许这种飞行器在国家空域中飞行。目前允许无人机进入国家空域的管理规定还未出台(相关制度将于2015年推出),针对像Solara这样大型无人机的管理制度应该会非常严格。But Sanders and company aren#39;t particularly worried. Titan has been working closely with the FAA through its design process, and anyhow the only part of that multi-year duration the FAA is technically concerned with is the initial climb. Class A airspace ends at 60,000 feet in the U.S.; above that the FAA doesn#39;t regulate, Sanders says (that#39;s roughly twice the altitude that commercial airliners operate).不过桑德斯及公司对此并不怎么担心,因为在该机型的设计研发全程中泰坦都与联邦航空保持着密切合作。而从技术上说,虽然这个机型的飞行寿命长达数年,但联邦航空真正关心的只是其最初爬升的那一段。桑德斯称,美国的A级空域最高到60,000英尺为止,超过高度就不是联邦航空管辖的范围了(这个高度大概是民用飞机飞行高度的两倍)。But while fitting into the existing flight paradigm is necessary, that#39;s not really the driving idea behind Titan, Sanders says of the young startup (Sanders is 32, founder and CTO Max Yaney is in his mid-30s, and chief operating operator Nick Renold is 24). That#39;s why the company refers to its products as atmospheric satellites rather than UAS. In a way, Titan is trying to hack the UAS and satellite space by providing something radically different and far more accessible than what#39;s aly out there.桑德斯谈及这家年轻的公司(桑德斯32岁,创始人兼首席技术官马克斯#8226;雅尼35岁左右,首席运营官尼克#8226;雷诺德只有24岁)时表示,尽管符合现行飞行管理规定势在必行,但这不是泰坦公司真正的动力所在。这就是为什么公司称其产品为大气层卫星而不是无人机的缘故。在某种程度上,泰坦是要拿出一种截然不同、比现有产品更容易使用的产品来冲击无人机和卫星领域。;We don#39;t want any operating costs, we don#39;t want you to spend thousands and thousands and thousands of dollars just to get the stupid thing certified all the time,; Sanders says.桑德斯说:“我们不希望它带来任何运行成本,不想客户为了让一台不像样的飞行器获准飞行而不停地大笔花钱。”;We want something very simple and that doesn#39;t take up all of your time and energy to keep it running. If all you need is one person to keep an eye on the aircraft, that completely changes things. We#39;re trying to change the mindset on how aircraft should operate.;“我们想打造一台非常简单的产品,它能持续飞行,无需占用客户大量时间和精力。如果只需要有一个人监控飞行器,那就会让局面彻底改观。我们是要努力改变大家对飞行器运行方式的普遍看法。” /201309/256037

You#39;ve probably been sick before. It#39;s not fun.In many cases, like the flu, you#39;re sick because of a virus;tiny germs y to multiply and sp from person-to-person, via handshakes or sneezes.你肯定生过病吧,很不爽,对吗?生病通常是因为感染了病毒。握手、打喷嚏都能让病毒繁殖传播。Computer viruses are no different.Instead of germs, they are computer programs.These programs are usually designed by criminals to multiply and sp from computer-to-computer like a disease.If one makes it to your computer, it can erase your files, send emails without your permission or even communicate sensitive info to criminals.电脑病毒亦然。但不是微生物而是电脑程序。黑客设计的病毒程序会像疾病一样在电脑间传播一旦电脑感染了病毒,它会删除文件、私发邮件、甚至把私人信息泄露给犯罪分子。Let#39;s take a closer look, because what we call computer viruses can actually be Viruses, worms or trojanswersquo;ll start with viruses.These bugs hitch a ride when something, like a file, is shared between computers. This often happens via attachments sent in email or shared USB drives.Once someone clicks to open the file, the damage is done.The virus is now on that computer, where it starts to multiply and look for chances to hitch a ride to a new computer.电脑病毒可以细分为三种,普通病毒、蠕虫 、木马先来说说普通病毒。它通过电脑之间的文件共享来传播。通常会在附件或U盘中出现,一打开这种文件,电脑就会中毒。然后复制,等着感染下一台电脑。Like a sick human, itrsquo;s sometimes hard to to tell when a file has a virus.For this reason, the best defense is anti-virus software.It prevents viruses from getting to your computer and removes them when they are found.和人生病一样,有时候文件是否感染病毒也很难;确诊;。所以,最好的防护措施就是安装杀毒软件能防止电脑中毒,也能在发现病毒时及时清除。Now, worms are a little scarier.They are programs that sp to computers without humans doing anything.Criminals create worms to sp via computers that are connected in a network. They worm their way from computer-to-computer automatically.Whether it#39;s a small office or a global network like the Internet.蠕虫则更可怕,即使我们什么也没操作,它也能传播。只有电脑联网,蠕虫就会感染网上的病毒。不管是局域网,还是在整个互联网中。Usually, the worms find a back door.a way to trick the computerrsquo;s software into letting them in.Once they#39;re in, they look for the same backdoor in similar computers,wreaking havoc along the way.蠕虫擅长走;后门;。就是通过电脑软件的漏洞入侵。一旦被感染,蠕虫还会寻找其他电脑的;后门;,一路披荆斩棘地破坏下去。The best defense is keeping your computer software up to date at work and home.This helps close the doors and prevent problems.最好的防护措施是,更新系统、修复漏洞,门关好了,蠕虫就爬不进来了。Trojans, our last example, are sneaky bugs.Like the real trojan horse, theyrsquo;re a trick.If you fall for it, you end up downloading a virus from the Internet.It may appear to be a game or useful software, but hidden inside is a program that can cause problems.For example, these programs can open new backdoors,giving criminals access to your computer and information over the Web.木马则是最最阴险狡诈的病毒。像传说中的特洛伊木马,它也善用诡计,一个不小心就可能从网上下载木马。木马病毒会伪装成游戏或者常用软件,有些木马还会给电脑开新的;后门;,让犯罪分子轻易侵入你的电脑获取信息。Not fun.To avoid trojans, only download software from sites you trust.Just like washing your hands and covering your cough,you have to be aware of what causes problems to avoid them.可怕吧?要防木马,你必须只在信任的网站上下载软件,提高警惕,时刻注意网络安全,就像咳嗽要掩口,饭前便后要洗手一样。Keep your computer up to date and get anti-virus software.It will help prevent problems and help you recover.And please;don#39;t click on links, attachments and downloadable files.unless you know they#39;re legit.还要经常更新电脑软件,安装杀毒工具。一边防患于未然,一边;亡羊补牢;。另外,陌生的链接、附件、文件也不要碰。除非能确认它们的安全性。Through a little awareness, you and your computer will stay happy and healthy.警钟长鸣,健康常伴。 /201203/174397

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