楼主:百家热点 时间:2019年09月16日 12:12:30 点击:0 回复:0
The curvature, space, the warping of spacetime.扭曲、空间、扭曲的时空。And you just, you scratch your head.你只是,你挠头不解其中奥秘。He has now been struggling for four years to more fully developed his general theory of relativity.他现在对于更完善的广义相对论已经挣扎了四年的时间。His theory of relativity is so complicated that very few people can understand it.他的相对论是如此的复杂以致于很少有人能读懂它。Somebody got to test it.而有人要测试它。Thats not a testable hypothesis. Its not science. Its science fiction.那不是一个可测试的假说。它不是科学。这是科幻小说。Einstein knows he is on the right track towards solving his theory.爱因斯坦知道他是在解决他理论的正确的轨道上。Now he must find a way to prove it. Its 1911.现在他必须找到一个方法来明这一点。而现在是1911年。For 4 frustrating years, Einstein has struggled to perfect his general theory of relativity.令人沮丧的4年,爱因斯坦曾努力完善自己的广义相对论。His theory wont be accepted until he can demonstrate this radical concept.直到他能明这一激进的观念,他的理论才会被接受。Suddenly, he is struck by an idea.突然,他有了一个主意。If he can shine a beam of light through an aera where spaces are curved.如果他能照亮通过一个弯曲空间地区的一束光。Then according to his theory, the beam of light will actually appear to bend.然后按照他的理论,光线会出现弯曲。Light only knows straight lines. Whats bent is space.光只按照直线运动。而什么是弯曲空间?What could have enough gravity to bend light so much? Well, what about the sun?可能有足够的引力弯曲光线?噢,那太阳呢?注:听力文本来源于普特201204/176906Finance and Economics;Bank capital;Half-cocked Basel;财经;资本;操之过急的巴塞尔;Stop-gap rules on banks trading books may add perilous complexity.把交易帐户作为权宜之计可能增加了危险的复杂性。The nnew year hangover throbbed agonisingly for investment bankers this year. Blame Basel 2.5, a new set of international rules which charges banks higher capital for the risks they run in their trading books (as opposed to their banking books, where they keep assets that they intend to hold to maturity). Those charges were too low before. And heaping higher costs on banks should please politicians and Joe Public. But they add another layer of complexity to banks risk management.今年,新年遗留问题沉闷地牵动了投资家的神经。这都得归咎于巴塞尔协议2.5版(以下简称巴塞尔2.5),这是一套新的国际规则,它针对交易帐户(与账户不同,在账户里他们打算持有资产至到期日)中操作的风险性资产收取更多费用。以前收取的费用太低了。成本累加应该会讨政治家和普通百姓的喜欢。但是他们给的风险管理增加了另外一层复杂性。Basel 2.5 came into force on December 31st in most European and major world financial jurisdictions. Switzerland applied the rules a year early, and the costs are substantial. Third-quarter figures for Credit Suisse show a 28% increase in risk-weighted assets, and hence capital charges, for its investment-banking activities purely because of Basel 2.5.12月31日,巴塞尔2.5在欧洲大部分地区和世界主要金融辖区开始实施。瑞士一年前贯彻了这一法规,成本很高。瑞士信贷第三季度数据显示风险加权资产增长了28%,因为巴塞尔2.5,今后资本费用仅仅是针对投行业务的。The most notable laggard is America. US financial regulators do not oppose Basel 2.5, but it clashes with the Dodd-Frank act, Americas big wet blanket of a financial reform. Basel 2.5 uses credit ratings from recognised agencies such as Moodys and Standard amp; Poors to calibrate capital charges. Dodd-Frank expressly forbids the use of such ratings agencies, whose poor judgments are held partly responsible for the crisis. Instead American regulators are working on their own cocktail of credit-risk calibrations for Basel 2.5, using market data and country-risk ratings from the OECD. Their solution is still months away from application (though not as distant as implementation by the Russians or Argentines).最引人注意的拖延者是美国。美国金融监管机构并不反对巴塞尔2.5,但是巴塞尔2.5与美国大的金融监管改革法案《多德-弗兰克法案》却存在冲突。巴塞尔2.5使用的信誉评级从评级机构穆迪和标准普尔到校准资本收费。《多德-弗兰克法案》特别禁止了使用评级机构,他们匮乏的判断力对危机负有部分责任。而美国的校准人都忙于利用来自世界经济合作发展组织的市场数据和国家风险评级,应付他们自己在巴塞尔2.5下的信用风险校验。他们的方案距离实施仍有数月之久(虽然执行力不和俄国或者阿根廷一样虚幻)Basel 2.5 for the first time charges banks extra capital for the credit risk of what they hold in their trading portfolio (because the crisis showed that markets are not always liquid enough to be able to offload assets). That includes a charge for the risk that a counterparty goes bust. It also imposes heavy charges on securitised bundles of assets unless the credit risk of each piece of the bundle has an identifiable market price. Banks that have portfolios of trading positions which they reckon offset each other have to convince regulators that their risk models work or face being charged at a cruder, standardised rate.巴塞尔2.5第一次针对于交易性资产的信贷风险收取额外费用(因为危机显示了市场并不是一直有足够流通性来剥离资产)。这包括了交易对象破产的风险。它也对资产券化产品征收了高额的费用,除非产品包中每种资产的信贷风险有明确的市场标价。那些自己认为拥有彼此抵消投资组合的必须说监管机构他们所使用或者面临的风险模型正在被以野蛮的、标准的费率收费。The problem with Basel 2.5, recognised by regulators and bankers alike, is its complexity. The risk of a trading portfolio must now be broken down into five “buckets”—value at risk (VaR), a measure of how much could be lost in an average trading day; stressed VaR (how much could be lost in extreme conditions); plus three types of credit risk ranging from the risk of single credits to those of securitised loans. Traders are understandably confused. For some banks, developing risk models and getting them approved is just too expensive: more complex businesses will be shut down. That will please those who want banks to be more boring.监管机构和家似乎承认了巴塞尔2.5 问题的复杂性。交易性资产的风险现在必须分解成五个“桶”:风险值(VAR),估计平均每个交易日的可能损失;极限风险值(极限状态下的可能损失);再加上三个不同类别的信用风险值,从单个信贷风险到抵押贷款依次排列。交易员都觉得很困惑。对于一些而言,开发风险模型并获得通过成本太高了:更复杂的业务将被停止。这将使一些想让更加令人厌烦的人非常满意。But unintended consequences will doubtless follow. Useful products may become less tradable. Trading of riskier products could migrate to unregulated entities. Banks may be tempted into new forms of regulatory arbitrage, by juggling assets between their trading book and their banking book. Worst of all, perhaps, is the increased risk of back-office bungling because of the extra complexity.但是这无疑将招致意外的后果。实用的产品交易量会减少。风险产品的交易可能转移至不受监管的实体。可能会被交易账户和账户之间变换的资产诱惑,进入一套新的监管套利模式。最坏的情况可能是由于额外的复杂性造成的后台拙劣的工作风险增加 。Regulators recognise this risk. The Basel Committee on Banking Supervision, which drew up the rules and is also responsible for the full Basel 3 regime that will come into force in 2019, is still conducting what it calls a “fundamental review” of capital rules for banks trading books. Publication is not expected before March. Those sore heads will not soon clear.监管部门认识到了这种风险。起草规则并负责2019年开始执行的全部的巴塞尔3的巴塞尔委员会监督机构,仍在指挥着他们称之为对交易账户的资金制度“基本审查”的行动。三月前是不会发行官方文件的。头疼的问题也一时不会被解决。 /201301/220320Science and technology科学和技术Allergy to wine红酒过敏The oenophiles lament酒鬼们的烦恼An explanation for a most unfortunate condition.这件不幸的事现在有解释了。ONE of life’s sadder statistics is that about 8% of people get sneezy and stuffy-headed after drinking wine.这世上有一个统计数据令人伤心,那就是大约有8%的人在饮用红酒以后会产生打喷嚏和头昏脑涨的症状。This mild allergic reaction is often blamed on preservative chemicals called sulphites, but they are responsible for only an eighth of cases.这种轻微过敏反应常常和作为防腐添加剂的亚硫酸盐有关联。The reason for the rest is obscure. Giuseppe Palmisano of the University of Southern Denmark, however, thinks he knows the answer.但是此类过敏症况只有1/8的情况是由亚硫酸盐造成的,其他7/8的情况一直病因不明。不过南丹麦大学的Giuseppe Palmisano认为他搞明白这是怎么回事了。As he and his colleagues report in the Journal of Proteome Research, the culprits are glycoproteins—compounds composed, as their name suggests, of sugar and protein. That is not a complete surprise.他和他的团队在蛋白组学研究期刊上发表文章称,罪魁祸首是糖蛋白顾名思义,就是由糖类和蛋白质组成的一类蛋白质。Glycoproteins are implicated in several other allergies.这倒也不算意外。糖蛋白也涉及其他的过敏症。But Dr Palmisano thinks he has identified the ones specific to wine.不过Palmisano士认为他找到了与红酒过敏特定相关的那几个糖蛋白。To do so he started with a cheeky little chardonnay, treated it with ice-cold trichloroacetic acid and ethanol to precipitate any glycoproteins, then digested those glycoproteins into smaller molecules called peptides that can be analysed by mass spectroscopy.为了找到这个过敏原,Palmisano士将一些白葡萄酒用冰凉的三氯乙酸和酒精处理以沉淀出所有的糖蛋白,之后将它们消化成叫做多肽的小分子以便用质谱仪分析。He screened the results against a database of known allergenic proteins. Three stood out.他拿检查结果和已知过敏原的数据库对比。有三个糖蛋白引入眼帘,One is similar to allergenic proteins found in latex and pears.其中一个过敏性蛋白相似,该蛋白可以再乳胶和梨中发现;Another looks like a second latex protein and an olive protein, both known allergens.第二个与另一个乳胶蛋白以及一个橄榄蛋白相似,这两个蛋白也是已知的过敏原;The third resembles one of the most rampant allergens of them all, a ragweed protein that causes hay fever.第三个与造成花粉过敏的豚草蛋白类似,该蛋白可说是过敏原里最厉害的一个了。Whether winemakers will be able to act on this knowledge is moot.酿酒商们会不会因为这个发现而改进产品这未有可知。But it might be possible to tweak the production process to reduce the presence of the allergens.不过通过调节生产流程来减少过敏原的产生倒是很有可能的。In any case, you can now blame that stuffy feeling that comes after drinking on glycoproteins, not alcohol. Honest.不管怎么说,说真的,下次你又喝红酒头疼的时候就不用怪酒了,应该怪糖蛋白么。 /201302/225920

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