台东区妇幼保健医院看效果怎么样服务晚报

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原标题: 台东区妇幼保健医院看效果怎么样久久分类
U.S. President Barack Obama told dozens of students gathered on the South Lawn of the White House Monday night that they could be the ones participating in the first missions to Mars within the next two decades.星期一晚上,美国总统奥巴马对聚集在白宫南草坪上的数十名学生说,他们可能在未来20年中参加首次火星之旅。The president hosted students, teachers, astronomers, engineers and space enthusiasts from across the country for the second-ever White House Astronomy Night. Obama joined the attendees in stargazing through a high-powered telescope, holding genuine space artifacts and meeting the nation#39;s top scientists and astronauts.这是白宫第二次举行航天之夜活动,奥巴马总统招待了来自美国各地的学生、教师、宇航员、工程师和航天爱好者。奥巴马和与会者们一起通过一架高倍望远镜观看夜空,并与美国顶尖科学家会面。Obama emphasized his administration#39;s efforts in preparing more young people to pursue studies in science, technology, engineering and mathematics, commonly referred to as STEM.奥巴马强调,他的政府致力于鼓励更多的年轻人钻研科技、工程和数学。他说,鼓励新一代探索、发明、创造和发现。Among the guests Monday was Ahmed Mohamed, the Texas teenager arrested for bringing his homemade clock to school where it was mistaken for a bomb.阿哈马德·默哈迈德也参加了白宫航天之夜活动。默哈迈德是得克萨斯州的学生,他曾把一个自制钟表带到学校,被误认为是炸弹,结果他被逮捕。The president had personally invited Ahmed to the White House and told him to bring his ;cool clock.;奥巴马亲自邀请默哈迈德到白宫作客,并请他务必带上那个“酷酷的钟”。 /201510/404947Soggy bottoms are preferred in the North – but southerners tend to favour a quick dunk。北方人通常把饼干底部都泡得软软的,而南方人则只是蜻蜓点水般稍微泡一下。Yes, England is divided when it comes to eating biscuits, according to a poll showing 65% of those north of Stoke are big dippers。没错,在吃饼干的正确方式这个问题上,英国内部意见不一,一份民调显示,斯托克城以北地区,65%的人都喜欢把饼干泡久一点。They happily wait for the biscuit to go soft before tucking in – risking it ending up in the mug。他们满怀欣喜地等着饼干慢慢泡软之后才吃——虽然有可能一不小心就让饼干在杯子里化掉了。But in the more tentative South, more than 50% of tea and coffee breakers minimise moisture with a brief plunge and delicate first bite。不过在更加谨慎的南方住民里,超过50%的人都只是把饼干稍稍蘸一下茶或者咖啡,再小小地咬下第一口。Custard creams are king in Yorkshire, says the Waitrose Food and Drink report, while chocolate digestives rule in Lancs, Oxford and Cambridge。《维特罗斯(Waitrose)食品和饮料报告》显示,蛋奶冻夹心饼干在约克郡(Yorkshire)的人气无人能敌,而在兰开夏郡(Lancs)、牛津郡和剑桥郡,巧克力消化饼干才是王道。Curiously Oxford prefers dark and Cambridge, milk。令人奇怪的是牛津郡的人喜欢就着只加少量牛奶(或奶油)的咖啡吃饼干,剑桥郡的人更喜欢就着牛奶吃。Ginger nuts are tops in the North East。东北地区人民的最爱是姜汁饼干。Traditional Rich Tea is a favourite in the south west and Wales while Midlands folk enjoy Malted Milk。传统的下午茶饼干是西南地区和威尔士地区人们的心头好,中部地区人民则青睐麦乳精饼干。Cookies are the number one choice in the East of England but bizarrely the Sussex coast breaks with tradition preferring KitKat bars to biccies。曲奇是东英格兰地区人们的首选,但 令人诧异的是,苏塞克斯郡沿岸地区的人们打破传统,他们更喜欢奇巧(KitKat)巧克力棒,而不是饼干。Unsurprisingly, shortb is the top choice in Scotland。黄油酥饼毫无意外地是苏格兰人民的最爱。Waitrose said: “The nation‘s dunking habits produced surprising results。 Choice of biscuit could definitely be linked to your postcode。”维特罗斯表示:“这个国家泡饼干的习惯导致了惊人的结果。你选择的饼干绝对可以和你居住的地区联系起来。”Londoners go for posh “breakfast biscuits”。伦敦居民喜欢更有腔调的“早餐饼干”。But if children did the shopping, we‘d all be eating Jammie Dodgers, according to data from 343 Waitrose stores。不过343家维特罗斯连锁店的数据显示:如果让孩子们购物的话,我们吃到的估计都是果酱夹心饼干。 /201510/405522

Sugar certainly has gotten a bad rap lately. It#39;s blamed for everything from obesity and diabetes to heart disease, kidney disease and stroke. But is it really all that bad? Is there nothing redeeming about those tiny, sweet granules? Or is a lot of what we hear misinformation? We know one thing for sure. Sugar consumption in America has skyrocketed. In 1990, Americans ate an average of 4 teaspoons (16 grams) of added sugar per day. By 2014, that number had shot up to 20 teaspoons (80 grams) daily. In addition, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) says Americans obtain 16 percent of their total calories from added sugars, namely soda, energy and sports drinks, grain-based desserts, sugar-sweetened fruit drinks, dairy-based desserts and candy. The World Health Organization#39;s (WHO) recommendation? We should only be getting less than 10 percent of our daily calories from added sugar. In 2014, the WHO even proposed slashing that recommended rate to less than 5 percent. Clearly, we need to pay attention to sugar and our consumption rate. But first, we need to learn the truth about our favorite sweetener.近来,糖类无疑是备受责难。从肥胖症、糖尿病到心脏病、肾脏疾病和中风,一切都归咎于糖。但是糖真的这么不好?这些小小的、甜甜的的颗粒真的没有可取之处吗?又或者我们听到的很多都是错误消息?不过我们可以确信一件事情:在美国,糖类消费量一路飙升。1990年,美国人每天平均摄入4茶匙(16克)添加糖。而到2014年,这个数据已经陡升至20茶匙(80克)。美国食品和药物(FDA)称,美国人从添加糖食品中获得16%的总热量,这些食品包括苏打水、运动型功能饮料、谷物甜点、含糖果汁、乳制甜点和糖果。世界卫生组织(WHO)的建议是什么?我们每天从这些含糖食物中获得的总热量不应超过10%。2014年,世界卫生组织(WHO)甚至提议将这个比例大幅降低至5%以下。显然,是时候留心一下糖以及我们在日常生活对其的摄取状况了。但首先,让我们来了解一下有关我们最喜欢的甜味剂的真相。10.People Can Easily Limit Sugar Intake10.人们可以很容易地控制糖类摄入量OK, we need to eat less sugar. No problem. We#39;ll just stop eating dessert, eschew the doughnuts brought in by our colleague and pass on the Halloween candy. But -- argh! -- why is it so hard? Are we weak-willed babies or what? Sugar is actually an addictive substance. Animal studies show sugar consumption causes bingeing, withdrawal and craving. Regularly eating sugar also makes it easier to become addicted to another drug. When humans were studied, consuming fructose (a form of sugar) caused the brain#39;s reward center to light up. However, much like a drug, over time the subjects needed to consume more and more fructose for the reward center to light up as brightly好吧,我们需要少吃糖。没问题。我们不再吃甜品,远离同事们买来的甜甜圈和万圣节糖果。但是,啊!为什么这么难?我们是意志薄弱的婴儿还是什么?事实上,糖就是令人上瘾的东西。动物研究表明,摄入糖分会导致暴饮暴食、戒断不良反应和内心产生极度渴望。经常吃糖也更容易对另一种药物上瘾。对人体的研究表明,果糖的分解(一种糖)能活跃大脑反馈中心。然而就像药物一样,随着时间的推移,人需要消耗越来越多的果糖使大脑中心保持活跃的状态。Additional research shows sugar and sweetness can actually be more addictive, rewarding and attractive than drugs such as cocaine. Seems a bit preposterous, but a possible explanation, say scientists, is humankind#39;s past evolutionary need to eat foods high in calories and sugar.更多研究表明糖和甜味剂实际上比药物,如可卡因,更有吸引力,令人上瘾,使人更加满足。这似乎有点荒谬,但科学家对此解释说,原始人类的进化需要进食高热量和高糖的食物。这种说法仍有待实。还有一个问题:含有添加糖的产品比你想象的要多——比如番茄酱、即食燕麦片和意大利面酱。9.Added Sugar Is Bad for You9.添加糖对人有害In 2014, the American Heart Association (AHA) recommends Americans slash their sugar consumption from the average 20 teaspoons (80 grams) a day to six (24 grams) for women and nine (36 grams) for men. And the group notes, added sugars are particularly worrisome. Added sugars are sugars or syrups that are tossed into our food and drink during processing or preparation. They can be natural (e.g., honey) or chemically manufactured (e.g., high fructose corn syrup). They#39;re troubling because they don#39;t provide any nutrients -- just excessive calories. And they#39;re in more products than you might think – in ketchup, instant oatmeal and spaghetti sauce, for starters.2014年,美国心脏协会(AHA)建议美国女性将每天的糖类消耗从平均20茶匙(80克)减少至6茶匙(24克),男性减少至9茶匙(36克)。并且该协会称添加糖尤其令人担忧。添加糖就是在加工过程中或生产过程前添加到食物和饮料中的糖或糖浆。它们可以是天然制品(比如蜂蜜),或是化学制品(比如果葡糖浆)。它们令人不安,因为没有任何营养——只有高热量。并且它们的覆盖范围比你想象的要广——比如添加在番茄酱、即食燕麦片和意大利面酱里。Yet you don#39;t have to nix all added sugar from your diet. Sugar may not have any nutritional value, but it can enhance the flavor of foods that do provide important nutrients, such as whole-grain cereal or yogurt. So if sprinkling some sugar over a cup of healthy, plain yogurt is the only way you#39;ll eat the yogurt, it#39;s worth it to add the sweetness. Luckily, in most instances all you need is a small amount of sugar to achieve a satisfactory taste. That#39;s why it#39;s better to buy the no-added-sugar version of the product and add a little sugar than to buy the ;regular; or fully sweetened version.然而,你不必完全对这种添加糖说NO。糖或许没有任何营养价值,但是它可以改善一些食物的口感,正是这些食物(如全麦麦片或酸奶)提供给你重要的营养物质。所以,如果唯一让你喝杯有益健康但口感平平的酸奶的方法就是加点儿糖的话,那就这么做吧。值得庆幸地是,在大多数情况下只需要添加少量糖就可获得令人满意的味道。这就解释了为什么买无糖产品并自己加少量糖比买普通的或甜味的产品更好。8.Artificial Sweeteners Are Healthier Than Sugar8.人造甜味剂比糖更健康Many health-conscious people favor artificial sweeteners for their food, figuring they#39;re a better bet because they don#39;t contain any calories. It#39;s true you#39;re avoiding calories when you stick with artificial sweeteners, but the jury#39;s out on whether they#39;re healthier for you. The FDA deems artificial sweeteners safe, but experts say their long-term effects still aren#39;t known. Further, there are numerous studies that raise red flags. For example, one study performed by researchers at the Yale University School of Medicine found that if you eat artificially sweetened foods that are low in calories, it may cause you to down high-calories foods later in the day, especially if you ate the artificially sweetened stuff when you were tired or hungry. Artificial sweeteners don#39;t signal ;energy; to the brain the way regular sugar does.许多有健康意识的人喜欢往食物中加些人造甜味剂,认为这种甜味剂是个更好的选择,因为它们不含任何热量。的确,坚持使用人造甜味剂你可以避免摄入热量。不过,这些甜味剂是否有益健康,这一点尚无定论。尽管美国食品和药物认为人造甜味剂是安全的,但是专家称人造甜味剂的长期影响仍旧不清楚。此外,大量研究表明人造甜味剂值得注意。例如,耶鲁大学医学院的研究人员发现,尤其当你累了或饿了的时候,如果吃低热量,添加了人造甜味剂的食品,那么晚些时候你就会多吃些高热量的食物。因为大脑并不会把人造甜味剂跟普通的糖一样视为能量的来源。Additionally, many people who rely on artificial sweeteners knowingly eat a little more throughout the day because they feel like they can afford to do so. After all, they#39;ve saved calories by opting for Splenda or Equal in their coffee or plain yogurt, so it#39;s fine to have that extra hamburger or serving of potatoes. In the end, it may be best to simply eat less real sugar than swap it out for artificial sweeteners.此外,很多依赖人造甜味剂的人每天会故意多吃一点,因为他们觉得自己可以这么做。毕竟,他们选择在咖啡或原味酸奶中加点儿人造甜味剂如Splenda 或 Equal,从而避免摄入一些热量。因此额外吃一些汉堡和薯条是可以的。总之,比起选择人造甜味剂,最好还是少吃糖。7.Organic (Raw) Sugar Is Healthier Than Table Sugar7.天然(原)糖比蔗糖更健康Raw sugar looks so appealing, with its light caramel hue and nuggety shape. This organic sweetener, less refined than table sugar, is found in many health-focused products -- so surely it must be healthier for you. Actually, it#39;s not.原糖看起来似乎是比精炼加工的白糖更有益健康,但这只是因为原糖中含有少许矿物成分而已。(白糖完全没有)。二者的热量相同。Both raw sugar and table sugar are derived from sugarcane, although table sugar can also come from beets. Raw sugar is created when sugarcane juice is boiled once. This leaves some molasses in the product and gives the sugar its signature golden color. Table sugar results from sugarcane juice that is boiled several times, a process that removes all of the molasses from the juice, hence its white color.这一块一块带着浅浅焦糖色的原糖看起来如此诱人。这种有机的甜味剂,虽然不如白糖般经过精细加工,但它存在于很多主打健康的食品中——所以很显然,这种食品更健康。然而事实并非如此。原糖和白糖都来源于甘蔗,虽然白糖也可来自甜菜。原糖是甘蔗汁煮第一次时的产物。这使得原糖中留存了一些糖蜜,颜色也变成了标志性的金黄色。甘蔗汁经过多次煮沸提炼,就产生了蔗糖。这个过程让糖蜜从甘蔗汁中流失了,因此蔗糖就是白色的。一些原糖持者声称留在原糖的糖蜜具有我们身体所需的营养价值。但是大多数专家认为只有微量营养素得以留存——微量到对我们的身体没有任何影响。况且,原糖和精制糖含有等量的热量。所以尽管制作过程不同,但它们真的都差不多。6.Sugar-free Diets Are the Healthiest6.无糖饮食最健康OK, so we eat too much sugar. And artificial sweeteners or other forms of the sweet stuff, like raw sugar, aren#39;t any better than plain old table sugar. So maybe the answer is simply to cut all sugar out of our diets. Perhaps. But that is a complicated plan. Technically, if you were able to eliminate all sugar from your diet -- meaning eating solely foods where no sugar was added during its creation or afterward -- that might be the healthiest option. But if your suggested ;sugar-free; diet means eating foods labeled ;sugar-free,; then that won#39;t fly.好吧,我们吃太多糖了。而且人造甜味剂或者其他种类的糖,比如原糖,都不比普通的蔗糖。也许最简单地就是戒食所有含糖食物。但这也说不定。因为要做到无糖饮食也很复杂。从技术层面来说,如果你能够做到消除你饮食中所有的糖——这意味着只吃在生产过程中或之后不添加任何糖的食物——这样可以称为最健康的选择。但是如果你的“无糖”饮食只是吃一些标签着“无糖”字样的食品,那么就不会有任何效果。Foods that boast of being ;sugar-free; typically really aren#39;t. That#39;s because while the sugar has been yanked, it#39;s been replaced with an artificial sweetener. That sweetener could be the pleasant-sounding honey or agave nectar; chemical-sounding sugar alcohols such as sorbitol, mannitol and xylitol; or noncaloric sweeteners like saccharin (brand-name ;Sweet#39;N Low;) and sucralose (;Splenda;). Unfortunately, many of these alternative sweeteners are still high in carbohydrates and/or calories. And sugar alcohols are famous for causing stomachaches and diarrhea if they#39;re ingested in large quantities. Experts say the wisest strategy is to eat unprocessed foods, adding as little sugar as possible.那些自称是“无糖”的产品通常言过其实。这是因为当糖被提取掉,取而代之的就是人造甜味剂。甜味剂可能是迷人的蜂蜜或龙舌兰花蜜;产生化学反应的糖醇,比如山梨糖醇、甘露醇和木糖醇;或者无热量的甜味剂,比如糖精(品名:低脂糖)和三氯蔗糖(蔗糖素)。不幸地是,许多可使用的甜味剂都含大量的碳水化合物或热量。众所周知,过量摄入糖醇会导致胃痛和腹泻。专家称最明智的做法就是吃未加工的食物,尽可能不加糖。翻译:夏久梅 审校:晴晴晴天 来源:前十网 /201601/421503

For all its peculiar horror, cancer comes with a saving grace. If nothing else can stop a tumor’s mad evolution, the cancer ultimately dies with its host. Everything the malignant cells have learned about outwitting the patient’s defenses — and those of the oncologists — is erased. The next case of cancer, in another victim, must start anew.尽管谈癌色变,但癌症也有“可取之处”。就算无论如何也无法阻止肿瘤的疯狂生长,癌最后也会和宿主同归于尽。恶性癌细胞从击败患者——和肿瘤科医生——的抵抗过程中学到的一切,都会化为乌有。癌症的下一次攻击,必须从下一个受害者身上重新开始。Imagine if instead, cancer cells had the ability to press on to another body. A cancer like that would have the power to metastasize not just from organ to organ, but from person to person, evolving deadly new skills along the way.试想,如果癌细胞有能力传染给另一个个体,癌症将不仅有能力从一个器官转移到另一个器官,还可以从一个人转移到另一个人,同时演化出新的致命技能。While there is no sign of an imminent threat, several recent papers suggest that the eventual emergence of a contagious human cancer is in the realm of medical possibility. This would not be a disease, like cervical cancer, that is set off by the sp of viruses, but rather one in which cancer cells actually travel from one person to another and thrive in their new location.虽然没有明确迹象显示这是一个迫在眉睫的威胁,但近期许多论文提出,最终出现具有传染性的人类癌症,在医学上是有可能的。它不会是一种疾病,比如由病毒传播引起的子宫颈癌;而是癌细胞实际上从一个人转移到另一个人身上,并在这个新地方肆意生长。So far this is known to have happened only under the most unusual circumstances. A 19-year-old laboratory worker who pricked herself with a syringe of colon cancer cells developed a tumor in her hand. A surgeon acquired a cancer from his patient after accidentally cutting himself during an operation. There are also cases of malignant cells being transferred from one person to another through an organ transplant or from a woman to her fetus.迄今为止,只在极为罕见的状况下发现过这种情况。一名19岁的化验室工作人员被带有结肠癌细胞的注射器戳伤后,她的手上长出一个肿瘤。一位外科医生在手术工作中被意外割伤后,从患者身上感染了癌症。癌细胞通过器官移植从一个人转移到另一个身上的案例,或者从母亲转移到胎儿身上的案例也有很多。On each of these occasions, the malignancy went no further. The only known cancers that continue to move from body to body, evading the immune system, have been found in other animals. In laboratory experiments, for instance, cancer cells have been transferred by mosquitoes from one hamster to another. And so far, three kinds of contagious cancers have been discovered in the wild — in dogs, Tasmanian devils and, most recently, in soft shell clams.在每一桩这样的案例中,癌细胞都存活不了太久。所有现在已知的能躲过免疫系统,在个体之间转移的癌症,都是在其他动物身上发现的。比如,在实验室里,癌细胞通过蚊子从一只仓鼠转移到另一只身上。目前,在野外环境中发现了三种传染性癌症,分别发生在犬类、袋獾,以及砂海螂身上,后者是最近发现的。The oldest known example is a cancer that sps between dogs during sexual intercourse — not as a side effect of a viral or bacterial infection, but rather through direct conveyance of cancer cells. The state of the research is described in a review, “The Cancer Which Survived,” published last year by Andrea Strakova and Elizabeth P. Murchison of the University of Cambridge.我们所知道的最早的例子是一种癌在犬类之间通过交媾转移的——不是感染病毒或细菌后导致的副作用,而是癌细胞直接从一只犬转移到另一只犬体内。剑桥大学的安德烈娅·斯特拉科娃(Andrea Strakova)和伊丽莎白·P·默奇森(Elizabeth P. Murchison)去年发表的一篇名为《离开宿主依然存活的癌症》的综述文章,对相关研究进行了梳理。The condition, canine transmissible venereal tumor disease, is believed to have sprung into existence 11,000 years ago — as a single cell in a single dog — and has been circulating ever since. (Why did this happen in dogs and not, say, cats? Perhaps because of what the authors demurely call the dogs’ “long-lasting coital tie” — the half an hour or so that a male and female are locked in intercourse, tearing genital tissues and providing the cancer cells with a leisurely crossing.)这种名为犬类生殖器传染性肿瘤的疾病,被认为是在1.1万年前突然出现在一只犬身上,而且以一个单一癌细胞的形式一直传播至今。(为什么这种病会出现在犬类身上,而不是在猫等其他动物身上?原因或许在于作者用文明措辞所说的犬类之间“持久的交媾联系”,即在一只母犬和一只公犬持续约半小时的交媾过程中,会撕裂生殖器官,使肿瘤细胞比较容易通过伤口发生转移。)Normally a cancer evolves in a single body over the course of years or decades, accumulating the mutations that drive it to power. But to have survived for millenniums, researchers have proposed, canine cancer cells may have developed mechanisms — like those in healthy cells — to repair and stabilize their own malignant genomes.通常一种癌症会在几年或几十年的时间里一直在一个生物体内发展,突变积累到一定程度,就会开始显现威力。但有研究人员提出,这种已经存在上万年之久的犬类癌症细胞,有可能发展出了一些机制——就像健康细胞一样——可以修复和稳定自身的恶性基因。Early on, cancer cells typically flourish by disabling DNA repair and ramping up the mutational frenzy. Somewhere along the way, the age-old canine cells may have reinvented the device to extend their own longevity. There is also speculation that this cancer may have learned to somehow modify canine sexual behavior in ways that promote the disease’s sp and survival.早前,癌症细胞往往是通过破坏DNA修复功能而快速生长,引发疯狂的突变。中间的某个时刻,古老的犬类生殖器传染性肿瘤细胞可能改变了行为方式,由此延长自身的寿命。还有一种猜测是,这种癌症可能不知怎么改变了犬类的交媾方式,使之更利于这种疾病的传播和肿瘤细胞的存活。The second kind of contagious cancer was discovered in the mid-1990s in Tasmanian devils, which sp malignant cells as they try to tear off one another’s faces. Though it may be hard to sympathize, devil facial tumor disease threatens the creatures with extinction.第二种传染性癌症是在上世纪90年代中期发现于袋獾身上。它们在相互撕咬对方的脸时,会把恶性肿瘤细胞传给其他同类。尽管可能比较难以引起人们的同情,但这种袋獾面部肿瘤疾病的确威胁到了这一物种的生存,使它们濒临灭绝。With so few examples, transmissible cancer has been easy to dismiss as an aberration. But in December, scientists at the Universities of Tasmania and Cambridge reported in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences that Tasmanian devils are passing around another kind of cancer — genetically distinct from the first. It’s weird enough that one such cancer would arise in the species. What are the chances that there would be two?因为例子非常少,所以可转移癌症很容易被当做一种反常的现象,不予重视。但是去年12月,塔斯马尼亚大学和剑桥大学的科学家们联合发表在《美国国家科学院院刊》(Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences)上的论文表示,袋獾还在传播另一种癌症,与前一种癌症的基因组成截然不同。这种生物身上会出现一种这样的癌症,就已经够奇怪的了。现在居然说有两种,这种几率有多大?One theory is that the animals are unusually vulnerable. Driven so close to extinction — by climate change, perhaps, or human predators — the species is lacking in genetic diversity. The cells of another devil injected through a vicious wound may seem so familiar that they are ignored by the recipient’s immune system. If some of the cells carry the mutations for the facial cancer, they might be free to flourish and develop into a new tumor.有一种理论认为,这种动物非常脆弱。因为气候变化,或许还有人类猎捕的因素,它们已经几乎要灭绝,因此缺乏基因多样性。通过一个严重的伤口进入体内的另一只袋獾的细胞,可能会看似非常熟悉,以至被接收者的免疫系统忽略。如果这些细胞中有一部分携带着面部肿瘤的基因突变,它们可能就会迅速裂变,发展成一种新的肿瘤。But the scientists also proposed a more disturbing explanation: that the emergence of contagious cancer may not be so rare after all. “The possibility,” they wrote, “warrants further investigation of the risk that such diseases could arise in humans.”但这些科学家也提出了一种更加让人不安的解释:传染性癌症可能并不那么罕见。“这种可能性,”他们写道,“给了我们进行进一步研究的理由,即研究这类疾病在人类身上出现的风险有多大。”Cancer has probably existed ever since our first multicellular ancestors appeared on Earth hundreds of millions of years ago. The life spans of even the longest-lived animals may be just too brief for cancers to easily evolve the ability to leap to another body. Otherwise, contagious cancer would be everywhere.在我们最早的多细胞生物祖先于数亿年前在地球上出现时,癌症可能就已经存在。就算是最长寿的动物,其生命周期对于癌症而言也太过短暂,让它来不及演化出跳转到另一种生物身上的能力。否则,现在就到处都是传染性癌症了。For now, at least, it remains a curiosity. Consider the case of a 41-year-old man in Medellin, Colombia, who was examined by doctors in 2013 because of fatigue, fever and weight loss. His lymph nodes were clogged with cancer cells that had also sp to his lungs and liver.至少就目前来说,它还是一种很罕见的现象。比如发生在哥伦比亚麦德林一名41岁男子身上的事。2013年他因出现疲劳、发烧和体重下降等症状而接受医生的检查,结果发现他的淋巴结里长满了癌细胞,还转移到了他的肺部和肝部。Yet the cells looked far too small and simple to be human. “This case posed a diagnostic conundrum,” the doctors wrote in November in The New England Journal of Medicine.但是,相对于人类而言,这些癌细胞显得太小,结构也太过简单。“这个病例成了一个难解的谜,”这些医生在去年11月发表于《新英格兰医学杂志》(The New England Journal of Medicine)上的文章中写道。The solution to the puzzle came when the man was also found to be harboring a tapeworm called Hymenolepis nana. Further analysis concluded that the cancer cells had originated in the parasite and then metastasized through the man’s body.当这名男子被发现还携带有微膜壳绦虫时,谜底解开了。进一步的分析推断出,这名男子身上的癌细胞最初存在于这种寄生虫内,然后通过他的身体进行了转移。There is no reason to think that tapeworm cancer is about to become a threat to public health. The patient’s immune system had been compromised by H.I.V., and he died several months later.没有理由认为,绦虫癌症即将对我们的公共卫生安全构成威胁。这名病人的免疫系统之前就已经因为感染艾滋病毒而遭到了破坏,而且查出这种癌症几个月后,他也去世了。But nature is infinite in its surprises.只不过,大自然总会有无限多的意想不到。 /201603/428730

Even though taking a daily pill can protect almost completely against getting H.I.V., a third of primary care doctors and nurses in the ed States have never heard of it, federal health officials said this week.美国的联邦卫生官员在本周表示,虽然每日用一种药片几乎可以完全预防H.I.V.(人类免疫缺陷病毒)感染,但在美国,有三分之一的初级保健医生和护士从来没有听说过它。Taking Truvada daily gives better than 90 percent protection to men at risk of getting H.I.V. from gay sex, and better than 70 percent protection to drug injectors at risk of getting it from sharing syringes, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.美国疾病控制和预防中心(Centers for Disease Control and Prevention,C.D.C.)称,对于因同性性行为而存在感染风险的男性,每日用特鲁瓦达(Truvada)可实现90%以上的保护率;对于因共用注射器而有感染风险的注射吸毒者,保护率达70%以上。“Providers play a central role in increasing awareness and uptake of PrEP,” Dr. Eugene McCray, director of the agency’s division of H.I.V. prevention, said, using the acronym for pre-exposure prophylaxis, as the practice of taking the drug for prevention is known.“供应商在增进人们对PrEP的了解和接受中发挥了核心作用,”该机构H.I.V.预防部门的主管尤金·麦克雷(Eugene McCray)士说。由于用药物预防的做法日渐为人所知,他在谈话中直接使用了“暴露前预防”的英文缩写。Truvada is currently the only antiretroviral drug approved by the Food and Drug Administration for PrEP, but its maker, Gilead Sciences, does not advertise it for that purpose. The C.D.C. calculated that about 25 percent of all healthy gay men, 20 percent of all healthy drug injectors and about 0.4 percent of all healthy heterosexual women would benefit from being on the drug; the gay men because they have an infected partner or have unprotected sex with multiple partners, the drug injectors because they share syringes and the women because they have partners who inject drugs or are bisexual. There are an estimated 45,000 new H.I.V. infections in the ed States each year.特鲁瓦达是目前唯一被美国食品和药品监督(Food and Drug Administration, F.D.A.)批准用于PrEP的抗逆转录病毒药物,但它的制造商吉利德科学公司(Gilead Sciences)却未曾给它的这一用途做过广告。按照C.D.C.的计算,这种药物可造福于约25%的健康男同性恋者、20%的健康注射吸毒者和约0.4%的健康异性恋女性。男同性恋者的风险在于他们的伴侣有可能是感染者,以及他们可能会与多个性伙伴发生不安全的性行为;注射吸毒者的风险在于共用注射器;而女性的风险在于她们的伴侣可能是注射吸毒者或双性恋者。据估计,美国每年约有4.5万例新发H.I.V.感染。 /201512/412960In 420, Liu Yu dethroned the Emperor of Jin and declared himself as the Emperor of Song, which was known as Liu Song to distinguish from the Song set up by Zhao Kuangying after the Tang Dynasty.公元420年刘裕废晋帝自立,国号宋。为区别于后世赵匡胤建立的宋朝,史学家常称之为“刘宋”。Born in a humble family, Liu Yu realized that it was the uprisings of the great noble clans that caused the downfall of the Eastern Jin therefore he would by no means put the members of the prestigious on the important positions.Instead, the military power was in the hands of his sons and other important posts were filled with persons from the poor origin.刘裕出身贫寒,又看到了东晋因大族屡屡兴兵反抗而使其灭亡的教训,故而在他登基后,不再重用名门大族,其用人也多为贫寒出身,兵权则主要交予自己的皇子,所以没有重蹈东晋发生大族割据的覆辙。By these measures he did successfully avoid the separate regimens set up by the noble clans, however, he failed to foresee the conflicts between his princes after his death.然而,由于皇子相互间的争权夺利,最后以至于相互残杀,这是刘裕始料未及的。In 422, Uu Yu died, his two sons Shao and Wen took the throne in succession.公元422年,刘裕卒,宋少帝、文帝相继即位。Worthy to mention is during Wen’s reign, there appeared a prosperous comfortable society characterized by social stability, economic growth and cultural flourishing.其中,文帝刘义隆在位的30年间,是宋朝最繁荣的一段时期,这时南方的经济、文化真正有所发展,出现了一个所谓“小康”的局面。There were wars broken out between the Liu Song and Wei in the north; however, both suffered great loss and dared not to launch a large-scale campaign towards each other.此间,宋与北朝的魏国交战虽各有胜负,但却都损失惨重,使南北方均无能力再发生大战。Since then, there was a relative tranquil period till in the year of 454, Emperor Wen died and was succeeded by two tyrannies of Xiao Wu and Ming of Liu Song.从此,南北方相对稳定下来。公元454年,文帝薨。These two cruel emperors even plotted to kill their family members besides suspecting their own followers, which caused a constant chaos situation in their kingdom.文帝死后,宋孝武帝、宋明帝先后为帝,但他们俩都是有名的暴君,不仅对诸将疑忌,而且兄弟间相互残杀,政治一度混乱。Xiao Daocheng, Commander of Liu, aslo the Imperial Guards, gained his own weight in this confusion, usurped the power of Liu Song and changed its name to Qi in 479, which brought an end to the end of the Liu Song.在此期间,刺史萧道成趁政治混乱之机而形成了较强的势力。公元479年,萧道成灭宋,建立齐。至此,刘宋宣告灭亡。 /201601/421829

Doctors are less likely to die in hospital, have surgery or be admitted to intensive care, than the general public, new research has revealed.一项新研究表明,比起普罗大众,医生死于医院、接受手术,或接受重症监护的几率更低。While most people report a wish to die at home rather than in a medical facility, the majority of deaths do occur in a hospital or nursing home setting.多数人都希望能在家安详地离开人世,但他们往往最终死于医院,或在养老院离世。However, a recent study suggests doctors are more likely to die in a manner more consistent with end-of-life wishes, than the general population.不过,近来一项研究表明,比起普罗大众,医生更有机会如自己所愿的那样安然离世。Experts suggest one of the reasons doctors may receive less intensive end-of-life care is because they are all too aware of the burden it places on both the patient and their loved ones.专家指出,医生较少接受临终陪护的原因之一,是他们在有生之年阅尽了病人和他们的家人在这方面所受的负担和苦楚。Another reason, they put forward, is that doctors know better than most the benefits of palliative care in the home—and are able to afford to pay for the often expensive nursing.另外,家庭安宁护理具有何种优势,医生也更心知肚明。而且,他们往往负担得起高额陪护费。The study examined whether doctors receive higher or lower intensity end-of-life treatments compared with non-physicians.研究人员收集了医生与非医护人员的数据样本,旨在比对两者在临终时接受的陪护情况。They examined the medical records of people aged 66 or older who died between 2004 and 2011 in Massachusetts, Michigan, Utah and Vermont.他们收集了马萨诸塞、密歇根、犹他与佛蒙特四州2004至2011年66岁(含)以上人口的医疗记录。Researchers concluded doctors were less likely to die in a hospital compared with the general population - 28 percent versus 32 percent.研究结论是,与普罗大众相比,医生死于医院病榻的几率较小。前者达32%,后者为28%。They were also less likely to have surgery—25 percent versus 27 percent—and were less likely to be admitted to intensive care—26 percent versus 28 percent.另外,医生接受手术,或需接受重症监护的几率也更低,分别为25%与26%。相较之下,普罗大众的几率则达27%与28%。The authors wrote: #39;The possible reasons physicians received less intense end-of-life care than others could be knowledge of its burdens and futility, as well as the benefits and the financial resources to pay for other treatment options, such as palliative care or skilled nursing required for death at home.#39;研究人员写道:“医生较少接受临终重症监护,或许因为他们明白此举徒劳无功,也可能因为他们更偏爱,且负担得起安宁护理、家庭陪护等其他方式。”Addressing the issue, Dr Jacquelyn Corley said: #39;There comes a time for every person when his or her identity is gone, and the quality of life should be valued more than the mere presence of it.#39;谈到临终陪护问题,杰奎琳·科利士总结道:“人到晚年,还谈什么身份不身份的。如何走得安详宁静,才是最值得关心的。”That, she said is a view shared by many healthcare professionals.她说,这一点,许多医护人员都心知肚明。 /201602/427443By 2050, half of the world’s population (nearly 5 billion) will be short-sighted, research suggests, and screens are to blame.研究显示,到2050年,世界上的半数人口(近50亿人)将是近视眼。而各种屏幕正是这一趋势的“罪魁祸首”。Up to one-fifth of the short-sighted population (1 billion) is at a significantly increased risk of blindness, says the study published in the journal Ophthalmology.发表在《眼科学》期刊上的这项研究还指出,这些近视人口中的五分之一(10亿人)有很高的概率会失明。The rapid increase in the prevalence of myopia globally is attributed to, ;environmental factors (nurture), principally lifestyle changes resulting from a combination of decreased time outdoors and increased near work activities; – time spent looking at screens, say the authors from University of New South Wales Australia and Singapore Eye Research Institute.研究作者、来自澳大利亚新南威尔士大学和新加坡眼科研究所的专家表示,全球近视人数的快速增长起因于“环境因素”,“主要是人们生活方式的改变——户外活动变少、费眼力的活动增多”,而费眼力的活动主要是人们对各种电子屏幕的使用。High income countries are most at risk of myopia, the researchers say, simply because the people living in those countries spend more time looking at their television, or phone, or laptop.研究者称,高收入国家的人尤其易患近视,因为这些国家的居民花在看电视、玩手机和浏览笔记本电脑上的时间更多。Near work has been thought to be a cause of myopia, or at least a risk factor, for more than 100 years, said researchers.研究者称,100多年来,费眼力的工作一直被认为是近视的原因,至少也是一个风险性因素。Though the study said that less time spent outside is correlated with myopia, it is not yet clear why exactly this is the case.虽然该研究指出户外活动时间减少与近视有关,但未具体原因。We need to ensure our children receive a regular eye examination from an optometrist or ophthalmologist, preferably each year, so that preventative strategies can be employed if they are at risk, said a researcher.一位研究者建议,我们应该定期带孩子到验光师或眼科医生那里做检测,最好每年检查一次,以便及时发现问题,并采取预防性措施。 /201602/427658

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