三明市男性生育检查费用多少99生活

来源:搜狐娱乐
原标题: 三明市男性生育检查费用多少美分享
Three years ago, the University of Vermont in Burlington began to experiment with a few nudges towards a healthy, sustainable lifestyle. First, in 2012, campus outlets and the company operating the vending machines were required to make sure that at least 30 per cent of the drinks on offer were wholesome stuff such as vegetable juice, low-fat milk and water. A few months later, selling bottled water on campus was banned outright. The aim, pushed hard by student campaigners, was to encourage students to fill reusable bottles with tap water instead.三年前,位于伯灵顿的佛蒙特大学(University of Vermont)开始尝试一些推进健康、可持续生活方式的“轻推”(nudge)举措。首先,在2012年,校园商店和经营自动售货机的公司被要求确保它们提供的饮料中有至少30%是健康饮品,比如蔬菜汁、低脂牛奶和水。几个月后,校园里彻底禁售瓶装水。这一举动的目标是鼓励学生用自来水灌入可重复使用的饮水瓶、以代替瓶装水,学生倡导者也努力推动这一目标的实现。So, how did the Vermont experiment go? A study by Elizabeth Berman and Rachel Johnson (of the University’s own Department of Nutrition and Food Sciences) was recently published in the American Journal of Public Health. The researchers found that “per capita shipments of bottles, calories, sugars and added sugars increased significantly when bottled water was removed...As bottled water sales dropped to zero, sales of sugar-free beverages and sugar-sweetened beverages increased.”那么,佛蒙特大学这一尝试的结果如何?该校营养与食品科学部的伊丽莎白伯曼(Elizabeth Berman)和蕾切尔约翰逊(Rachel Johnson)最近在《美国公共健康杂志》(American Journal of Public Health)上发表了一项研究。两位研究者发现,“瓶装水没有了以后,瓶子、热量、糖和添加糖的人均消耗量都显著增加了……随着瓶装水销量降至零,无糖饮料与含糖饮料的销量都增加了。”In other words, the policy backfired with both barrels. Students didn’t switch to tap water, they switched to the likes of Coke and Diet Coke instead. All this would be just an amusing curiosity — one more example of student campaigners who are all heart and no brains — if it weren’t for the fact that more mature policy makers often commit similar blunders on much broader canvases. We would do well to learn some lessons from the University of Vermont’s experience.换句话说,该政策在两个目标上都适得其反。学生们并未改喝饮用自来水,而是改喝可口可乐、健怡可乐之类的饮料。如果不是更多成熟的政策制定者在更广阔的领域经常犯同样错误的话,这一切只不过是有趣的奇闻异事,成为学生倡导者一腔热血但是不动脑子的又一个例。我们最好从佛蒙特大学的例子中汲取一些教训。The first lesson is that when it comes to saving the planet, people focus on what they can see. Type “environmental impact of concrete” into a search engine and you are likely to see a page filled with scholarly analysis pointing out that the impact is very large indeed, because cement production releases vast volumes of carbon dioxide. Type “environmental impact of bottled water” instead and your search results will be packed with campaigning groups seeking to persuade you to change your ways.第一个教训是,当谈到拯救地球时,人们专注于自己能看到的事。在搜索引擎中键入“水泥对环境的影响”,你可能会看到整个搜索结果页面上全都是各种指出水泥对环境的影响确实很大(因为水泥的生产过程释放出大量二氧化碳)的学术分析。再键入“瓶装水对环境的影响”,搜索结果肯定全都是各种活动团体试图说你改变生活方式。This is understandable: I can’t do much about concrete but I can stop drinking bottled water. But being a logical target for campaigners is not the same as being a logical target for policy action.这是可以理解的:我对水泥生产无能为力,但我可以停止喝瓶装水。但作为活动人士的目标合乎逻辑,不等于它作为政策行动的目标也合乎逻辑。The second lesson is that we often struggle to deal with multiple goals. The University of Vermont wanted to reduce the flow of plastic water bottles to landfill but also wanted to encourage students to be healthy. There’s a clear conflict between these goals. Water is as healthy a drink as you can find, yet that was exactly what the University of Vermont was banning from vending machines. Wishful thinking provides a resolution — if everyone just drank tap water then there would be no problem. But wishful thinking is not an excuse for setting no priorities.第二个教训是,我们往往很难同时应对多个目标。佛蒙特大学既想减少需要填埋的塑料水瓶的数量,又想鼓励学生培养健康的生活方式。这两个目标存在明显的矛盾。喝水最健康,但佛蒙特大学恰恰禁止自动售货机出售瓶装水。一厢情愿的思维方式提供了一个——如果每个人都干脆喝自来水,问题就解决了。但一厢情愿的思维方式并非放弃设定优先顺序的借口。We see this sharply in the debate over nuclear power. We want to reduce the greenhouse gas emissions that result from burning fossil fuels. We also want to avoid radioactive waste and the risk of radiation leaks. In response to a genuine policy dilemma, politicians have tended to plump for wishful thinking every time, typically involving wind turbines.在关于核能的辩论中,我们更清楚地看到了同样一幕。我们想减少燃烧化石燃料带来的温室气体排放。我们也想避免放射性废料以及辐射泄漏的风险。在回应这一真正的政策两难时,政客们每次都倾向于选择一厢情愿的思维方式,通常都涉及风力涡轮机。The third lesson is that the much-vaunted notion of “nudging” doesn’t always help navigate a complicated policy maze. Nudging means using default options, information design and similar techniques to achieve policy goals. It can be very successful. But careless nudges are no more welcome in public policy than at a domino-toppling event. If you pick a questionable target (bottled water) and fudge a key policy dilemma (the environment vs health) then nudging isn’t going to solve your problems.第三个教训是,备受吹捧的“轻推”概念并不总能帮助我们走出政策迷宫。“轻推”意味着使用默认的选项、信息设计以及相似的技术来实现政策目标。它可以很成功。但粗心的“轻推”在公共政策领域不比它在推倒多米诺骨牌的游戏中更受欢迎。如果你选择了一个有问题的目标(瓶装水)并随随便便制造出一个重要的政策困境(环境vs健康),那么“轻推”将不会解决你的问题。So what can be done? One approach is to try to reach policy goals with the help of market signals. The classic example of this is a carbon tax, levied on fossil fuels to reflect their carbon-dioxide emissions. The advantage of this approach is that it encourages everybody at any stage of production or consumption to take actions that reduce emissions, because those actions will save them money. A truck manufacturer might develop a cleaner engine, a logistics company might find a more efficient delivery algorithm, and the final consumer might decide to consume a little less.那么,我们能做什么呢?一种方法是,设法在市场信号的帮助下达成政策目标。这方面的经典例子是碳税——以化石燃料为对象、按照其二氧化碳排放量征收。这种方法的优点在于,它鼓励处于生产或消费任何阶段的每个人都采取行动减少碳排放,因为这样做可以省钱。卡车制造商或许会开发出更清洁的发动机,物流公司可能会找到更高效的投递算法,而终端消费者可能会决定少消费一些。The idea of using the price system to solve environmental problems is widely accepted by economists but, alas, it finds itself stranded in the policy doldrums. Ponder this: the Pope recently argued that climate change was a grave problem but he opposed market-based responses. Meanwhile the US Republican party likes market-based responses but isn’t so convinced about climate change.利用价格体系解决环境问题的理念得到经济学家们的广泛认同,但可惜的是,这一理念自身被困在了政策内耗之中。思考一下:教皇最近称,气候变化是一个严重问题,但他反对基于市场的应对措施。与此同时,美国共和党喜欢基于市场的措施,但并不怎么相信气候变化真实存在。One other advantage of using environmental taxes is that people can decide on their own priorities. A lot of what we do has consequences for the planet — including breathing — and so part of the problem we face is deciding what is worth doing anyway.采用环境税的另一个好处是,人们可以决定自己的优先顺序。我们的很多活动(包括呼吸)都对地球产生影响,因此,我们面临的部分问题在于决定什么事值得去做。Perhaps it is time for a confession. I am writing this column on the hottest July day recorded in British history. At my left hand is a glass of chilled sparkling water, and next to the glass is a plastic bottle to top it up. If there had been a tax on that bottle, it is a tax I would willingly have paid.或许我该坦白一下了。我正在英国历史上有记录以来7月最炎热的一天写这篇专栏,我左手边是一杯冰镇苏打水,玻璃杯旁边是一个塑料瓶,用来把杯中的苏打水加满。如果这个瓶子需要交税的话,这税我愿意交。 /201507/386317Toyota has unveiled its vision of a “hydrogen society” at an event in Germany, as the scandal over diesel emissions engulfs Volkswagen, its biggest global rival.日本汽车制造商丰田(Toyota)在德国的一次活动中披露了其建设“氢社会”的愿景。丰田在全球市场的最大竞争对手大众汽车(Volkswagen)正笼罩在柴油车尾气造假丑闻的阴影中。The Japanese carmaker — the world’s biggest by 2014 sales — on Thursday invited the world’s media to Hamburg for the European launch of its Mirai fuel-cell powered vehicle.周四,丰田邀请全球媒体赴汉堡见其在欧洲推出燃料电池汽车Mirai的活动。以2014年销量计,丰田是全球最大的汽车制造商。This 60,000 hydrogen-powered saloon forms a key part of the plans that Toyota announced this week to cut 90 per cent of its cars’ carbon dioxide emissions between 2010 and 2050.这款售价6万英镑的氢动力轿车是丰田本周宣布的计划的关键一环。丰田计划在2010年至2050年间,将旗下汽车的碳排放削减90%。Yoshikazu Tanaka, chief engineer of the Mirai — which means “future” in Japanese — said the vehicle offered “a pathway to a better, safer and cleaner future”.Mirai首席工程师田中良和(Yoshikazu Tanaka)表示,这款汽车提供了“一条通向更美好、更安全、更清洁未来的道路”。Mirai在日语中的意思是“未来”。Carmakers worldwide have been looking afresh at how to reduce vehicle emissions in the wake of the VW test-manipulation scandal. Hydrogen fuel-cell vehicles such as the Mirai are seen by some as an improvement on pure electric cars, as they offer range and refuelling time that is competitive with petrol and diesel models. Toyota’s fuel cell vehicle can travel 550km on its two hydrogen tanks, and can refuel in as little as three minutes.在大众尾气检测作弊丑闻曝光后,全球汽车制造商正重新关注如何减少汽车尾气排放。Mirai等氢燃料电池汽车被一些人视为对纯电动汽车的改进,因为氢动力汽车的续航里程和补充燃料所费时间可与汽油车和柴油车媲美。丰田的这款燃料电池汽车拥有两个氢燃料箱,可续航550公里,补充燃料最短仅需3分钟。Toyota — along with Hyundai, maker of the ix35 hydrogen car — has been at the forefront of the nascent technology, having begun research on the project in the early 1990s.丰田与ix35氢动力汽车的制造商现代(Hyundai)一直处于这一新兴技术的前沿,从上世纪90年代初就开始研究该项目了。Toyota says the zero-emission Mirai can achieve an overall CO2 reduction — including factory production — of between 50 per cent and 70 per cent versus conventional petrol and diesel models. Its CO2 reduction depends on whether the hydrogen is produced from renewable sources, such as wind and solar, as is the case at four refuelling stations in Hamburg.丰田表示,与传统汽、柴油车型相比,零排放的Mirai可实现二氧化碳总排放(包括工厂生产时的排放)减少50%至70%。具体的碳减排量取决于氢燃料是否源自可再生能源,例如风能和太阳能,就像汉堡的4个加氢站一样。Toyota will begin by offering Mirai models to environmentally conscious companies, business leaders and public bodies in Germany, Denmark and the UK. Early customers include Transport for London.丰田首先将面向德国、丹麦和英国的具备环保意识的企业、商界领袖及公共机构销售Mirai汽车。初期客户包括伦敦交通局(Transport for London)。It says its aim is to almost eliminate the internal combustion engine from its line-up by the middle of this century.丰田表示,公司的目标是到本世纪中叶基本上不再生产内燃机汽车。“There will be almost no gasoline and diesel cars as we approach 2050,” said Kiyotaka Ise, a senior managing officer at Toyota, speaking in Tokyo on Wednesday.“到2050年,我们将基本上不再生产汽油车和柴油车,”丰田高管伊势清贵(Kiyotaka Ise)周三在东京发表讲话时表示。To meet that target, it plans to sell more than 30,000 hydrogen-powered vehicles annually worldwide by about 2020, 10 times its sales target for 2017.为了实现这个目标,丰田计划到2020年左右时,每年在全球销售逾3万辆氢动力汽车,是2017年销售目标的10倍。 /201510/404638

Foreign Minister Julie Bishop says Australians may soon be able to travel without their passports in a world-leading initiative.澳大利亚外交部部长朱莉·毕晓普(Julie Bishop)表示,如果一个全球领先的项目成功实行,可能很快澳洲人民旅行时就无需携带护照了。The traditional travel documents would be ditched for #39;cloud passports#39; as part of the initiative, which was presented during a #39;hackathon#39; in Canberra, according to the Canberra Times.据《堪培拉时报》报道,该项目在堪培拉举行的一场黑客马拉松大会上公布。作为这个项目的部分内容,“云护照”将取代各种传统的旅游件。#39;We think it will go global,#39; Ms Bishop said of the idea of passport-less travel, which was presented to a number of leaders as part of the Department of Foreign Affairs#39; InnovationXchange project.谈及“无护照旅行”的理念时,毕晓普说道:“我们认为这一理念将席卷全世界”。“无护照旅行”的理念已在会上向多位高层领导作了介绍,这是澳大利亚外交部创新交流计划(InnovationXchange project)的一部分。Ms Bishop acknowledged security standards would have to be met to store personal information in the cloud.毕晓普承认,在云端存储个人信息必须要满足各项安全标准。The meeting on Wednesday was also attended by Chris Vein, chief innovation officer for Global Information and Communications Technology Development with the World Bank, Australian Minister for International Development Steve Ciobo, and DFAT Secretary Peter Varghese.出席28日的黑客马拉松大会的还有:世界(World Bank)全球信息和通信技术局首席创新官克里斯·维因(Chris Vein)、澳大利亚国际发展部部长史蒂夫·西奥(Steve Ciobo)以及澳大利亚外交贸易部(DFAT)秘书长彼得#8226;瓦吉斯(Peter Varghese)。A #39;cloud passport#39; would work by storing the identity and biometric data of holders online so it could be checked digitally, which would eliminate the need to carry a physical copy.“云护照”的工作原理是将护照持有者的身份和生物计量数据存储在网上,因此可以进行数字化检查,也就无需携带纸质护照了。It would also mean the risk of Australians losing or having their passports stolen would be significantly reduced, according to the newspaper.《堪培拉时报》报道称,使用“云护照”还将极大地降低澳大利亚人护照遗失或失窃的风险。DFAT statistics show 38,718 passports were reported lost or stolen in 2014-15.澳大利亚外交贸易部的数据显示,2014-2015年度,登记遗失或失窃的护照数量就达到38718本。Australiaand New Zealand are currently in discussions about trialing the world-first method.目前,澳大利亚和新西兰正在商讨试行全球首创的“云护照”。The InnovationXchange project was designed by Ms Bishop as a way to #39;support innovation across the Australian aid program#39;, according to the department.澳大利亚外交部称,创新交流计划是毕晓普设计提出的,目的是“通过澳大利亚援助计划持创新”。The 0 million project was launched in May in collaboration with American publisher and former New York City Mayor Michael Bloomberg, who heralded the initiative by saying it will #39;challenge the status quo and use innovation to solve tough problems#39;.这项投资额为1.4亿美元的项目于五月份启动,合作方为美国出版商、前纽约市市长迈克尔·布隆伯格(Michael Bloomberg)。他在宣布这一项目时表示,该项目将“挑战现状,用创新解决难题”。Australiaimplemented #39;e-passports#39; in 2005, which feature an embedded chip storing travellers digitised photograph, name, gender, date of birth, nationality, passport number, and the passport expiry date.2005年,澳大利亚开始推行“电子护照”。电子护照内置芯片,芯片储存有旅行者的数码照片、姓名、性别、出生日期、国籍、护照号以及护照有效期等信息。 /201510/406859The thesis of Robert Gordon’s magisterial book The Rise and Fall of American Growth, stands in sharp contrast to the technological optimism that bubbles out of Silicon Valley. The argument is that the years from 1870 to 1970 were the “special century”. Someone born when Benjamin Disraeli was prime minister and who lived to see Edward Heath in Downing Street would have witnessed horse-drawn transport give way to cars and aircraft. Born when medical services were largely useless, she would have seen cures found for most infectious diseases and experienced the introduction of electric light, indoor plumbing and colour television. 罗伯特#8226;戈登(Robert Gordon)权威著作《美国增长的起落》(The Rise and Fall of American Growth)的论点与硅谷迸发出的科技乐观主义形成鲜明对照。本书认为,1870年至1970年是一个“特别世纪”。在本杰明#8226;迪斯雷利(Benjamin Disraeli)担任英国首相时出生、并在有生之年看到爱德华#8226;希斯(Edward Heath)入主唐宁街的人,见了马拉交通被汽车和飞机取代。出生于医疗务基本无用时的她,见了多数传染病治疗方法的发现,并经历了电灯、室内下水管道以及电的诞生。 The past 50 years, according to Professor Gordon, have been “dazzling but disappointing”. We are dazzled because our attention is focused on advances in entertainment, communications and information technology. The disappointment is partly statistical — productivity growth has slowed. And looking beyond the field of IT, he argues, there have been no advances in materials, fuel technologies or food production and distribution comparable to those of the special century. 戈登教授认为,过去50年让人“眼花缭乱,但令人失望”。我们之所以感到眼花缭乱是因为我们的注意力集中在、通信和信息技术(IT)的发展。失望在一定程度上是统计上的:生产率增速放缓。他认为,除了IT,原材料、燃料技术或食品生产以及分销都没有出现与“特别世纪”可比的进步。 Boeing’s first 747 flew in 1969, and today’s jumbo jets are recognisably similar. The great blockbuster drugs have, it seems, aly been discovered. While US productivity enjoyed a spurt in the 1990s, as digital innovations transformed our lives, the special century is unlikely to be repeated. Given an ageing population and an inadequate educational system, a significant increase in American living standards should not be expected. 波音(Boeing)首架747飞机于1969年升空,今天的大型喷气式客机仍然与它类似。伟大的轰动性药物似乎已被发现完了。尽管随着数字创新改变我们的生活,美国生产率曾经在上世纪90年代出现井喷,但“特别世纪”不太可能重现。鉴于人口老龄化和教育体制不完善,预计美国的生活水平不会显著上升。 Progress in introducing robotics into service activities is “glacially slow”, observes Prof Gordon. Amazon employs product pickers; delivery drivers still mostly load and unload their trucks manually. Sceptical of driverless cars, he asks what commuters will actually do with the time they do not have to spend behind the wheel. His scepticism will no doubt have been compounded by a recent accident involving one of Google’s driverless cars. 戈登教授认为,将机器人引入务业方面的进展“极度缓慢”。亚马逊(Amazon)仍聘用产品挑选师;送货司机多数仍手动装货和卸货。他对无人驾驶汽车持怀疑态度,他问道,如果通勤者不需要自己驾驶,那这段时间里他们究竟会做什么。最近谷歌(Google)一辆无人驾驶汽车卷入的事故肯定会加深他的疑虑。 Yet, if not much seems to have happened, it is perhaps because we see that much is yet to come. No great effort of imagination is required to visualise machines that unload casks of beer or stack supermarket shelves. And if we trust robots to undertake surgery, why should they not offer pedicures or cut hair as people become more expensive and machines cheaper? Perhaps the future of progress lies in the application of IT to things that do not at first sight have much to do with it. 然而,如果情况似乎没有发生很大的变化,那或许是因为我们认为未来将发生很大变化。我们不需要努力想象就能设想出机器卸下啤酒桶或把货物放到超市货架上的场景。如果我们信任机器人做手术,在人工更为昂贵而机器更为廉价之际,为什么不让机器人来提供足疗或理发务?或许未来的进步在于将IT应用于那些乍一看与IT没有多大关系的事物。 Such opportunities are of two kinds. Computers can now replace human operatives in well-defined repetitive tasks. Examples include the computerised conveyancer, the robo-adviser as portfolio manager and the digital doctor. Many traditional middle-class occupations will be eliminated in this way. 这些机会有两种。电脑现在可以在定义明确的重复性工作中取代人类。例如,电脑化的产权转让律师、机器人顾问(如资产组合经理)和数字医生。很多传统的中产阶级职业将因此被淘汰。 The more subtle, and perhaps more profound, development is the capacity of digital processing to aid the discovery of things that will form the basis of new technologies. Gene sequencing and big data are likely to shape the future of medicine. Progress in battery technology is advancing by leaps and bounds thanks to the analytic capabilities in the hands of today’s researchers. If the world became wired in the “special century”, perhaps it will become wireless in the next. 更微妙而且或许更深远的发展是,数字处理能力将协助构成未来新技术基础的事物的发现。基因测序和大数据可能会改变药物的未来。得益于当今研究人员掌握的分析能力,电池技术的发展突飞猛进。如果说世界在“特别世纪”实现了有线连接,那么在下一个“特别世纪”世界或许将实现无线连接。 And do not underestimate the increasing speed at which innovations are adopted. Benjamin Franklin discovered electricity in 1752 and Richard Trevithick’s car, the Puffing Devil, took to the roads of Cornwall in 1801. But it was only towards the end of the special century that electricity and cars were available to most households. The first smartphone was sold in 2007 and today 1.5bn are in use. 不要低估创新得到采用的日益加快的速度。本杰明#8226;富兰克林(Benjamin Franklin)在1752年发现了电,理查德#8226;特里维西克(Richard Trevithick)制造的蒸汽机车Puffing Devil于1801年在康沃尔郡上路。但直到“特别世纪”快结束时,电和汽车才进入千家万户。而第一部智能手机于2007年上市,如今已有15亿用户。 The limits to productivity growth are set only by the limits to human inventiveness. 生产率增长的极限只取决于人类创造力的极限。 /201603/430551

Andrew Ng is hunched over his smartphone, in a pantomime of key-pecking, squinting, typo-ridden discomfort. “This is how we do it today,” he says.吴恩达(Andrew Ng)驼着背低着头,略带夸张地在他的智能手机上比划着不停点击屏幕、眯着眼却仍然错字连篇的那种不自在的样子。“我们如今是这样做的,”他称。“And this is how we should be doing it,” says the chief scientist for Baidu, China’s largest search engine. He sits back in his chair, speaking to no one in particular with his phone placed on the table. The one-finger typing agony of millions of smartphone users should one day become a thing of the past, he says. All it would take is the creation of a reasonably accurate, pocket-sized electronic version of a human brain.“而我们应该这样做,”这位百度(Baidu)的首席科学家称。他靠在座位上,没有特定对象地说着话,手机放在桌子上。他说,数百万智能手机用户用一个手指敲字的痛苦有一天应该成为过去。而这只需要创造一种达到合理精确度、与口袋大小相当的电子版人类大脑。百度是中国最大的搜索引擎。Mr Ng is an expert in deep learning, a branch of artificial intelligence that focus on teaching computers how to talk, listen, , and think like us. The area is fast becoming a priority for the world’s biggest technology companies, including Baidu as it tackles the era of the mobile internet.吴恩达是深度学习(deep learning)领域的专家,该领域是人工智能的一个分,专注于让计算机学习如何像我们一样听、说、读、思。由于该领域与移动互联网时代紧密相连,它正迅速成为包括百度在内的全球最大科技公司的优先发展领域。“The whole world is switching to mobile devices but no one has created a usable interface to input into the devices,” he says. With the development of artificial intelligence, “soon you’ll be able to order food and just say ‘Can I have some food delivered to my house before I get home?’ out loud.”“整个世界都在转向移动设备,但是还没人创造出向移动设备输入指令的有用接口,”他称。随着人工智能的发展,“很快你将可以在订购食物时只需要大声说一句‘能在我回家前送些食物到我家中吗?’”“It won’t even feel like technology, it will just be in the background.”“感觉上甚至都不像是科技,而就在后台里。”In addition to better voice recognition, AI is being talked about for any number of uses from predicting advertising clicks to recognising faces.除了更好的语音识别,从预测广告点击量到人脸识别技术的很多领域都在讨论使用人工智能。Since joining Baidu last year, Mr Ng has been steadily working to implement this vision. A UK native with Chinese roots, he founded in 2011 Google Brain, the US technology company’s deep learning project, and led it until he joined the Chinese company last year. Poaching him was regarded as a coup in the technology world.自从去年加入百度以来,吴恩达一直在为实现这个愿景而稳扎稳打。作为一名出生在英国的华人,他在2011年创建了“谷歌大脑”(Google Brain)——谷歌的深度学习项目,并且在去年加入百度前一直领导着该项目。百度撬走吴恩达被认为是科技界的一次政变。He describes the advanced computers at Baidu’s Sunnyvale, California, lab as “rocket engines” whose software can be taught to mimic the functioning of the human mind. Their “fuel” is data, which he gets from Baidu’s trove of online and audio output as he works to teach the electronic brain to listen and speak.他把百度位于加州森尼韦尔(Sunnyvale)实验室中的先进计算机比作“火箭引擎”,计算机中的软件可以学习模拟人类思想的功能。在吴恩达教电子大脑听和说时,它们的“燃料”就是他从百度在线视频和音频输出资料库中得到的数据。The company has an advantage in deep-learning algorithms for speech recognition in that most and audio in China is accompanied by text — nearly all news clips, television shows and films are close-captioned and almost all are available to Baidu and Iqiyi, its affiliate.百度在语音识别深度学习算法方面具有优势,因为中国大多数视频和音频都伴有文本——几乎所有新闻剪辑、电视节目及电影都有详细的字幕,而百度及其视频子公司爱奇艺(Iqiyi)可以获得几乎所有此类内容。While a typical academic project uses 2,000 hours of audio data to train voice recognition, says Mr Ng, the troves of data available to China’s version of Google mean he is able to use 100,000 hours.吴恩达说,一个典型的学术项目会利用2000小时的音频数据来训练语音识别,但百度——中国版谷歌——拥有的庞大数据库意味着他可以利用10万小时。He declines to specify just how much the extra 98,000 hours improves the accuracy of his project, but insists it is vital.他拒绝详细说明额外9.8万小时在多大程度上提升了其项目的精确度,但坚称这至关重要。“A lot of people underestimate the difference between 95 per cent and 99 per cent accuracy. It’s not an ‘incremental’ improvement of 4 per cent; it’s the difference between using it occasionally versus using it all the time,” he says.“许多人低估了95%精确度与99%精确度之间的区别。这不是4%的“增量”提升;这是偶尔使用与始终使用之间的区别,”他说。Thanks to the strides made in Chinese language voice recognition — a particular challenge because of the number of homonyms and the importance of context — Baidu will soon roll out Deepspeech, a voice recognition software similar to Apple’s Siri.由于在汉语语音识别方面取得了巨大进步(汉语中的大量同音异义词和语境的重要性使之极具挑战),百度即将推出Deepspeech——一款类似于苹果(Apple)的Siri的语音识别软件。Other Chinese companies including Alibaba and Tencent are also making advances in AI, but thanks largely to Mr Ng’s reputation Baidu is now judged by industry experts to be ahead of its domestic peers, ranking up alongside US rivals Facebook, Google, and IBM.包括阿里巴巴(Alibaba)、腾讯(Tencent)在内的其他中国企业在人工智能方面也取得了进步,但主要得益于吴恩达的声望,行业专家如今认为百度要领先于国内同行,可与美国竞争对手Facebook、谷歌和IBM比肩。“Artificial intelligence is an oligopoly,” says Yang Jing, founder of AI Era, an association for the artificial intelligence industry in China. “It’s a game for the titans.”“人工智能是寡头垄断行业,”中国人工智能行业协会新智元(AI Era)创始人杨静说,“这是一个巨头间的游戏。”Baidu aly saves Rmb17m (.7m) per day at its data centres by using deep-learning algorithms to predict hard drive malfunctions, and it is also using AI to optimise the use of advertisements and photos to improve clickthrough rates. It would not reveal how much it is spending on AI development overall.百度通过在数据中心利用深度学习算法预测硬盘故障已经可以每天节省1700万元人民币(合270万美元),而且还利用人工智能优化广告和相片的使用来提升点击率。该公司并未透露在人工智能开发上共计投入多少资金。But in spite of lofty long-term ambitions, translating deep learning into money-making projects is still largely on the horizon.尽管雄心勃勃,但要将深度学习转变成赚钱的项目仍有很长一段路要走。Mr Ng is undaunted. “There’s no question that [AI] is creating huge economic value; there’s no question that this will continue to create huge advances,” he says. “There is still a huge gap between the way machines learn and the way humans learn.”吴恩达毫无畏惧。“毫无疑问,(人工智能)正在创造巨大的经济价值;毫无疑问,这将继续创造巨大的进步,”他说,“机器的学习方式与人类的学习方式之间仍存在巨大差距。” /201509/399109

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